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Sharon A. Reeve, PhD, BCBA


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Title: Sharon A. Reeve, PhD, BCBA

Essential Components of Quality Home and School
Programs for Children with Autism
  • Sharon A. Reeve, PhD, BCBA
  • Caldwell College
  • Coordinator, Post-Baccalaureate Applied Behavior
    Analysis (ABA) Program and
  • Special Education Certification Program
  • Web page

Scientifically Validated Treatment Applied
Behavior Analysis (ABA)(a/k/a Behavior
Management Intensive Behavioral Intervention
  • The use of non-validated treatment approaches
    for children with autism may be ineffective and
    possibly harmful to your child and may take time
    away from treatments that have shown to be
    effective. (Green, 1996 New York State
    Department of Health, 1999)
  • Intensive, behavioral intervention early in life
    can increase the ability of the child with autism
    to acquire language and ability to learn.
  • Thirty years of research demonstrated the
    efficacy of applied behavioral methods in
    reducing inappropriate behavior and in increasing
    communication, learning, and appropriate social
  • U.S. Surgeon General, David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D.

Types of ABA-Based Programs
  • Full Home Program (_at_40 hrs/wk)
  • Full School Program (_at_30 hrs/wk)
  • Home-based After school Program (_at_15 hrs/wk)

Selecting a Consultant
  • Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) or
  • Masters degree
  • course work in behavior analysis
  • supervised experience in behavior analysis
  • Supervised training by a doctoral level
    professional specifically in teaching children
    with autism

How Do I Find Certified Behavior Analysts?
  • Behavior Analyst Certification Board Certificant
  • Search for all BCBA in NJ
  • http//
  • Association for Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Search for all members of ABA in NJ for contact
  • http//

What Else NeedsTo Be Done?
  • Interview Individual
  • Obtain Curriculum Vitae
  • E.g., http//'s
  • Obtain 3 references that can attest to their
    clinical and supervisory skills and contact them!
  • most of these individuals should have a doctorate
    and be happy to discuss the candidate with you

Responsibilities of Consultant
  • Assessment of child
  • Continual development of childs individualized
  • Continual teaching of child
  • Continual training of all staff members
  • Continual training of parents
  • Continual supervision of curriculum preparation

Responsibilities of Instructors
  • One-year commitment to family
  • Conducts sessions with child
  • If need to miss a session, will find a substitute
  • Implement training feedback provided by
  • Graphs data of progress

Possible Responsibilities of Parents
  • In collaboration with consultant, decides rate of
    pay for instructors
  • Coordinates schedule of instructors
  • Prepares house to accommodate instructional time
  • Prepares curriculum materials for child

Developing Individualized Teaching Programs
  • Operational definition of target skill
  • conditions under which behavior will be displayed
  • criteria for acceptable performance
  • Teaching procedure
  • Generalization
  • Maintenance
  • Inter-observer agreement (IOA)
  • Number of agreements
  • Number of disagreements agreements X 100

Example of an Individualized Teaching Program
  • Skill Color to Color Matching 
  • Operational Definition Christopher places a
    colored object or a colored- picture card with
    its corresponding match within 3 seconds of the
    verbal discriminative stimulus (SD). Data are
    collected weekly and are summarized as percentage
    of opportunities in which Christopher correctly
    matches the objects/pictures. During data
    collection, no prompts are used and the
    discriminative stimuli are presented in random
  • Discriminative Stimulus Saying Match with
    typical inflection and conversational volume.
  • while handing Christopher an object/picture . 
  • Criterion for Advancement Matching at least 90
    of the colored objects/pictures for two
    consecutive sessions. 
  • Procedure for Teaching The instructor sits
    across from Christopher who is sitting at a table
    or on the floor. The instructor puts 5 or more
    colored objects/pictures on the table, on the
    floor or velcroed on a board on the wall in
    varying positions. Contingent on Christopher
    making eye contact, the instructor presents the
    SD. If Christopher correctly matches, the
    instructor rewards with a conditioned reinforcer
    via his individualized motivational system and/or
    behavior-specific praise using the object/picture
    color label (e.g., Yeah, you matched red). If
    Christopher incorrectly matches, the instructor
    will use a visual prompt to indicate the correct
    match. Christopher will be required to then make
    the correct match. If necessary manual prompts
    will be paired with the visual prompts. All
    prompts will be systematically faded contingent
    on correct responses. All objects/pictures are
    frequently re-positioned and distracter
    objects/pictures are changed. Differential
    reinforcement is also used during this teaching
    procedure. Sets of target object/pictures are
    simultaneously taught and interspersed with
    mastered matching responses to maximize

