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The European Union: United in Diversity

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European Central Bank sets monetary policy for 12 Eurozone ... Malta (MT) 71.7. Hungary (HU) 82.4. Luxembourg (LU) 58.6. Lithuania (LT) 76.7. Latvia (LV) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The European Union: United in Diversity


1
The European UnionUnited in Diversity
  • Justin Sosne
  • Coro Fellow in Public Affairs, 2006 - 2007

2
EU Presentation OARR
  • Outcomes
  • The Fellows will learn how and why the European
    Union came into existence
  • The Fellows will learn how the European Union is
    structured
  • The Fellows will learn about current issues
    surrounding the European Union
  • Agenda
  • 4WH of the European Union (O1)
  • LDWpF of the European Union (O2)
  • WIGO of the European Union (O3)
  • Roles Justin will present
  • Rules
  • Fellows will listen actively
  • Fellows will question for clarification.
  • Fellows will not fall asleep.

3
4WH
4
What is the EU?
  • The European Union (EU) is a
  • 27-member multi-national intergovernmental and
    supranational organization aimed at the promotion
    of economic and political integration on the
    European continent.

5
Where is the EU?
UNITED KINGDOM SWEDEN SPAIN SLOVENIA
SLOVAKIA
AUSTRIA BELGIUM BULGARIA CYPRUS CZECH
REPUBLIC
ROMANIA PORTUGAL POLAND NETHERLANDS MALTA
LUXEMBOURG
DENMARK ESTONIA FINLAND FRANCE GERMANY
GREECE HUNGARY IRELAND ITALY LATVIA
LITHUANIA
6
Who lives in the EU?
  • 457 million citizens expected to reach 470
    million by 2025
  • Net population gain will be due primarily to
    migration, since total deaths will outnumber
    total births after 2010
  • This gain will stop in 2025, however population
    estimates for 2050 are around 450 million

7
Why did the EU form?
  • War experience
  • - 25 million people died in WWI and 40 million
    died in WWII
  • - nationalism (extreme patriotism) was
    perceived as the most deadly force in human
    history
  • - EU formed to prevent Germany from
    regaining military might as well as future
    Europe-wide conflicts
  • - put war-making industries (coal and
    iron) under supranational control (ECSC 1951)
  • - constrain nationalism through web of
    political rules (EEC 1957)

8
Why did the EU form?
  • 2) Cold War
  • - end of Western European great powers,
    imperial rivalries in Africa, South America, and
    Asia
  • - formed EU to unite against rising Soviet
    threat
  • - US was main catalyst of EU formation
    because they wanted a strong Europe next to the
    USSR
  • 3) Economic Benefits
  • a. Comparative advantage
  • b. Economies of scale
  • c. Bargaining power

9
How did the EU form?
  • 1946 Winston Churchill calls for a kind of
    United States of Europe during a speech at
    Zurich University
  • 1949 Formation of Council of Europe
  • 1950 Schuman Declaration
  • 1951 Formation of the European Coal and Steel
    Community (ECSC) between Belgium, the
    Netherlands, Luxemburg, France, Italy, and West
    Germany through the signing of the Treaty of
    Paris

10
How did the EU form?
  • Early 1950s - Two failed proposals
  • 1) European Defense Community (EDC) called
    for creation of a common European army, with
    joint high command designed to protect Europe
    against rising Soviet threat without allowing
    Germany too much military control
  • 2) European Political Community (EPC)
    called for a federation of European states with a
    bicameral parliament, executive organ, and a
    European Court
  • 1954 Both ideas were shelved after French
    assembly rejects EDC treaty because it did not
    want to cede French military control to a
    supranational defense force

11
How did the EU form?
  • 1957 Treaty of Rome signed, two new
    communities
  • 1) European Economic Community (EEC) - purpose
    of the EEC was to establish a customs union among
    the six founding members, based on the "four
    freedoms" freedom of movement of goods,
    services, capital and people
  • 2) European Atomic Energy Community
    (Euratom) - created to pool the non-military
    nuclear resources of states
  • 1967 EEC, Euratom, and ECSC merge into one
    body, the European Community (EC)

