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Role of management and leadership

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Title: Role of management and leadership


1
Role of management and leadership
2
Management
  • Writers who consider the functions performed by
    management
  • Frederick Taylor
  • Henri Fayol
  • Peter Drucker
  • Henry Mintzberg

3
Federick Taylor
  • Early 20th century
  • Management of work task
  • Rationality ? scientific principles to work
    management ? Most efficient way of working
  • Scientific management ?
  • Efficiency
  • Standardization
  • Discipline

4
  • Principle of division between managerial and work
    roles
  • Principle of standardization and specialization
  • Principle of division of labor and efficiency
  • These principles still remain significant

5
  • Taylors work ? preceded the adoption of mass
    production techniques
  • Little systematic research
  • Workers believed that increasing in productivity
    ? job losses ? took advantage of poor management
    controls to slow down productivity

6
  • Many modern orgs (with similar outputs with
    continuous process) still adopt Taylor-like
    principles to increase productivity
  • Taylors work is now taken for granted and
    rejected by a more human or social
    considerations

7
Henri Fayol
  • Did not invent the concept of management
  • BUT
  • He distinguish management from other
    organizational activity
  • He outlined the prime functions of a manager
  • Normative and prescriptive model
  • Indicates how managers should conduct their
    activity (in order to achieve efficiency
  • Functions of management

8
Functions of management
  • Plan and forecast ? prepare a series of actions
    to enable the organization to meet its objectives
    in the future
  • Organize ? to fulfill the administrative
    principles embraced by Fayol
  • Coordinate ? to ensure that resources, actions
    and outputs are coordinated to achieve desire
    outcomes
  • Command ? to give direction to employees
  • Control ? to ensure that activities are in
    accordance with the plan/ that orders are
    followed/ that principles of management applied

9
Fayols 14 principles of management
10
  • Challenged by modern development of organizations
  • Unity of command vs matrix organization
  • Fayols principles vs Teamworking, flatter
    hierarchies, professional control, flexible
    working

11
Peter Drucker
  • Describe and comment upon what manager do
  • Prescriptive analysis of the management role
  • Three broad tasks of managers
  • Satisfying the goals or mission f the
    organization
  • Enabling the worker to achieve and focus on
    productivity
  • Managing social responsibilities
  • Managers are required to 1) set objectives 2)
    organize 3) motivate and communicate 4) measure
    and develop people

12
Drucker vs previous works
  • More concern about human and interpersonal issues
  • Recognize importance of communications and social
    concerns

13
Henry Mintzberg
  • Detailed observations of what managers actually
    did (not prescriptive myths of modern
    management)
  • In reality ? managers did not spend most of their
    time planning, organizing, coordinating,
    commanding and controlling

14
10 roles that managers do
15
Mintzbergs sequence of activity in the pursuit
of objectives
16
  • Interpersonal ? managers internally build
    relationships with employees and network with
    other depts.
  • Information ? collect info and act as
    spokesperson for the group ? develop stable
    relationships ? quality information
  • Decisional ? decision making, setting objectives,
    resource allocation

17
  • Typical managers day
  • Frequent interruptions for brief conversation by
    phone, in person, email ? to keep managers
    informed
  • Rosabeth Moss, Tom Peter, Henry Mintzberg
  • Focus on strategic perspective on management
  • Importance of mission and vision
  • Customer oriented values
  • Paint a picture of the conditions necessary for
    organizational success

18
Leadership and management
  • Manager ? performs functions in orgs and hold a
    particular, formal, title and/or fulfill a role
  • Marketing manager ? marketing of a product
  • Personnel manager ? recruitment and selection of
    staff
  • Have a title, a role, a series of functions to
    perform, management of subordinates, management
    of financial resource
  • Planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding,
    controlling the activities of staff

19
  • Leaders ? aim to influence and guide others into
    pursuing particular objectives or visions of the
    future and to stimulate them into wanting to
    follow
  • Demonstrates the power of one individual over
    others
  • Leadership is not necessarily related to
    hierarchical position (authority) as managers
    tend to be ? informal leaders
  • Leadership dynamic activity concerning more
    with changing attitudes, inspiration, emotional
    input than management

20
  • Managers may show leadership qualities on
    particular occasions
  • Mintzberg includes the leader role as one of his
    ten roles of management
  • Handy (1993), Watson (1983), Kotter (1990) ?
    leadership is merely part of the broader role of
    management