Example of an Individualized Teaching Program
  • Color to Color Matching (CONTINUED)
  • Generalization Generalization of matching items
    across stimuli is programmed by using multiple
    stimuli. Generalization across stimuli is
    assessed by probing Christophers matching skills
    with colored objects/pictures not previously
    associated with teaching. Generalization across
    people and settings is programmed by conducting
    teaching across multiple instructors and
    settings, respectively. Generalization across
    settings and people will be individually assessed
    by probing with items in a setting not previously
    associated with teaching and with a person not
    previously associated with teaching.
  • Maintenance Christophers matching skills will
    be maintained during his use of various skills
    such as picture-object correspondence and
    following an activity schedule.  
  • Inter-Observer Agreement Inter-observer
    agreement data are collected monthly and
    calculated by using the formula
  • Number of Agreements X 100
  • Number of Agreements Disagreements

Maximizing Instructional Efficiency
  • Some programs should only be taught by the same
  • those involving initial acquisition of
    discrimination (sets)
  • Receptive language,
  • shaping
  • E.g., articulation programs, self-help skills
  • complex prompt fading procedures
  • E.g., fine motor program

MaximizingInstructional Efficiency
  • Other programs should be taught by all
  • those in which you are programming for
    generalization with multiple staff
  • Gestures
  • child initiated programs
  • Spontaneous language, spontaneous requesting,
    schedule following

Setting Up a School at HomeProgramming for
  • Home room
  • location of curriculum materials
  • Remainder of home
  • Rewarding toys
  • Backyard
  • language
  • Community/Grandparents house/Restaurants
  • on-task behavior

What are Data?
  • Data are the quantitative results of deliberate,
    planned, and usually controlled observation.
  • (Johnston Pennypacker, 1980)
  • (Translation These are the values of what weve

What are Data? (contd)
  • Quantitative
  • behavioral observations are translated into
  • Deliberate
  • data and IOA are collected carefully
  • Planned
  • decisions to collect data are made before the
    observation session
  • Controlled
  • data are collected under same conditions each time

Why Collect Data?
  • Monitor childs progress within programs
  • Monitor childs progress across programs
  • Required by funding agency
  • Empirical evidence to demonstrate progress to
    funding agencies
  • Used to make curriculum decisions
  • Used to verify effectiveness of specific teaching
    procedures for a specific child

Data Types to Collect
  • Acquisition data
  • Fluency data
  • Generalization data
  • Maintenance data
  • Inter-observer Agreement (IOA) data

Data Collection Frequency
  • Testing and teaching are different procedures
  • Collect data at an interval that matches
    acquisition speed

Data Collection Procedures
  • Data should reflect conditions under which you
    want the terminal performance
  • Select a measurement procedure that is
    appropriate for your response definition
  • Only collect the amount of data that you will
    graph and use

(No Transcript)
Why TeachMotivational Systems?
  • Contingency management
  • Management of stereotypy
  • Increasing skill acquisition leads to intrinsic
  • Communication

Types of Motivational Systems
  • Direct snacks and preferred activities
  • Token economies
  • choice
  • behavioral chains
  • Edibles in a cup
  • Behavioral contract
  • DRO (Differential Reinforcement of Other

Maximizing Teaching Opportunities
  • Every opportunity for teaching should be used!
  • Increase social opportunities and language
    opportunities during rewards and preferred
  • Skills should be taught in sets

Components of Comprehensive School-Based ABA
    SELECTION (Bondy, 1996 Jacobson, 2001)
  • First several weeks after child enters program
  • Skills assessed in all domains gross- and
    fine-motor skills, academics, pre-requisite
    learning skills, self-help, independence,
    receptive and expressive language, non-productive
    behavior that interferes with learning, and
    leisure skills
  • Updated on a continual basis
  • Goals selected by parents, teacher, speech
    therapist, occupational therapist, and school

