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Title: Metacognitive instructional strategies: a study of e-learners self-regulation


1
  • Metacognitive instructional strategies a study
    of e-learners self-regulation
  • Liliana Cuesta Medina
  • Lecturer-Researcher
  • Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures
  • Universidad de La Sabana
  • Selected Plenary
  • CALL conference Motivation and Beyond
  • Antwerp, Belgium
  • August 20, 2010

2
Overview
  • Background
  • Literature review
  • Methodology
  • Results
  • Conclusions

The complete paper accompanying this plenary can
be found in Cuesta, L (2010). (forthcoming).
Self-regulation of online graduate learners
through metacognitive instructional strategies.
3
Rationale
  • Behind the study. My own motivations...
  • Search for instructional models to use technology
    as a tool?access,deliver knowledge
  • Strategies to foster learner autonomy
  • (Palloff Pratt, 2001 Salmon, 2002 Hauck, M.
    ,2005 Warschauer, 2006 Reinders and Lázaro,
    2008).

4
Rationale
  • F2F and virtual scenarios. What to do? What to
    adjust? (Hampel Stickler, 2005).
  • Where to go? Warschauer (2004) new literacies,
    new genres, identities, pedagogies?
  • New tendencies Virtual action learning (VAL)
    (Dickenson, Pedler, Burgoyne, 2008, 2009),
    networked learning (Salmon, 2000), connectivism
    (Siemens, 2005), and virtual group working
    (McConnell, 2006).

5
This implies...
  • Learning by making?learning by thinking.
  • Metacognition
  • John H. Flavell (1976), numerous disciplines
    psychology, natural sciences, linguistics.
  • (See Glaser, 1994 Martí, Pozo Monereo, 1999
    Hacker, Dunlosky Greasser, 1998 Zimmerman,
    1989 Mateos, 2001 Argüelles Nagles, 2007
    Campanario, Cuerva, Moya Otero, 1997 Maturano,
    Soliveres Macías, 2002 Oxford, 1990 O'Malley
    and Chamot, 1988 Chapelle, 2001 Rubin,
    2001Hampel, 2003 Hampel Hauck, 2004).

6
Defining Metacognition
  • Areas Memory, attention, problem-solving
    strategies, language learning and learning
    itself.
  • Flavell (1976)focused on defining metacognition
    as the domain and regulation that the individual
    has over his/her own cognition. He referred to
    metacognition on one hand, as "the knowledge
    concerning one's own cognitive processes and
    products or anything related to them" (p. 232).

7
Defining the term
  • "Metacognition" is often simply defined as
    "thinking about thinking.
  • Metacognition refers to higher order
    thinking?active control over the cognitive
    processes?planning a learning task, monitoring
    comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the
    completion of a task.
  • (Livingston,
    1997)

8
Once in history...
  • Brown (1978) defined metacognition as "the
    deliberate conscious control of one's own
    cognitive activity (p.35). In her later studies,
    (1981) she elaborated on the features of
    knowledge and regulation of metacognition,
    pointing out a major difference between expert
    and novice learners is the relative control they
    have over cognitive activity.

9
Metacognition?intervention?Scaffolding...
  • Mateos (2001) argues that students should be led
    to gradual participation through growing
    competence levels until the instructor sees that
    they are able to build and progressively better
    control their own degree of autonomy a process
    in which, according to Martí (1999), the
    activities regulated by the teacher and the
    gradual self-regulation of the student are
    modified.

10
All by the teacher
Gradual transfer of control
In the study, the intervention held during Weeks
18 used explicit instruction (cognitive modeling
processes) and guided practice Weeks 9-13 used
guided, collaborative, and independent practice
to implement selected metacognitive instructional
strategies.
11
To highlight...
  • The main responsibility for educators is to
    provide and scaffold guidance that enables
    students to assume control of their learning.

12
Metacognitioninstructionstrategy?
  • For Martí (1999)metacognitive occurrences can be
    viewed from the perspective of the teacher and
    the student. Both may differ at some point what
    is metacognitive for the teacher may not be so
    for the student. Modifications of activities are
    regulated by both teacher and learner (Martí,
    1999), and the degree of involvement of each
    agent directly impacts learner performance.
  • Metacognitive strategies Chamot and O'Malley
    (1995)strategies that frames the thought or
    knowledge of the process of learning, Kuhn et al.
    (1988) refer to metacognitive strategies as
    skills Wenden (1998) described them as the
    "general skills through which learners manage,
    direct, regulate, guide their learning (p.519).
    Hauck self-management strategies.