21
Leadership
  • General definition (Lundstedt 1965)
  • ? leadership involves influencing the behavior
    of others in any group or organization, setting
    goals, formulating paths to those goals, and
    creating social norms in the group

22
  • Definition of leadership ? two common elements
  • Group phenomenon ? 2 or more people must be
    involved
  • Influence process

23
  • Influence
  • ? flow from leaders to followers
  • ? Followers grant the leadership role
    to leader
  • ? leaders rallying people together and
    motivating them to achieve some common goals

24
  • Leader as Symbol ? move the group toward set
    goals in a definite manner
  • The Uniqueness of leadership roles
  • The achievement of Leadership Positions
  • Influence, Power, Authority in leadership

25
Influence Tactics (Yukl 1994)
  • Rational Persuasion
  • Inspirational Appeals
  • Consultation
  • Ingratiation
  • Personal Appeals
  • Exchange
  • Coalition Tactics
  • Legitimating Tactics
  • Pressure

26
  • Authority ? rational basis of power
  • Rational side of org ? what an org should do
    according to the official, formal dictates of org
  • Political side of organization ? what
    organizations actually do

27
Authority
  • the rationally based formal right to make
    decisions and influence behavior to implement
    decisions based on formal organizational
    relationships
  • 2 subrights The right to decide
  • The right to issue appropriate implementing
    instructions or directions
  • Rights are determined by obligation
  • Obligation (responsibility) determine the nature
    of the right (authority) ? balanced

28
  • Authority a right determined by an obligation
  • Authority is solely associated with formal org,
    with formal sanction or approval from society

29
Forms of authority
  • Managerial authority
  • Staff authority
  • Situational authority
  • Operative authority

30
Managerial Authority
  • Managers are responsible for acquiring,
    deploying, controlling resources needed to
    accomplish objectives
  • Rights to choose among alternatives
  • The right to enforce those choices based on
    official position
  • Principle of parity of authority and
    responsibility ? Balance between responsibility
    authority

31
Staff Authority
  • Suggestions recommendations about the solutions
    to problems, procedure, or improvements
  • Right to recommend
  • Right to suggest
  • Right to advise
  • Right to attempt to exert influence to gain
    acceptance for ideas
  • Ex. TQM, suggestion boxes, employee empowerment,
    decentralizing org.

32
Situational Authority
  • Hybrid authority
  • Contains both managerial and staff authority
  • Delegated by managers to a staff expert

33
Operative Authority
  • All members have this authority
  • ? make certain decisions about how, in what
    order, which tools they carry out their tasks
  • ? right to work without undue supervision

34
Power
  • the ability to impose ones will on others
  • the ability of one person to affect the
    behavior of someone else in a desired way
  • Based on factors such as knowledge, authority,
    information, personality, resource control

35
  • Authority ? simple power associated with formal
    organization
  • Power ? influence that does not necessarily
    depend on formal organizational recognition
  • Example

36
Two Perspectives on Power
  • The French and Raven Power Typology ? individual
    bases of power
  • Dependency, Critical Contingencies, and Power ?
    how individuals, groups, or departments gain
    power through dependency relationships

37
French Raven Power Typology
  • Sources potency of power in org
  • Rational/legal power
  • Reward Power
  • Coercive power
  • Referent power
  • Charismatic power
  • Expert power

38
Dependency, Critical Contingencies, and Power
  • Power through control of resources
  • Power through solving critical or strategic
    contingencies
  • Level of substitutability
  • Power and location in the org
  • Power and position in the org

39
How to assess power ?
  • Determine by sources or origin of power ?
    judgment about how much of particular power a
    person/department possesses
  • Determine by consequences of decisions made by
    various actors
  • Determine by power symbols ? larger office,
    luxurious furniture, more expensive company cars
  • Representational indicators of power ?
    memberships on influential boards or committees

40
Three levels of leadership
  • Executive
  • Managerial
  • Supervisory
  • Informal leadership
  • Three major theories
  • Leadership organization theory

41
  • Executives
  • ? establish bureaus structure (including
    positions filled by managers and supervisors
  • ? maintain general view of the bureau and its
    place within political envi
  • ? Interpret political statements of intentions
    (unclear contradictory) into rational goals
    policies
  • ? Create environment that encourage goal
    achievement
  • ? close attention to org environment (take
    advantage of opportunity protect org from
    threats

