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Auditory Physiology and Hearing

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Title: Auditory Physiology and Hearing


1
PSY 3520 Sensation and Perception
Auditory Physiology and Hearing
2
Auditory Physiology HearingLecture Outline
  • I. The Stimulus for Hearing
  • A. Pure Tones
  • 1. Amplitude
  • 2. Frequency
  • B. Perceptual Dimensions of Sound
  • C. Complex Sounds and Fourier Analysis
  • II. Structure and Functioning of the Auditory
    System
  • A. Outer Ear
  • 1. Pinnae
  • 2. Auditory Canal (External Auditory Meatus)
  • 3. Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum)
  • B. Middle Ear
  • 1. Ossicles (Malleus/Hammer, Incus/Anvil,
    Stapes/Stirrup)
  • 2. Function of the Ossicles
  • 3. Eustachian Tube
  • C. Inner Ear
  • 1. Cochlear Compartments
  • 2. Organ of Corti
  • 3. Transduction What causes a hair cell to
    bend?

3
Auditory Physiology HearingLecture Outline
  • III. The Code for Frequency
  • A. Place Code
  • B. Frequency (Timing) Code
  • C. Pitch and Loudness Perception Place vs.
    Frequency Theory
  • IV. Place and Timing Information in the Central
    Auditory System
  • A. Auditory Pathways
  • B. Place Information
  • C. Timing Information
  • V. Physiology of Sound Localization
  • A. Interaural Time Difference
  • B. Interaural Intensity
  • VI. The Audibility Curve

4
The Stimulus for Hearing
  • Our perception of sound depends on the vibration
    of objects, which cause __________________________
    ______

Compression
Compression
5
The Stimulus for Hearing
  • Graphically

compression
6
Pure Tone
_________
_________
________ _________
________
____________
_________
7
Pure Tone
  • Frequency (_____) ________________
  • ___________________________________
  • 100 Hz 100 cycles per second
  • 1,000 Hz 1,000 cycles per second
  • Amplitude (___) ___________________
  • ___________________________________
  • ___________________________________

8
Decibels
  • dB 20 log (p/po)
  • p amplitude pressure of the sound wave
  • po reference pressure which is set by
    experimenter
  • Usually 0.0002 dynes/cm2
  • SPL (sound pressure level) used to indicate
    this reference pressure was used
  • 50 dB SPL

9
Perceptual Dimensions of Sound
Physical Dimension Perceptual Dimension
__________________ ___________________
__________________ ___________________
______________________________________ ___________________
10
Complex Sounds andFourier Analysis
  • __________ regular repetition of pressure
    changes
  • __________ breaking
  • a repetitive waveform into a
  • number of sine-wave
  • components

11
Fourier Analysis
Fundamental frequency
3rd harmonic
5th harmonic
_______________ the ear analyzes tones into
their simple components
12
Structure and Function of the Auditory System
  • 3 sections of the ear
  • Outer Ear
  • Middle Ear
  • Inner Ear

13
Outer Ear
  • ____________ fleshy part of the ear
  • Helps in sound location
  • Channels sound waves to the auditory canal

14
(No Transcript)
15
Auditory Canal
  • Channels sound waves to the eardrum
  • ___________ enhances the intensities of certain
    sound waves (2,000-5,000 Hz)
  • Protective function
  • Wax in the auditory canal
  • Keeps eardrum at a constant temperature

16
Eardrum (Tympanic Membrane)
  • Vibrates in frequency with sound waves

17
Middle Ear
  • ________
  • Malleus Hammer
  • Incus Anvil
  • Stapes - Stirrup
  • Two Major Functions
  • Increase pressure applied to oval window
  • Protective function

18
Functions of the Ossicles
  • Increase pressure applied to the oval window
  • Conduction deafness
  • Two ways pressure increased at oval window
  • Protective Function

19
The Eustachian Tube
  • Pressure Regulation regulated by an opening in
    the back of the throat (_____________)
  • Tube can be opened two ways _______ or
    ___________
  • _____________ middle ear pressure greater than
    outside air pressure
  • _____________ middle ear pressure lower than
    outside air pressure

20
Inner Ear
  • Main structure of the inner ear is the
    _____________

21
Cochlea
  • Three compartments
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • Cochlear duct
  • formed by 2 membranes
  • __________________
  • __________________

22
Organ of Corti
  • The primary auditory receptor structure (15,000
    hair cells)
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