13
So...
  • Metacognitive instructional strategies are
    defined as the conscious processes (represented
    in actions)that allow teachers to model the
    learning activities systematically and influence
    students self-regulation.
  • (Cuesta, 2009)

14
Self-regulation
  • It includes knowledge of the task (the whats,
    whens and as hows of learning) as well as
    self-knowledge of personal skills, interests and
    attitudes. Self-regulated learning requires
    learners to have a solid knowledge of the
    requirements of the task, as well as of the
    personal qualities and strategies needed to
    develop the task (Schunk, 2004, p. 225).

15
Banduras self-regulation proposal
Table 1. Subproccesses of self-regulation
Source Social foundations of thought and
action, by Bandura, A. (1986).
16
Sub-process 1
  • Self-observation
  • This is a stage similar to self-monitoring.
    Bandura (1986) considers two important criteria
    for self-monitoring regularity and proximity.
  • Regularity means observing behaviour on a
    continual basis instead of intermittentlyhow
    often. Proximity means that behaviour is observed
    close in time of occurrence rather than long
    afterward how soon (Schunk, 2004, p. 67).

17
Sub-process 2
  • Self-judgment
  • This refers to a comparison of present
    performance level with ones goal. Self-judgments
    depend on the type of self-evaluative standards
    employed, the properties of the goal, and the
    importance of goal attainment and attributions
    (Schunk, 2004, p.124).

18
Sub-process 2
  • Schunk (1987) states that standards inform,
    motivate and enhance self-efficacy (understood as
    the belief in ones capabilities to organize and
    execute the courses of action required to manage
    prospective situations(Bandura, 1995, p.2).

19
Sub-process 3
  • Self-reaction
  • According to Bandura (1986), self-reactions to
    goal progress motivate behavior, and these
    reactions can be either positive or negative in
    nature.

20
Sub-process 3
  • Self-motivating incentives may be tangible
    outcomes or self-evaluative reactions.
  • Tangible incentives are granted upon performance
    attainment, and they mobilize the effort to get
    things done. E.g. recreational and relaxing free
    time activities (work breaks or new clothes).
  • The power of these two incentive systems
    (tangible and self-incentives) is determined
    partially by the degree of personal or external
    control that the individual may have.

21
What about VLE?
  • Ávila and Bosco (2001), a virtual learning
    environment constitutes the physical space that
    favours the learning attainment through contents,
    experiences and pedagogic and communicational
    processes. Salmon (2000) and Hunter (2002) assert
    that in a virtual learning environment there is a
    mutual knowledge-building process taking place
    (p.96).

22
Methodology
  • Participants
  • (N 17) Students of second semester of the
    Master in English Teaching-Autonomous Learning
    Environments at the Universidad de
  • La Sabana, Colombia.
  • Aged 25-35 years

23
Research question
  • What is the effect of metacognitive
    instructional strategies in the process of
    self-regulation of learning of a group of
    graduate learners in a virtual learning
    environment?

24
Design
  • Qualitative, exploratory study
  • Action research
  • Data analysis followed a sequential exploratory
    design strategy and a concurrency triangulation
    strategy (Creswell, 2003).

25
Design
  • Implementation and data collection lasted 13
    weeks, with data emerging from 3028 messages
    posted in a Moodle platform, registered through
    observational protocols, surveys, and
    questionnaires for later coding.

26
Design
  • For each of Banduras stages (1986), a specific
    method of instruction (derived from Mateos, 2001)
    was proposed and used along with a series of
    metacognitive strategies proposed by Cuesta
    (2009).

27
Matrix of the study (Cuesta, 2009)
Table 2. Matrix of the study
28
Background course design
  • Salmon (2000, 2002) 5 Step model

Applied in the VLE?Course Autonomy and Learning
Environments(Core principles in Educational
Technology applied to Language Teaching)
29
ADDIE model
Figure 2. ADDIE model
30
Keller ARCS model (1987)
Figure 3. ARCS model
31
E-tivities Salmon (2000, 2002)
Figure 4. Sample E-tivity in the course
32
Three basic steps...
1
2
3
33
Metacognitive instructional strategies (Cuesta,
2009)
Sub-process 1 Self-Observation Directed Action
(moderator)Qualitative Assessment
(moderator)The Reflection Forum (all
participants)Summaries (moderatorstudents)
34
Metacognitive instructional strategies (Cuesta,
2009)
  • Sub-process 2 Self-judgement
  • Self-comparison with absolute standards
  • (set in the lesson)
  • Using Checklist as a performance comparison
    standard
  •  
  • Self-comparison performance with peer normative
    standards
  •  
  • Self-comparison performance with moderator
    normative standards (post-feedback)
  •  
  • General Abstraction Questioning strategies
    (higher order questioning concepts?relations
  • (Biggs Collins, 1982)