12
EU Enlargement
  • 1973 United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark
  • 1981 Greece
  • 1986 Spain, Portugal
  • 1995 Sweden, Austria, Finland
  • 2004 Cyprus, Malta, Slovenia, Hungary,
    Lithuania, Slovakia, Poland, Czech Republic,
    Estonia, Latvia
  • 2007 Bulgaria, Romania
  • Candidates Croatia, Turkey, Former Yugoslav
    Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)

13
EU Integration
  • 1979 European Parliament first direct
    elections
  • 1986 Single European Act (SEA)
  • 1) reformed the operating procedures of the
    institutions
  • 2) Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) was
    extended to new areas
  • 3) 1992 was set as goal for establishment of
    a single market
  • 4) Eliminated non-tariff barriers (i.e.
    size of products, health regulations)

14
EU Integration
  • 1992 Maastricht Treaty
  • 1) Established the EUROPEAN UNION!!!
  • 2) Created three pillars under this heading
  • a. European Communities (all the
    economic stuff)
  • b. Common Foreign and Security Policy
  • c. Justice and Home Affairs
  • 3) Established Economic and Monetary Union as
    a formal objective
  • 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam updated Maastricht
    and aimed to make the EU more democratic

15
EU Integration
  • 2002 12 countries form monetary union,
    abolish national currencies for Euro
    administered by the European Central Bank (ECB)

AUSTRIA BELGIUM FINLAND FRANCE GERMANY
GREECE IRELAND ITALY LUXEMBOURG
NETHERLANDS PORTUGAL SPAIN
16
Who can belong?
  • Copenhagen Criteria (1993)
  • 1) stability of institutions guaranteeing
    democracy, the rule of law, human rights and
    respect for and protection of minorities
  • 2) the existence of a functioning market
    economy as well as the capacity to cope with
    competitive pressure and market forces within the
    Union
  • 3) the ability to take on the obligations of
    membership including adherence to the aims of
    political, economic monetary union.

17
LDWpF
18
Load
  • Goals of the EU
  • 1) Fewer frontiers, more opportunities
  • - Any EU citizen can live, travel, and
    work in any EU country (Schengen Agreement)
  • 2) A greener Europe
  • - Taking the lead in implementing the
    Kyoto Protocol
  • - Preventing pollution from crossing
    borders
  • 3) Going abroad to learn
  • - Facilitate student exchanges
  • 4) Jobs and prosperity
  • - EU leaders have pledged to make the
    EU the worlds most dynamic knowledge-based
    society with a competitive economy and skilled
    workforce

19
Load
  • Goals of the EU
  • 5) Equal opportunities
  • - First treaties stated that men and
    women must receive equal pay for equal work
  • 6) Freedom, security, and justice for all
  • - Adopting common rules on these crimes,
    and taking steps to ensure full cooperation
    between their police and customs officers,
    immigration services and law courts (i.e.
    European arrest warrant) 7) Exporting peace and
    stability
  • - Spread prosperity through aid and
    expansion

20
Design
21
Design
  • How is the EU intergovermental?
  • 1) Decisions made by European Council members
    act on behalf of national interests
  • 2) Pillars II (Foreign Affairs) and III
    (Justice and Home Affairs) decisions require
    unanimous vote
  • 3) Treaties all new treaties must be
    ratified by member states

22
Design
  • How is the EU supranational?
  • European Commission functions as the agenda
    setter
  • - members swear an oath to the EU
  • - initiate legislation geared towards
    Europe as a whole
  • Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) in Council of
    Ministers
  • - 62 of EU population must be represented by
    decision
  • - one state cannot block a decision
  • Acquis communitaire EU laws must be implemented
    on national level
  • European Court of Justice (ECJ) can overturn
    national decisions