42
  • manager
  • ? depend on rules regulations that define their
    power over others
  • ? interpret org goals (set by executives) in
    concrete manner (into structure, procedure, tasks
  • ? often pulled by superiors subordinates
  • ? focus on how org can be best organized to
    achieve the overall goals established by
    executives

43
  • Supervisor
  • ? focus on motivation, productivity,
    interpersonal relations
  • ? work directly with production process
  • ? protect subordinates from political pressure

44
  • Informal leadership
  • ? have no official leadership positions
  • ? need to understand informal leadership
    phenomenon along with formal one

45
Executive leadership
  • Most important ? influence ? skillful playing of
    political game ? power
  • Administrative conservators
  • Preserve institution
  • Improve institution
  • what is political climate?
  • what is the resource base?
  • what is the potential for mobilizing support for
    the program?

46
The Managers
  • in the middle
  • Traits (Stogdill 1981)
  • Capacity? intelligence, alertness, verbal
    facility, originality, judgment
  • Achievement ? scholarship, knowledge
  • Responsibility ?dependability, initiative,
    persistence, aggressiveness, self-confidence
  • Participation ? activity, sociability,
    cooperation, adaptability, humor
  • Status ? Socioeconomic position, popularity
  • Situation ? mental level, status, skills, needs
    and interests of followers, objectives to be
    achieved

47
The Supervisors
  • getting the work done
  • Three major focuses
  • Production
  • Maintenance of individual morale
  • Maintenance of group cohesiveness

48
  • Supervisory behavior (Bass 1990)
  • Consideration ? extent to which a leader shows
    concern for the welfare of the other members of
    the group, appreciation of good work, stress
    importance of job satisfaction
  • Initiation of structure ? extent to which a
    leader initiates activities in the group,
    organizes it, defines the way work is to be
    done

49
Leadership School of thought
  • Three broad schools
  • Trait Theories
  • 20th century ? focus on personal characteristics
    of leaders
  • Partial explanation/superficial perspective on
    leadership issues
  • Behavioral theories
  • Focus on behaviors of leaders including styles of
    leadership
  • Non-context specific
  • Situational theories
  • Focus on the leader in the context or situation
    in which he/she leads
  • Add richness to the study of leadership

50
Trait Theories
  • Individuals ability to lead
  • social background, intelligence, other
    personality features
  • Bennis and Nanus (1985) ? relationship bt
    leadership effectiveness and the traits (logical
    thinking, persistence, empowerment, self-control)

51
  • Logical thinking
  • Ability to translate ideas into simple forms
  • Persuasive abilities
  • Explaining phenomena in unique ways
  • Persistence traits
  • Considering setbacks as minor mistakes
  • Working long hours
  • Attempting to succeed against the odds

52
  • Empowerment traits
  • Enthusing people about their goals
  • Being enthusiastic and energetic oneself
  • Increasing confidence in employees own abilities
  • Self-control traits
  • Working under pressure
  • Remaining calm and even-tempered
  • Resisting intimidation

53
  • Other research ? meta-analytical work ? bring
    findings from separate research projects together
    (ex Kirkpatrick Locke 1991) ? list of
    leadership qualities ? disagreement, less
    insights, try to relate two or more unrelated
    variables

54
Behavioral Theories
  • Examines leadership behavior (that have
    influences the performance and motivation of
    subordinates)
  • Focus on leadership style

55
  • Ohio State University research (1940s and 1950s)
  • Two fundamental types of leader behaviors
  • Initiating structure
  • Consideration
  • Initiating structure ? behavior which focuses on
    the achievement of objectives and includes clear
    supervision and role clarification, planning
    work, and a results orientation
  • Consideration ? behaviors which encourage
    collaboration and focus on supportive networks,
    group welfare and the maintenance of job
    satisfaction

56
  • University of Michigan
  • Leaders exhibited
  • Employee centered (people orientation)
  • Production centered (task orientation)
  • One best style of leadership
  • Leader who exhibits high initiating structure and
    high consideration behaviors (strong orientation
    of both task and people)

57
  • Leadership style
  • the behavior of leaders towards subordinates,
    the manner in which tasks and functions of
    leadership are conducted
  • Tannenbaum Schmidt (1973)
  • Continuum in leadership styles
  • boss-centered approach --- subordinate-centered
    approach

