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Topic One

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Topic One Introduction to Sociolinguistics What do sociolinguistics study? The relationship between language and society How does society (who people are, what they ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic One


1
Topic One
  • Introduction to Sociolinguistics

2
What do sociolinguistics study?
  • The relationship between language and society
  • How does society (who people are, what they do,
    who they are with) affect the ways people speak?
  • What social factors can account for linguistic
    variation?

3
Examples of aspects of sociolinguistics we will
study in this module
  • Why do you use English (or Cantonese) differently
    when you talk to me (your lecturer) from when you
    talk to a stranger or when you talk to another
    student?
  • Why do you use English (or Cantonese) differently
    when you talk to your fellow student in class
    from when you talk to her in the hostel?

4
  • Why do you sometimes switch from Cantonese to
    English in the middle of a sentence?
  • What are some of the differences between the ways
    men and women use language?
  • Do people of different ages speak differently?
  • What can a language tell about the social
    background of a person?
  • Will a language die?

5
  • How do languages change over time?
  • What languages should we use or teach in school?

6
What determines language use?
  • Why do you use English (or Cantonese) differently
    when you talk to me (your lecturer) from when you
    talk to another student?
  • Why do you use English (or Cantonese) differently
    when you talk to your fellow student in class
    from when you talk to her in the hostel?

7
Factors determining language use
  • The participants
  • The setting
  • The topic
  • The function (Holmes p.8)
  • Social dimensions
  • Solidarity social distance scale
  • Status scale
  • Formality scale
  • Function scale

8
What is a variety/code?
  • Spolsky (1998) Sociolinguistics
  • Variety is a term we use to include any
    identifiable kind of language
  • Example
  • Hakka and Cantonese are two varieties of Chinese
  • Holmes p.19 Indoubil based on Swahili, drawing
    on French, English and Italian

9
Read the following extract and decide how you
would call it a language, variety or code?
  • Gary day dreaming, haha, just feel bored and
    cant concentrate. Dunno why haha
  • Phil why can concentrate ar? Have heart
    problem?? Work hard ar, u will have present on
    Friday wor, and have 4 midterms. Dont daydream
    la i will support you mentally ar
  • Gary thx. U make me feel warm studying in UST
    university of stress and tension yes, there r
    many ppl watch me thru icq. I can be lazy and let
    them down!

10
Hong Kong as a multilingual speech community
  • Bilingual individuals (individual bilingualism)
  • Bilingual society (societal bilingualism)
  • A speech community

11
What is the meaning of bilingualism?
  • The ability to use two languages e.g. English
    Chinese

12
Are you a bilingual?
  • one who possesses at least one of the language
    skills even to a minimal degree in the second
    language. (Macnamara 1967)
  • those who demonstrate complete mastery of two
    different languages without interference between
    the two linguistic processes. (Oestreicher
    1974)

13
Are you a bilingual?
  • bilingualism is understoodto begin at the point
    where the speaker of one language can produce
    complete meaningful utterances in the other
    language. (Baetens-Beardsmore, 1982).

14
What is individual bilingualism?
  • Focus on the linguistic competence of individual
    persons
  • What are your L1 and L2?

15
What is an L1?
  • This term is used in different, overlapping ways,
    and can mean a) the first language learnt b) the
    stronger language c) the mother tongue d) the
    language most used
  • Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual
    education, Colin Baker (1998)

16
What is an L2?
  • This term is used in different, overlapping ways
    and can mean a) the second language b) the
    weaker language c) a language that is not the
    mother tongue d) the less used language.
  • Second language is sometimes used to cover 3rd or
    further languages.

17
What is societal bilingualism?
  • Focus on the roles and functions of different
    languages in one society
  • Is Hong Kong a bilingual society?
  • Must societal bilingualism come with individual
    bilingualism?
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