35
Checklist for Online Assessment
Figure 5. Checklist for online performance
36
Metacognitive instructional strategies (Cuesta,
2009)
  • Sub-process 2 Self-judgement
  •  
  •  
  • Use of performance-based objectives
  • Use of tangible motivators in moderator
    assessment (progress judgement) praising, future
    error-correction documented readings,
    encouragement to develop personal and
    professional products.
  •  Continuous moderator assessment
  •  
  •  

37
Metacognitive instructional strategies (Cuesta,
2009)
  • Sub-process 3 Self-reaction
  •  
  •  
  • Use of tangible motivators in moderator
    assessment (progress judgement) praising,
    suggesting future error-correction documented
    readings, encouraging ss to develop personal and
    professional products.
  •  Time extensions
  •  
  •  

38
Results
Self-observation stage Self-monitoring leads to
self-efficacy   Explicit instruction provided
through moderators directed actions influenced
progress and achievement throughout the study.
With regards to the criteria of regularity and
proximity, the study showed that most
participants visited the learning platform to
evaluate their performance within 2448 hours
(proximity)after a given task set in the Course
Forums. Participants read ownpeer
feedback. This seems to confirm that "... the
immediate observation provides continuous
information and therefore the best chance of
self-assessing performance is to evaluate it
while it is still being produced ... (Bandura,
1986, p. 363).
39
Results
  • Reasons to monitor their performance
  • 1. professional development immediate
    opportunities
  • 2. indicators to self-motivate and self-commit
  • 3. indicators on performance standards.
  • 4. indicators of learning and improvement in a
    collaborative learning environment.
  • 5. indicators of learning and teaching
  • Results also show that the most common type of
    regularity (how often) was Type B (within 24-48
    hours after performance).

40
Results

Entries to the virtual classroom/comments to own contributions Time range to observe, retrieve and comment upon self and peer-performances Type
(12-24 hours) A
(24-48 hours ) B
(48- 72 hours ) C
(72 hours ) D
Legend
Figure 6. Sample of Observational protocol
41
ResultsSelf-observation stage Self-monitoring
leads to self-efficacy
  • The conversations are starting points for
    meaningful internalization and socialization
    processes, relationships which influence (a)
    exchange of information, (b) expansion of the
    shared knowledge, (c) recognition and value of
    the other, and (d) externalisation of feelings.

42
Sample
  • Re W8 E-1
  • From Student A jueves, 23 de abril de 2009,
    0131
  • Dear XXX
  • (Can I call you like this?? XXX does... -In fact,
    XXXX seems to be very serious for me, lately...-)
  • We agreed on the approach we chose. I also found
    out that my strategy perfectly fits into your
    Community-embedded learning. It is inside my
    workplace that I would like to implement my idea
    of a 'Virtual Teaching Club.' I especially want
    to highlight a sentence from your post "learning
    can be seen as a dialectic and social process
    raising from but especially affecting the
    community where it takes place." I want to
    emphasize the word 'dialectic' because it reminds
    me of great philosophers who took care of
    discourse to communicate their ideas. In this
    case, as you say, learning is not an isolated
    process. It arises from a given situation in a
    social context.
  • As always, thanks a lot for your
    thought-provoking post!!
  • DD
  •  

Figure 7. Studentsconversation 1
43
Results
  • The directed action strategy? provides explicit
    feedback over performance and enhances the
    moderators ability to promote academic
    discussion, interact and socialize with students.
  • The use of non-verbal, represented language on
    mood icons (emoticons), can contribute to a
    congenial atmosphere in the virtual environment,
    which is bonded through personal and social
    relations.
  • The use of emoticons, together with a
    professional and polite use of language
    (netiquette), sets effective models of
    communication and interaction worthy of imitation
    (Cuesta, 2010).

44
Results
  •  
  • Re W9 E-1
  • de CUESTA MEDINA LILIANA MARCELA - jueves, 30 de
    abril de 2009, 0008
  • Nicely done.
  • Hope the suggestions were helpful.
  • P.S Add a Why not in 5.
  • Sleep well. Time to go to bed!
  • Best,
  • L
  • Re W9 E-1
  • de XXXXXX - sábado, 2 de mayo de 2009, 1833
  • Dear Liliana
  • Thanks for your suggestions and comments.
  • It is nice to take advantage of this virtual tool
    to get your tutorial and opinions.
  • Have a great weekend.
  • XXXX.
  •  

Figure 8. Studentsconversation 2
45
Results
  • The study showed that students observed and
    responded to the feedback from moderator between
    12 and 24 hours (Type A).
  • Students actions
  • (a) detailed reading of comments produced by
    moderator
  • (b) comparison of feedback produced by
    moderator and second observation of students
    performance (recorded in the platform)
  • (c) comparison of the performance standards
    required for the activity with the feedback of
    the moderator
  • (d) dialogue with the moderator about feedback
    occurred
  • (e) comparison of individual performance with
    one or various peers
  • (f) self-evaluation of the quality and effort
    involved in the activity.