58
Simple style continuum
Leaders style can be mapped along a continuum
between the authoritarian and democratic ends
Criticism Only one dimension
59
  • Join ? leader define problem, but leave it open
    for alternative problem definitions to arise ?
    and for the scope of the endeavor to expand ?
    become member of the problem-solving group and
    hands over decision making power to the group
  • Consults ? leader identifies the problem and
    makes decision (only after listening and possibly
    adopting solutions suggested
  • Sells ? manager decides on the solution to the
    problem ? persuades staff that his/her decision
    is more valid
  • Tells ? leader identifies problem, decides on
    solution, expect staffs to implement such
    decisions without questioning

60
  • Leaders decisions will always be influenced by
    the situation they find themselves
  • Contextual factors
  • Group effectiveness
  • Nature of task environment
  • Pressures of time
  • Forces in subordinate ? Subordinates level of
    experience and the style to which they are
    accustomed
  • Forces in the leader ? knowledge and preferred
    style

Combine to determine the most appropriate
leadership style
61
Choosing an appropriate style
  • Leader consider
  • their own value system and leadership inclination
  • Level of confidence they have in their
    subordinates
  • Subordinates ability to cope with uncertainties
    of the situation
  • Evaluate the nature and experience of their
    subordinates
  • Subordinates readiness to assume responsibility
  • Subordinates knowledge and interest

62
  • John Adair
  • Action-centered leadership ? 3 areas of need
    which leader must satisfy
  • Task needs
  • Individual needs
  • Team maintenance needs

HIGHLY EFFECTIVE LEADER
63
  • Conclude 4 broad leadership style
  • Task/structure orientation
  • People/interpersonal orientation
  • Directive/autocratic leadership
  • Participative/democratic leadership

1
2
McGregors Theory X and Theory Y
64
  • McGregors Theory X and Theory Y
  • Leader and managers could be differentiated from
    one another according to their attitudes and
    assumptions about human nature
  • Theory X leader ? believe people are lazy, dont
    want responsibility, no ambition ? they need to
    be controlled, directed, coerced and punished
    (Maslows hierarchy of need 1 and 2)
  • Theory Y leader ? believe people align themselves
    with org goals ? need little control or
    direction, seek reward consistent with their
    performance, have initiative and creative skills
    ? motivated by affiliation, esteem, and self
    actualization (Maslows 3,4,5)

65
  • Blake Mouton (1964) ? managers style can be
    mapped along
  • Degree of People orientation
  • Degree of Production orientation
  • High people High Production ? desirable

66
  • Trait ? what a leader is
  • Behavioral ? what a leader does
  • Criticism ?
  • high task (structure) high people
    (consideration)
  • high performance
  • reality is more complicated leadership might
    be both cause and effect
  • ignore the context or situation in which
    leaders and followers find themselves

67
Situational Theories
Trait (T)

more complex and more promising explanation of
leadership
Behavioral (B)

Context (C) Contingent factor
68
Fiedlers Contingency Theory
69
  • leadership behavior interacts with the
    favorableness of a situation to determine
    effectiveness
  • Some situations are more favorable than others ?
    require different behaviors
  • Require the assessment of
  • Leaders style
  • Three broad characteristics of the context
    (situation)
  • Leader-group member relations ? nature of work
    atmosphere ? loyalty, trust, etc
  • Task structure ? clarity of groups work,
    understanding of groups goals
  • Position power ? a leaders legitimate power to
    tell others what to do

70
  • Leadership style
  • Relationship-centered leader is motivated to
    maintain good interpersonal relations
  • Task-centered leader is motivated to get on with
    the job
  • Leaders indicate their orientation toward their
  • least-preferred co-worker (LPC)
  • Accepting LPC relationship-orientated
  • Look at LPC as few qualities task-orientated

Leaders personality trait or Leaders
motivational pattern
71
  • Task orientation ? suits highly favorable or
    highly unfavorable situations
  • Highly unfavorable situation ? ex. Military
    dangerous task to perform (face with enemy in
    unfamiliar territory unstructured task with
    strong position power ? adopt task orientated
    approach (giving clear orders and demand
    compliance)
  • Highly favorable situation ? ex. Managers enjoy
    good relations with workers ? clearly structured
    task (not much debate or no decision-making
    ability is required) ? adopt task oriented
    approach to ensure high productivity