More Components of Comprehensive School-Based ABA
    Krantz, 2001 Smith, Donahoe Davis, 2001)
  • Operational definition, Measurement procedure,
    Discriminative Stimuli, Teaching Procedures
    (e.g., activity schedules, video modeling, peer
    tutoring, audio modeling, small group
    instruction, discrete trial instruction,
    incidental teaching) Generalization, Maintenance,
    IOA, specific teaching sets
  • 30-40 individualized teaching programs will be
    written based on the above criteria for all skill
    domains for each child.
  • Approximately 90 of each childs individualized
    programs are language-based programs.
  • Programs that are child initiated, that promote
    generalization across multiple staff, or that
    need rapid skill acquisition are taught by all
  • Programs that have complex fading procedures,
    involve initial acquisition of discrimination or
    involve shaping procedures are initially taught
    by one instructor and then generalized to all

More Components of Comprehensive School-Based ABA
    McDonough, 1996 McClannahan Krantz, 2001
    Smith, Donahoe, Davis, 2001)
  • Curriculum is based on general preschool
    curriculum broken down into multiple steps
  • All curriculum written by the teachers and the
  • Skills are taught in a systematic fashion
    (mastering pre-requisite skills before being
    introduced to more complex skills)
  • Examples of general packaged curriculum that can
    be used and possibly modified are Edmark Reading,
    Distar Language, MacMillan Math, Sensible Pencil,
    Learn to Cut
  • Almost all curriculum materials are specifically
    made for a particular child

More Components of Comprehensive School-Based ABA
    OF EACH SKILL (McClannahan Krantz, 2001
    Jacobson, 2001)
  • Ongoing monitoring of skill acquisition
  • Data are collected on every program approximately
    once a week (some programs more frequently, some
    programs less frequently depending on a childs
    skill acquisition)
  • Accountability!

More Components of Comprehensive School-Based ABA
    Jacobson, 2001 Smith, Donahoe Davis, 2001
    McClannahan Krantz, 2001)
  • No one is ever fully trained in ABA, training
    will be ongoing and provided by a classroom
    teacher and/or consultant
  • WORKSHOP TRAINING (Jacobson, 2001, Bondy, 1996
    Smith, Donahoe Davis, 2001 McClannahan
    Krantz, 2001)
  • Twice a month all staff members participate in
    workshop trainings in the principles of ABA and
    other relevant topics related to teaching
    children with autism

More Components of Comprehensive School-Based ABA
  • SCHOOL VISITS (McClannahan Krantz, 2001
    Jacobson, 2001 Bondy, 1996)
  • Weekly school visits in which parents will
    receive training in teaching their child various
  • During school visits parents access to childs
    data notebook and can monitor progress
  • Workshop training several times per year

More Components of Comprehensive School-Based ABA
  • HOME VISITS (McClannahan Krantz, 2001 Smith,
    Donahoe Davis, 2001 Bondy, 1996)
  • Home visits provided at least monthly by
    classroom teacher, instructional aide, and/or
  • Childs progress will be reviewed
  • Training provided in areas specific to home
    (e.g., going to dentist, doctor, mall, grocery
    store eating sleeping leisure skills language
  • Any instructional staff hired by the parents at
    home has the opportunity to receive training
    several times per week by the school program.
    Recommend that approximately 20 hours of training
    with child at school before home staff teaches
    the child at home.

More Components of Comprehensive School-Based ABA
  • Many ABA techniques shown to be effective for
    increasing and improving language and
    communication in children with autism (e.g.,
    activity schedules, audio modeling, video
    modeling, PECS) (Skinner, 1957 Lovaas, 1977,
    1987 McGee, Krantz, McClannahan, 1985
    Sundberg Partington, 1998 McClannahan
    Krantz, 1999 New York State Department of
    Health, 1999 Bondy Frost, 1994 Fenske,
    Krantz, McClannahan, 2001 Rappaport, 2001
    Reeve, Reeve, Poulson, Buffington-Townsend,
    manuscript in preparation).
  • When teaching children with autism, related
    services have been shown to be maximally
    effective when delivered using the principles of
    ABA (Jacobson, 2000 Smith, 1993 New York State
    Department of Health, 1999 Bondy, 1996
    Romanczyk, Lockshin, Matey, 2001 Meyer, Taylor,
    Levin, Fisher, 2001).