46
Results
Student Comment
12 after every post or E-tivity I liked to revise the answers constantly just to know if I was right. Besides that I was always after the tutors feedback which was always kind and motivating.
7 Performance is the final product of learning processes. Reflective learning and teaching are required to better performance
9 I really like to see my progress when I am learning.
6 The possibility of working with first drafts of a paper has been quite useful to identify own mistakes and correct them for the final version
Table 3. Studentscomments 1
47
Results
  • Self-Judgement stage Discovering oneself through
    the other
  • Most students found self-observations and
    self-comparisons with known standards very
    beneficial. Categories of data included revealed
    that those stances were (a) professional
    development opportunities, (b) indicators of
    self-motivation and self-commitment, (c)
    performance indicators over academic standards
    given by the instructor, and (d) learning
    improvement indicators in a collaborative
    learning environment.

48
Results
  • Accordingly, self-performance can be evaluated
    by assessing performance of the other. A
    meaningful other reference point is a factual
    standard defined by the performance or attributes
    of another individual who is meaningful to the
    evaluator, either because of the relevance or
    appropriateness of the individuals attributes
    for social comparison (Bernstein Crosby,
    1980 Festinger, 1954 in Higgins Sorrentino,
    1986).
  • Participants self-compared their performances
    with those of colleagues they considered similar
    to themselves or who (they believed) had slightly
    greater academic capacities. 62 of students
    reported a classmate as such a meaningful
    other 10 identified the course instructor as a
    "meaningful other. Both others provided
    participants with motivational incentives and
    resources to improve performances and skills.

49
Sample
Participant Comment
1 Mrs. X because she gave me support and she pushed me to try to do things on time. I trust on her knowledge and her way of being detailed when doing things.
5 Mr. XHe was always cheering me up, and analyzing why I did the way I did. It sounds redundant but every time Mr. X had the chance to participate in my threads, I felt he was reflecting on my products and ideas. This was useful to keeping up the good work.
7 Mrs.Y and Mrs.Z helped me reflect on different issues. Mrs.A kept me motivated because she enhanced my awareness on different issues.
Table 4. Studentscomments 2 Criterion
Normative standards set by peers
50
Results
  • Self-Reaction stage Achievements are
    self-rewards
  • Evaluation standards are closely connected to
    learners beliefs about their progress (Schunk,
    2004). When learners believe in their own
    progress, their motivation and confidence grows.

51
Results
  • Tangible goals are understood as actions and
    rewards that the student takes on due to their
    academic progress (Schunk, 2004).
  • When ss achieved goals...
  • (a) exploring additional resources and tools,
    (b) reading more documents, and (c) dialoguing
    and interacting with classmates on lesson themes.
  • Time extensions acted as routine-breakers and
    allowed students to pursue course activities at
    their own pace. It represents a surprise
    element Keller (1987) unexpected rewards.
    Beware Dont exceed its use!

52
Results
  • Self-reward Go for it!
  • Two main groups of achievers
  • a. those who self-reward after progress
    attainment
  • b. those who waited to be rewarded by their
    tutor and/or peers, they were generally the
    low-achievers.
  • Self rewards were also an indicator of the
    different levels of satisfaction and contentment
    that individuals may have after a learning
    experience.

53
Reactions
54
Conclusions
  • The taxonomy of metacognitive strategies
    developed in this study helps learners
    understand, develop, and control their cognitive,
    behavioural, and emotional activity by
    establishing direct relationships with academic
    and personal goal achievement.
  • The sequentiality of this study, proved to be a
    dynamic and structured proposal for
    self-regulation of learning process in
    virtualbut not solely virtuallearning
    environments.

55
Conclusions
Having the opportunity to record students and
moderators performances in a virtual platform
enables students to regularly and proximally
self-monitor, judge and react to performances.
Verbalization and sharing of thoughts in the
virtual learning environment helps students to
develop their self-awareness but also increases
goal-attainment, confidence and satisfaction,
regardless the level of difficulty tasks may
have. Further research could explore a vast
array of options in which one may consider the
effect of metacognitive instructional strategies
in specific skills production contexts and also,
the correlation between learning styles and this
type of strategies.
56
"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make
them think." - Socrates
57
Thanks for coming!
  • lilianamar_at_yahoo.com
  • Liliana Cuesta Medina
  • Lecturer-Researcher
  • Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures
  • Universidad de La Sabana
  • Colombia, South America
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Metacognitive instructional strategies: a study of e-learners self-regulation