72
  • Relationship orientation
  • Best suit to average situational favorability
  • Org should not focus on attempt to change
    leaders personality ? BUT should select leaders
    to match the situations favorability

73
Houses path-goal theory
  • It is a leaders function to clarify pathways for
    subordinates to achieve their desired rewards ?
    their motivation increase
  • Leader provides rewards and clarifies pathway
    between
  • Employee effort and performance
  • Performance and reward

74
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
  • Effective leaders increase motivation and
    satisfaction among subordinates when they help
    them pursue important goals
  • Leaders help subordinates to see the goals
  • The paths to achieve those goals
  • How to follow those paths effectively
  • Show the values of outcomes
  • Using appropriate coaching and directing
  • Removing barriers and frustrations to those paths

75
  • Directive behaviors planning, setting
    expectations and clarifying instructions
  • Supportive behaviors offering friendly
    consideration
  • Participative behaviors involving subordinates
    in decision making
  • Achievement-orientated behaviors setting
    objectives and expecting them to be achieved

76
  • Directive leadership
  • ? good for ambiguous task
  • ? bad when task is well structured and clear
  • Supportive leadership
  • ? good when tasks are frustrating and stressful
  • ? bad when groups or other parts of org already
    provide plenty of encouragement
  • Achievement-oriented leadership
  • ? good for tasks toward ambitious goals
  • Participative leadership
  • ? good for ambiguous task that subordinates
    feel their self-esteem is at stake
  • ? participation allows them to influence
    decisions and work out solutions

77
Vroom and Yetton Contingency Model
  • Develop a decision-making leadership contingency
    model
  • Three leadership styles
  • Autocratic
  • ? decision or problem solving, using information
    available to leader at the time
  • ? leader collects information and then makes
    decision/solves the problem
  • Consultative
  • ? leader shares the problem with subordinates
    individually or as a group and then leader makes
    decision
  • Group
  • ? leader shares the problem with the group and
    together they find solution or consensus

78
Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
  • Dyadic relationships
  • between a leader and individual subordinates
  • On development of low-exchange and hi-exchange
    relationships
  • Low-exchange relationships
  • ? little mutual influence between the leader and
    subordinate
  • ? subordinate follows formal role requirements
  • ? receive standard benefit (salary)
  • High exchange relationships
  • ? leader establishes with a set of trusted
    subordinates
  • ? mutual influence relations
  • ? subordinates receive benefits in the form of
    more interesting assignments and participation in
    important decisions
  • ? leaders expectation of hard work, loyalty,
    more responsibility

79
Transformational Leadership
  • Transactional Leadership
  • Motivate followers by recognizing their needs and
    providing rewards to fulfill those needs in
    exchange for their performance
  • Transformational Leadership
  • Raise followers goals to higher level goals ?
    self actualization (Maslow)
  • Motivate followers to transcend their own narrow
    self-interest for the benefit of the community or
    the nation (MLK Jr.)

80
Transformational behaviors
  • Idealized influence
  • Arouses followers emotional attachment to the
    leader and identification with him/her
  • Intellectual stimulation
  • Engages followers in recognizing and confronting
    challenges
  • Individualized consideration
  • Provides support, encouragement and coaching
  • Inspirational motivation
  • Communicates an appealing vision by using symbols
    or modeling appropriate behaviors

81
Transactional Behaviors
  • Contingent reward
  • Clarifying the work required for rewards
  • Ensuring that rewards are contingent on
    appropriate behaviors
  • Passive management by exception
  • Punishments in response to obvious deviations
    from acceptable standards
  • Active management by exception
  • Looking for mistakes and enforcing rules to avoid
    mistakes

82
Leading Managing(Bennis and Nanus)
  • Managing
  • Taking charge, accomplishing goals with
    efficiency
  • doing things right
  • Leading
  • Guiding directions, actions, opinions
  • doing the right thing

83
Excellent leader
  • Attention through vision
  • Create visions of successful futures
  • Bring out the best of both leaders and followers
  • Meaning through communication
  • Transmit the vision to others through giving
    meaning to their works and their quest
  • Trust through positioning
  • Choosing the best course
  • At knowing what is right and neccessary
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