More Components of Comprehensive School-Based ABA
  • Evaluation of Program Effectiveness (McClannahan
    Krantz, 2004)
  • Engagement with Activities with Other Persons
  • Opportunities to Respond
  • Behavior-Descriptive Praise
  • Relationship Building
  • Childrens Hygiene and Personal Appearance
  • Social Competence
  • Inappropriate Behavior
  • Family Participation in Intervention

Direct Care Team Membership
  • Consultant/Director
  • Provides consultation for 1.5 - 2 hours per week,
    per child
  • Provides supervision for teacher
  • Helps teacher develop goals and objectives for
    each child
  • Helps teacher develop data management system to
    evaluate effectiveness of each childs program
  • Provides direction for the development of
  • Trains teacher in effective individualized
    teaching procedures
  • Provides frequent hands-on training to all
    instructional staff
  • Provides workshop training for all team members
  • Periodically accompanies teacher and/or
    instructional aide on home visits
  • Consults with and brings in other doctoral level
    professionals in the field when necessary

Direct Care Team Membership
  • Teacher/Trainers
  • Enrollment in BCBA-approved program and certified
    in special ed
  • Develops individualized programs for each child
  • Manages all data collection systems to ensure
    program effectiveness for each child
  • Creates individualized curriculum to accompany
    each program for each child
  • Provides hands-on training to instructional aides
    and the implementation of individualized programs
    for each child
  • Provides hands-on training to parents and any
    person that frequently interacts with the child
  • Teaches each child

Direct Care Team Membership
  • Instructional Aides
  • Training in applied behavior analysis (ABA) and
  • Continually receives hands-on training
  • Teaches all children in the classroom rotating
    approximately every half hour
  • Serve as data analyst for one child
  • Prepares individualized curriculum for one
    specific child
  • May be selected by consultant and teacher to
    provide home visits and training on home staff

Direct Care Team Membership
  • Parents
  • Active participation in at least annual home and
    school selection of goals and objectives for
    their child
  • Receives hands-on training in how to effectively
    keep their child engaged in productive activity
    at home and in the community, increase childs
    direction following skills, and maximize their
    childs use of language at home and/or whatever
    other area parent requests training in
  • Receives workshop training in specific areas of
    applied behavior analysis

After-School Home-Based Programs
  • Goal Selection
  • Skills specific to home
  • Non-academic
  • Self help
  • Dressing, hand washing, toileting, nail cutting
  • Leisure/social
  • Model building, game playing
  • Community based
  • Dentist, doctor,
  • Skills mastered in school program
  • Language

Recommended ABA Programs for All Parents to Visit
  • REED Academy
  • Executive Director Dr. John Brown
  • 56 Ridgewood Rd, Washington Township NJ 07676
  • (201) 664-8300
  • Somerset Hills Learning Institute (SHLI)
  • Director Dr. Kevin Brothers
  • 22 St. Johns Drive, Gladstone, NJ 07934
  • (908) 719-6400
  • Century School (ABA Program for Children of
    Typical Development)
  • Executive Director Dr. Anthony Cammilleri
  • Gladstone, NJ 07934
  • (908) 421-3729
  • Princeton Child Development Institute (PCDI)
  • Executive Directors Dr. Patricia Krantz and Dr.
    Lynn McClannahan
  • 300 Cold Soil Road, Princeton, NJ 08540-2002
  • (609) 924-6280
  • Institute for Educational Achievement (IEA)
  • Executive Director Dr. Dawn Buffington-Townsend
  • 381 Madison Avenue, New Milford, NJ 07646

  • Bondy, A. (1996). What parents can expect from a
    public school program. In C. Maurice, G. Green,
    and S. Luce (Eds.), Behavioral intervention for
    young children with autism (pp. 323-330). Austin,
    TX Pro-ed.
  • McClannahan, L. E. Krantz, P. J. (2004). Some
    guidelines for selecting behavioral intervention
    programs for children with autism. In H. E. Brigs
    and T. L. Rzepnicki (Eds.), Using social work
    practice Behavioral perspectives. Chicago, IL
  • Fenske, E. C., Krantz, P. J., McClannahan, L.
    E. (2001). Incidental teaching a
    not-discrete-trial teaching procedure. In C.
    Maurice, G. Green, and R. Foxx (Eds.), Making a
    difference Behavioral intervention for autism
    (pp. 75-82). Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • Fenske, E. C., Zalenski, S., Krantz, P. J.,
    McClannahan, L. E. (1985). Age of intervention
    and treatment outcome for autistic children in a
    comprehensive intervention program. Analysis and
    Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 5,
  • Green, G. (1996). Evaluating claims about
    treatment for autism. In C. Maurice, G. Green,
    and S. Luce (Eds.), Behavioral intervention for
    young children with autism (pp. 15-28). Austin,
    TX Pro-ed.