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Title: Metacognitive instructional strategies: a study of e-learners self-regulation


1
  • Metacognitive instructional strategies a study
    of e-learners self-regulation
  • Liliana Cuesta Medina
  • Lecturer-Researcher
  • Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures
  • Universidad de La Sabana
  • Selected Plenary
  • CALL conference Motivation and Beyond
  • Antwerp, Belgium
  • August 20, 2010

2
Overview
  • Background
  • Literature review
  • Methodology
  • Results
  • Conclusions

The complete paper accompanying this plenary can
be found in Cuesta, L (2010). (forthcoming).
Self-regulation of online graduate learners
through metacognitive instructional strategies.
3
Rationale
  • Behind the study. My own motivations...
  • Search for instructional models to use technology
    as a tool?access,deliver knowledge
  • Strategies to foster learner autonomy
  • (Palloff Pratt, 2001 Salmon, 2002 Hauck, M.
    ,2005 Warschauer, 2006 Reinders and Lázaro,
    2008).

4
Rationale
  • F2F and virtual scenarios. What to do? What to
    adjust? (Hampel Stickler, 2005).
  • Where to go? Warschauer (2004) new literacies,
    new genres, identities, pedagogies?
  • New tendencies Virtual action learning (VAL)
    (Dickenson, Pedler, Burgoyne, 2008, 2009),
    networked learning (Salmon, 2000), connectivism
    (Siemens, 2005), and virtual group working
    (McConnell, 2006).

5
This implies...
  • Learning by making?learning by thinking.
  • Metacognition
  • John H. Flavell (1976), numerous disciplines
    psychology, natural sciences, linguistics.
  • (See Glaser, 1994 Martí, Pozo Monereo, 1999
    Hacker, Dunlosky Greasser, 1998 Zimmerman,
    1989 Mateos, 2001 Argüelles Nagles, 2007
    Campanario, Cuerva, Moya Otero, 1997 Maturano,
    Soliveres Macías, 2002 Oxford, 1990 O'Malley
    and Chamot, 1988 Chapelle, 2001 Rubin,
    2001Hampel, 2003 Hampel Hauck, 2004).

6
Defining Metacognition
  • Areas Memory, attention, problem-solving
    strategies, language learning and learning
    itself.
  • Flavell (1976)focused on defining metacognition
    as the domain and regulation that the individual
    has over his/her own cognition. He referred to
    metacognition on one hand, as "the knowledge
    concerning one's own cognitive processes and
    products or anything related to them" (p. 232).

7
Defining the term
  • "Metacognition" is often simply defined as
    "thinking about thinking.
  • Metacognition refers to higher order
    thinking?active control over the cognitive
    processes?planning a learning task, monitoring
    comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the
    completion of a task.
  • (Livingston,
    1997)

8
Once in history...
  • Brown (1978) defined metacognition as "the
    deliberate conscious control of one's own
    cognitive activity (p.35). In her later studies,
    (1981) she elaborated on the features of
    knowledge and regulation of metacognition,
    pointing out a major difference between expert
    and novice learners is the relative control they
    have over cognitive activity.

9
Metacognition?intervention?Scaffolding...
  • Mateos (2001) argues that students should be led
    to gradual participation through growing
    competence levels until the instructor sees that
    they are able to build and progressively better
    control their own degree of autonomy a process
    in which, according to Martí (1999), the
    activities regulated by the teacher and the
    gradual self-regulation of the student are
    modified.

10
All by the teacher
Gradual transfer of control
In the study, the intervention held during Weeks
18 used explicit instruction (cognitive modeling
processes) and guided practice Weeks 9-13 used
guided, collaborative, and independent practice
to implement selected metacognitive instructional
strategies.
11
To highlight...
  • The main responsibility for educators is to
    provide and scaffold guidance that enables
    students to assume control of their learning.

12
Metacognitioninstructionstrategy?
  • For Martí (1999)metacognitive occurrences can be
    viewed from the perspective of the teacher and
    the student. Both may differ at some point what
    is metacognitive for the teacher may not be so
    for the student. Modifications of activities are
    regulated by both teacher and learner (Martí,
    1999), and the degree of involvement of each
    agent directly impacts learner performance.
  • Metacognitive strategies Chamot and O'Malley
    (1995)strategies that frames the thought or
    knowledge of the process of learning, Kuhn et al.
    (1988) refer to metacognitive strategies as
    skills Wenden (1998) described them as the
    "general skills through which learners manage,
    direct, regulate, guide their learning (p.519).
    Hauck self-management strategies.