23
Working Parts
  • European Commission (executive branch)
  • - Headquarters Brussels, Belgium
  • - Official languages English, French,
    German
  • - Structure
  • 1) College of Commissioners
  • - current president Jose Manuel
    Durão Barroso
  • - one member from each EU member
    state
  • - commissioners are supposed to
    represent interests of EU as a whole,
    rather than country (supranational)
  • 2) Directorate-General
  • - 26 department bureaucracy
    comprised of over 5,000 employees

24
Working Parts
  • European Commission (cont.)
  • - Functions
  • 1) Power of initiation all EU
    legislation must be initiated here
  • 2) Implementation responsible for
    implementing legislation passed by Parliament
  • 3) Guardian of the Treaties
    interprets how to implement
  • 4) Manages finances
  • 5) Handles external relations
  • 6) Only body that can take member state
    to ECJ

25
Working Parts
  • European Parliament (legislative branch)
  • - Headquarters Strasbourg, France and
    Brussels
  • - Structure
  • - directly elected by EU citizens once
    every 5 years
  • - only part of the EU that is democratic
  • - represents around 457 million EU
    citizens
  • - members are known as Members of the
    European Parliament (MEPs) 736 overall
  • - no uniform voting system to elect MEPs,
    each state is free to choose, as long as its a
    form of proportional representation (PR)
  • - 7 Europe-wide political parties
    (supranational)

26
Working Parts
  • European Parliament (cont)
  • - Structure (cont)
  • - degressive proportionality based on
    population, but small states have more than
    they should

Strasbourg
Brussels
27
Working Parts
  • European Parliament (cont.)
  • - Functions
  • - cannot initiate legislation, but can
    amend or veto it in about ¾ of policy areas
    (codecision procedure)
  • - decides rest using assent or
    consultation procedure
  • - supervises the European Commission
    must approve all appointments en bloc can
    dismiss it with a vote of censure, but need
    2/3 majority (1999)
  • - controls the EU budget
  • - serves as lower-house, as in a
    bicameral system
  • - appoints European Ombudsman

28
Working Parts
  • Council of Ministers (legislative branch)
  • - serves as upper-house of European
    legislature with the Parliament
  • - Structure
  • 1) 9 Councils top ministers in
    particular policy area of each member nation
    meet
  • Areas General Affairs and External
    Relations Economic and Financial Affairs
    Agriculture and Fisheries Justice and Home
    Affairs Employment, Social Policy, Health and
    Consumer Affairs Competitiveness Transport,
    Telecommunications, and Energy Environment
    Education, Youth, and Culture

29
Working Parts
  • Council of Ministers (cont.)
  • - Structure (cont.)
  • 2) Committee of Permanent Representatives
    (COREPER)
  • - ambassadors or representatives from
    diplomatic missions of member states to the
    European communities
  • - prepares the Council agenda and
    negotiates minor and non-controversial
    matters, leaving controversial issues for
    discussion, and other issues for formal
    agreement, by the Council

30
Working Parts
  • Council of Ministers (cont.)
  • - Structure (cont.)
  • 3) Working groups 3000 civil servants
    (eurocrats) who often reach de facto agreement
    then submit for approval at Councils
  • 4) Presidency minister from country
    with presidency presides over Council meetings
    presidency rotates every six months based on a
    pre-established rotation (current presidency
    Finland)

31
Working Parts
  • Council of Ministers (cont.)
  • - Functions
  • 1) Legislation - the Council passes EU
    law on the recommendations of the European
    Commission and the European Parliament. 2)
    Approval of the EU budget - the Council and the
    Parliament must agree on the budget. 3)
    Foreign and defense policy - while each member
    state is free to develop its own foreign and
    defense policy, the Council seeks to achieve a
    common foreign and defense policy for the member
    states.
  • 4) Economic policy - the Council also
    seeks to achieve a common economic policy for
    the member states.
  • 5) Justice - the Council seeks to
    co-ordinate the justice system of the member
    states, especially in areas such as terrorism.