More References
  • Green. (1996). Early behavioral intervention for
    autism what does research tell us? In C.
    Maurice, G. Green, and S. Luce (Eds.), Behavioral
    intervention for young children with autism (pp.
    15-28). Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • Jacobson, J. W. (2001). Early intensive
    behavioral intervention Emergence of a
    consumer-driven service model. The Behavior
    Analyst, 23(2), 149-171.
  • Harris, S. L., Handleman, J. S., Arnold, M. S.,
    Gordon. (2001). The Douglass Developmental
    Disabilities Center two models of service
    delivery. In J. Handleman and S. Harris (Eds.),
    Preschool education programs for children with
    autism (pp 233-261). Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • McClannahan, L. E., Krantz, P. J. (2001).
    Behavior analysis and intervention for
    preschoolers at the Princeton Child Development
    Institute. In J. Handleman and S. Harris (Eds.),
    Preschool education programs for children with
    autism (pp 191-213). Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • McEachin, J. J, Smith, T., Lovaas, O. I.
    (1993). Long term outcome for children with
    autism who received early intensive behavioral
    treatment. American Journal on Mental
    Retardation, 97(4), 359-372.

More References
  • Meyer, L. S., Taylor, B. A., Levin, L., Fisher,
    J. R. (2001). Alpine Learning Group. In J.
    Handleman and S. Harris (Eds.), Preschool
    education programs for children with autism (pp
    135-156). Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • Rappaport, M. (1996). Strategies for promoting
    language acquisition for children with autism. In
    C. Maurice, G. Green, and S. Luce (Eds.),
    Behavioral intervention for young children with
    autism (pp. 307-319). Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • Romanczyk. R.G., Lockshin, S.B., Matey, L.
    (2001). The Childrens Unit for Treatment and
    Evaluation. In J. Handleman and S. Harris (Eds.),
    Preschool education programs for children with
    autism (pp 249-94). Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • Smith, T. (1993). Autism. In T. Giles (Ed.),
    Handbook of effective psychotherapy (pp.
    107-133). NY Plenum Press.

More References
  • Smith, T. (1996). Are other treatments effective?
    In C. Maurice, G. Green, and S. Luce (Eds.),
    Behavioral intervention for young children with
    autism (pp. 45-59). Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • Smith, T., Donahoe, P. A., Davis, B. J. (2001).
    The UCLA young autism project. In J. Handleman
    and S. Harris (Eds.), Preschool education
    programs for children with autism (pp 29-48).
    Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • Taylor, B. A., McDonough, K. A. (1996).
    Selecting teaching programs. In C. Maurice, G.
    Green, and S. Luce (Eds.), Behavioral
    intervention for young children with autism (pp.
    63-177). Austin, TX Pro-ed.

ABA Resources
  • Books
  • Handleman, J. S., Harris, S. L. (2001).
    Preschool education programs for children with
    autism. Austin, TX Pro-Ed.
  • Harris, S. L., Weiss, M. J., (1998). Right from
    the start Behavioral intervention for young
    children with autism. Bethesda, MD Woodbine
  • McClannahan, L. E., Krantz, P. J. (1999).
    Activity schedules for children with autism
    Teaching independent behavior. Bethesda, MD
    Woodbine House.

ABA Resources
  • Books
  • Leaf, R., McEachin, J. (Eds.). (1999). A work
    in progress Behavior management strategies and a
    curriculum for intensive behavioral treatment of
    autism. New York DRL Books.
  • Lovaas, O. I. (2002). Teaching individuals with
    developmental delays Basic intervention
    techniques. Austin, TX Pro-Ed.
  • Maurice, C., Green, G., Fox, R. M. (Eds.).
    (2001). Making a difference Behavioral
    intervention for autism. Austin, TX Pro-Ed.
  • Maurice, C., Green, G., Luce, S. C. (Eds.).
    (1996). Behavioral intervention for young
    children with autism. Austin, TX Pro-Ed.

ABA Resources
  • Websites
  • NY State Dept. of Health Guidelines
  • http//
  • - Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB)
  • http//
  • General Information about Autism and ABA
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • Research Journals
  • Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA)
  • Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
  • Behavioral Disorders
  • Education and Training in Mental Retardation and
    Developmental Disabilities