13
So...
  • Metacognitive instructional strategies are
    defined as the conscious processes (represented
    in actions)that allow teachers to model the
    learning activities systematically and influence
    students self-regulation.
  • (Cuesta, 2009)

14
Self-regulation
  • It includes knowledge of the task (the whats,
    whens and as hows of learning) as well as
    self-knowledge of personal skills, interests and
    attitudes. Self-regulated learning requires
    learners to have a solid knowledge of the
    requirements of the task, as well as of the
    personal qualities and strategies needed to
    develop the task (Schunk, 2004, p. 225).

15
Banduras self-regulation proposal
Table 1. Subproccesses of self-regulation
Source Social foundations of thought and
action, by Bandura, A. (1986).
16
Sub-process 1
  • Self-observation
  • This is a stage similar to self-monitoring.
    Bandura (1986) considers two important criteria
    for self-monitoring regularity and proximity.
  • Regularity means observing behaviour on a
    continual basis instead of intermittentlyhow
    often. Proximity means that behaviour is observed
    close in time of occurrence rather than long
    afterward how soon (Schunk, 2004, p. 67).

17
Sub-process 2
  • Self-judgment
  • This refers to a comparison of present
    performance level with ones goal. Self-judgments
    depend on the type of self-evaluative standards
    employed, the properties of the goal, and the
    importance of goal attainment and attributions
    (Schunk, 2004, p.124).

18
Sub-process 2
  • Schunk (1987) states that standards inform,
    motivate and enhance self-efficacy (understood as
    the belief in ones capabilities to organize and
    execute the courses of action required to manage
    prospective situations(Bandura, 1995, p.2).

19
Sub-process 3
  • Self-reaction
  • According to Bandura (1986), self-reactions to
    goal progress motivate behavior, and these
    reactions can be either positive or negative in
    nature.

20
Sub-process 3
  • Self-motivating incentives may be tangible
    outcomes or self-evaluative reactions.
  • Tangible incentives are granted upon performance
    attainment, and they mobilize the effort to get
    things done. E.g. recreational and relaxing free
    time activities (work breaks or new clothes).
  • The power of these two incentive systems
    (tangible and self-incentives) is determined
    partially by the degree of personal or external
    control that the individual may have.

21
What about VLE?
  • Ávila and Bosco (2001), a virtual learning
    environment constitutes the physical space that
    favours the learning attainment through contents,
    experiences and pedagogic and communicational
    processes. Salmon (2000) and Hunter (2002) assert
    that in a virtual learning environment there is a
    mutual knowledge-building process taking place
    (p.96).

22
Methodology
  • Participants
  • (N 17) Students of second semester of the
    Master in English Teaching-Autonomous Learning
    Environments at the Universidad de
  • La Sabana, Colombia.
  • Aged 25-35 years

23
Research question
  • What is the effect of metacognitive
    instructional strategies in the process of
    self-regulation of learning of a group of
    graduate learners in a virtual learning
    environment?

24
Design
  • Qualitative, exploratory study
  • Action research
  • Data analysis followed a sequential exploratory
    design strategy and a concurrency triangulation
    strategy (Creswell, 2003).

25
Design
  • Implementation and data collection lasted 13
    weeks, with data emerging from 3028 messages
    posted in a Moodle platform, registered through
    observational protocols, surveys, and
    questionnaires for later coding.

26
Design
  • For each of Banduras stages (1986), a specific
    method of instruction (derived from Mateos, 2001)
    was proposed and used along with a series of
    metacognitive strategies proposed by Cuesta
    (2009).

27
Matrix of the study (Cuesta, 2009)
Table 2. Matrix of the study
28
Background course design
  • Salmon (2000, 2002) 5 Step model

Applied in the VLE?Course Autonomy and Learning
Environments(Core principles in Educational
Technology applied to Language Teaching)
29
ADDIE model
Figure 2. ADDIE model
30
Keller ARCS model (1987)
Figure 3. ARCS model
31
E-tivities Salmon (2000, 2002)
Figure 4. Sample E-tivity in the course
32
Three basic steps...
1
2
3
33
Metacognitive instructional strategies (Cuesta,
2009)
Sub-process 1 Self-Observation Directed Action
(moderator)Qualitative Assessment
(moderator)The Reflection Forum (all
participants)Summaries (moderatorstudents)
34
Metacognitive instructional strategies (Cuesta,
2009)
  • Sub-process 2 Self-judgement
  • Self-comparison with absolute standards
  • (set in the lesson)
  • Using Checklist as a performance comparison
    standard
  •  
  • Self-comparison performance with peer normative
    standards
  •  
  • Self-comparison performance with moderator
    normative standards (post-feedback)
  •  
  • General Abstraction Questioning strategies
    (higher order questioning concepts?relations
  • (Biggs Collins, 1982)