32
Working Parts
  • European Council
  • - also known as European Summit
  • - works like a Council of Ministers
    meeting, except with the heads of state present
  • - takes place 4 times a year on average
  • European Court of Justice (judicial branch)
  • - two courts
  • 1) European Court of Justice (ECJ)
  • - high court, 25 judges, 6 year
    renewable terms
  • - President of the Court 3 year
    renewable term
  • - 8 advocates-general serve
    special advisory role research cases and
    present opinion to justices, but decision
    not binding

33
Working Parts
  • European Court of Justice (cont.)
  • - two courts
  • 1) European Court of Justice (ECJ)
  • areas of jurisdiction
  • a) Claims by the European Commission that a
    member state has not implemented a European
    Union Directive or other legal
    requirement.
  • b) Claims by member states that the European
    Commission has exceeded its authority.
  • c) References from national courts in the EU
    member states asking the ECJ questions
    about the meaning or validity of a
    particular piece of EU law.

34
Working Parts
  • European Court of Justice (cont.)
  • - two courts
  • 2) Court of First Instance
  • - 25 judges, 6 year renewable terms
  • - independent court affiliated with the
    ECJ
  • - no permanent advocates-general
  • - jurisdiction to hear all direct
    actions by individuals and member-states
    against EU
  • - types of actions failure to act,
    damages, public or private contracts entered
    into by the EU, civil service

35
Working Parts
  • European Central Bank sets monetary policy for
    12 Eurozone countries, based in Frankfurt,
    Germany

36
Fuel
  • MONEY - 100 billion budget
  • - Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 2003 total
    output of goods and services annually
  • - EU 9755.4 billion (US12775
    billion)
  • - United States US12445 billion (
    9500 billion)
  • - Germany 2128.2 billion (US2786
    billion)
  • - Trade
  • - EU only accounts for 7 of world
    population, but accounts for 25 of all imports
    and exports
  • - Trade between EU countries accounts for
    2/3 of all EU trade
  • - EU trade accounts for over half of all
    trade in each of the 25 member nations,
    sometimes as much as 80

37
Trade with other countries, as a percentage of
each countrys total trade, 2003
38
International trade in goods, in billions of
Euro, 2002
39
Fuel
  • Political security
  • - no wars have been fought between EU
    members since its formation
  • - Europe wants to secure its borders to the
    east and south by spreading economic prosperity
  • Enhanced services
  • - education university student exchanges
    enhances intellectual capital
  • - infrastructure development money is
    spread out to poorer countries to develop roads,
    ports, etc.
  • - environment prevent pollution from other
    countries entering yours

40
WIGO
41
WIGO
  • Immigration
  • - causing cultural clashes i.e. riots in
    Paris
  • - big deal in Rotterdam when a new
    mosque obstructed the view of the local soccer
    stadium
  • - Berlin is second-largest Turkish city
    after Istanbul
  • - Muhammad just became the most popular
    boys name in England
  • - EU has traditionally had very liberal
    immigration policy (lots of social benefits, high
    level of tolerance, etc.)
  • - Changing in wake of terrorist attacks and
    increasing xenophobia
  • - Immigrants have boosted aging and
    declining EU population
  • - How will EU policy reflect cultural
    demographic change?

42
WIGO
  • Enlargement
  • - just enlarged by 10 countries, 2 more this
    month
  • - new entrants cause EU funds to be spread
    thin, dont necessarily meet anti-corruption and
    economic requirements
  • - culturally very different from Western
    Europe
  • - translation now necessary in many more
    languages ()
  • - new EU members want more power i.e.
    Poland mirrors whats happening in the United
    Nations
  • - What to do about Turkey?

43
WIGO
  • Constitution
  • - EU constitution was signed by all 25 heads
    of state in 2004
  • - Designed to streamline previous treaties,
    codify human rights, and streamline
    decision-making
  • - All 25 countries must ratify for it to
    pass into law
  • - France and the Netherlands voted it down
  • - What is the future of EU law?
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