35
Checklist for Online Assessment
Figure 5. Checklist for online performance
36
Metacognitive instructional strategies (Cuesta,
2009)
  • Sub-process 2 Self-judgement
  •  
  •  
  • Use of performance-based objectives
  • Use of tangible motivators in moderator
    assessment (progress judgement) praising, future
    error-correction documented readings,
    encouragement to develop personal and
    professional products.
  •  Continuous moderator assessment
  •  
  •  

37
Metacognitive instructional strategies (Cuesta,
2009)
  • Sub-process 3 Self-reaction
  •  
  •  
  • Use of tangible motivators in moderator
    assessment (progress judgement) praising,
    suggesting future error-correction documented
    readings, encouraging ss to develop personal and
    professional products.
  •  Time extensions
  •  
  •  

38
Results
Self-observation stage Self-monitoring leads to
self-efficacy   Explicit instruction provided
through moderators directed actions influenced
progress and achievement throughout the study.
With regards to the criteria of regularity and
proximity, the study showed that most
participants visited the learning platform to
evaluate their performance within 2448 hours
(proximity)after a given task set in the Course
Forums. Participants read ownpeer
feedback. This seems to confirm that "... the
immediate observation provides continuous
information and therefore the best chance of
self-assessing performance is to evaluate it
while it is still being produced ... (Bandura,
1986, p. 363).
39
Results
  • Reasons to monitor their performance
  • 1. professional development immediate
    opportunities
  • 2. indicators to self-motivate and self-commit
  • 3. indicators on performance standards.
  • 4. indicators of learning and improvement in a
    collaborative learning environment.
  • 5. indicators of learning and teaching
  • Results also show that the most common type of
    regularity (how often) was Type B (within 24-48
    hours after performance).

40
Results

Entries to the virtual classroom/comments to own contributions Time range to observe, retrieve and comment upon self and peer-performances Type
(12-24 hours) A
(24-48 hours ) B
(48- 72 hours ) C
(72 hours ) D
Legend
Figure 6. Sample of Observational protocol
41
ResultsSelf-observation stage Self-monitoring
leads to self-efficacy
  • The conversations are starting points for
    meaningful internalization and socialization
    processes, relationships which influence (a)
    exchange of information, (b) expansion of the
    shared knowledge, (c) recognition and value of
    the other, and (d) externalisation of feelings.

42
Sample
  • Re W8 E-1
  • From Student A jueves, 23 de abril de 2009,
    0131
  • Dear XXX
  • (Can I call you like this?? XXX does... -In fact,
    XXXX seems to be very serious for me, lately...-)
  • We agreed on the approach we chose. I also found
    out that my strategy perfectly fits into your
    Community-embedded learning. It is inside my
    workplace that I would like to implement my idea
    of a 'Virtual Teaching Club.' I especially want
    to highlight a sentence from your post "learning
    can be seen as a dialectic and social process
    raising from but especially affecting the
    community where it takes place." I want to
    emphasize the word 'dialectic' because it reminds
    me of great philosophers who took care of
    discourse to communicate their ideas. In this
    case, as you say, learning is not an isolated
    process. It arises from a given situation in a
    social context.
  • As always, thanks a lot for your
    thought-provoking post!!
  • DD
  •  

Figure 7. Studentsconversation 1
43
Results
  • The directed action strategy? provides explicit
    feedback over performance and enhances the
    moderators ability to promote academic
    discussion, interact and socialize with students.
  • The use of non-verbal, represented language on
    mood icons (emoticons), can contribute to a
    congenial atmosphere in the virtual environment,
    which is bonded through personal and social
    relations.
  • The use of emoticons, together with a
    professional and polite use of language
    (netiquette), sets effective models of
    communication and interaction worthy of imitation
    (Cuesta, 2010).

44
Results
  •  
  • Re W9 E-1
  • de CUESTA MEDINA LILIANA MARCELA - jueves, 30 de
    abril de 2009, 0008
  • Nicely done.
  • Hope the suggestions were helpful.
  • P.S Add a Why not in 5.
  • Sleep well. Time to go to bed!
  • Best,
  • L
  • Re W9 E-1
  • de XXXXXX - sábado, 2 de mayo de 2009, 1833
  • Dear Liliana
  • Thanks for your suggestions and comments.
  • It is nice to take advantage of this virtual tool
    to get your tutorial and opinions.
  • Have a great weekend.
  • XXXX.
  •  

Figure 8. Studentsconversation 2
45
Results
  • The study showed that students observed and
    responded to the feedback from moderator between
    12 and 24 hours (Type A).
  • Students actions
  • (a) detailed reading of comments produced by
    moderator
  • (b) comparison of feedback produced by
    moderator and second observation of students
    performance (recorded in the platform)
  • (c) comparison of the performance standards
    required for the activity with the feedback of
    the moderator
  • (d) dialogue with the moderator about feedback
    occurred
  • (e) comparison of individual performance with
    one or various peers
  • (f) self-evaluation of the quality and effort
    involved in the activity.

46
Results
Student Comment
12 after every post or E-tivity I liked to revise the answers constantly just to know if I was right. Besides that I was always after the tutors feedback which was always kind and motivating.
7 Performance is the final product of learning processes. Reflective learning and teaching are required to better performance
9 I really like to see my progress when I am learning.
6 The possibility of working with first drafts of a paper has been quite useful to identify own mistakes and correct them for the final version
Table 3. Studentscomments 1
47
Results
  • Self-Judgement stage Discovering oneself through
    the other
  • Most students found self-observations and
    self-comparisons with known standards very
    beneficial. Categories of data included revealed
    that those stances were (a) professional
    development opportunities, (b) indicators of
    self-motivation and self-commitment, (c)
    performance indicators over academic standards
    given by the instructor, and (d) learning
    improvement indicators in a collaborative
    learning environment.

48
Results
  • Accordingly, self-performance can be evaluated
    by assessing performance of the other. A
    meaningful other reference point is a factual
    standard defined by the performance or attributes
    of another individual who is meaningful to the
    evaluator, either because of the relevance or
    appropriateness of the individuals attributes
    for social comparison (Bernstein Crosby,
    1980 Festinger, 1954 in Higgins Sorrentino,
    1986).
  • Participants self-compared their performances
    with those of colleagues they considered similar
    to themselves or who (they believed) had slightly
    greater academic capacities. 62 of students
    reported a classmate as such a meaningful
    other 10 identified the course instructor as a
    "meaningful other. Both others provided
    participants with motivational incentives and
    resources to improve performances and skills.

49
Sample
Participant Comment
1 Mrs. X because she gave me support and she pushed me to try to do things on time. I trust on her knowledge and her way of being detailed when doing things.
5 Mr. XHe was always cheering me up, and analyzing why I did the way I did. It sounds redundant but every time Mr. X had the chance to participate in my threads, I felt he was reflecting on my products and ideas. This was useful to keeping up the good work.
7 Mrs.Y and Mrs.Z helped me reflect on different issues. Mrs.A kept me motivated because she enhanced my awareness on different issues.
Table 4. Studentscomments 2 Criterion
Normative standards set by peers
50
Results
  • Self-Reaction stage Achievements are
    self-rewards
  • Evaluation standards are closely connected to
    learners beliefs about their progress (Schunk,
    2004). When learners believe in their own
    progress, their motivation and confidence grows.

51
Results
  • Tangible goals are understood as actions and
    rewards that the student takes on due to their
    academic progress (Schunk, 2004).
  • When ss achieved goals...
  • (a) exploring additional resources and tools,
    (b) reading more documents, and (c) dialoguing
    and interacting with classmates on lesson themes.
  • Time extensions acted as routine-breakers and
    allowed students to pursue course activities at
    their own pace. It represents a surprise
    element Keller (1987) unexpected rewards.
    Beware Dont exceed its use!

52
Results
  • Self-reward Go for it!
  • Two main groups of achievers
  • a. those who self-reward after progress
    attainment
  • b. those who waited to be rewarded by their
    tutor and/or peers, they were generally the
    low-achievers.
  • Self rewards were also an indicator of the
    different levels of satisfaction and contentment
    that individuals may have after a learning
    experience.

53
Reactions
54
Conclusions
  • The taxonomy of metacognitive strategies
    developed in this study helps learners
    understand, develop, and control their cognitive,
    behavioural, and emotional activity by
    establishing direct relationships with academic
    and personal goal achievement.
  • The sequentiality of this study, proved to be a
    dynamic and structured proposal for
    self-regulation of learning process in
    virtualbut not solely virtuallearning
    environments.

55
Conclusions
Having the opportunity to record students and
moderators performances in a virtual platform
enables students to regularly and proximally
self-monitor, judge and react to performances.
Verbalization and sharing of thoughts in the
virtual learning environment helps students to
develop their self-awareness but also increases
goal-attainment, confidence and satisfaction,
regardless the level of difficulty tasks may
have. Further research could explore a vast
array of options in which one may consider the
effect of metacognitive instructional strategies
in specific skills production contexts and also,
the correlation between learning styles and this
type of strategies.
56
"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make
them think." - Socrates
57
Thanks for coming!
  • lilianamar_at_yahoo.com
  • Liliana Cuesta Medina
  • Lecturer-Researcher
  • Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures
  • Universidad de La Sabana
  • Colombia, South America
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