Role of management and leadership - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Role of management and leadership PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3e0097-YTUwN


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Role of management and leadership


role of management and leadership ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:468
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 84
Provided by: mppm15Com
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Role of management and leadership

Role of management and leadership
  • Writers who consider the functions performed by
  • Frederick Taylor
  • Henri Fayol
  • Peter Drucker
  • Henry Mintzberg

Federick Taylor
  • Early 20th century
  • Management of work task
  • Rationality ? scientific principles to work
    management ? Most efficient way of working
  • Scientific management ?
  • Efficiency
  • Standardization
  • Discipline

  • Principle of division between managerial and work
  • Principle of standardization and specialization
  • Principle of division of labor and efficiency
  • These principles still remain significant

  • Taylors work ? preceded the adoption of mass
    production techniques
  • Little systematic research
  • Workers believed that increasing in productivity
    ? job losses ? took advantage of poor management
    controls to slow down productivity

  • Many modern orgs (with similar outputs with
    continuous process) still adopt Taylor-like
    principles to increase productivity
  • Taylors work is now taken for granted and
    rejected by a more human or social

Henri Fayol
  • Did not invent the concept of management
  • BUT
  • He distinguish management from other
    organizational activity
  • He outlined the prime functions of a manager
  • Normative and prescriptive model
  • Indicates how managers should conduct their
    activity (in order to achieve efficiency
  • Functions of management

Functions of management
  • Plan and forecast ? prepare a series of actions
    to enable the organization to meet its objectives
    in the future
  • Organize ? to fulfill the administrative
    principles embraced by Fayol
  • Coordinate ? to ensure that resources, actions
    and outputs are coordinated to achieve desire
  • Command ? to give direction to employees
  • Control ? to ensure that activities are in
    accordance with the plan/ that orders are
    followed/ that principles of management applied

Fayols 14 principles of management
  • Challenged by modern development of organizations
  • Unity of command vs matrix organization
  • Fayols principles vs Teamworking, flatter
    hierarchies, professional control, flexible

Peter Drucker
  • Describe and comment upon what manager do
  • Prescriptive analysis of the management role
  • Three broad tasks of managers
  • Satisfying the goals or mission f the
  • Enabling the worker to achieve and focus on
  • Managing social responsibilities
  • Managers are required to 1) set objectives 2)
    organize 3) motivate and communicate 4) measure
    and develop people

Drucker vs previous works
  • More concern about human and interpersonal issues
  • Recognize importance of communications and social

Henry Mintzberg
  • Detailed observations of what managers actually
    did (not prescriptive myths of modern
  • In reality ? managers did not spend most of their
    time planning, organizing, coordinating,
    commanding and controlling

10 roles that managers do
Mintzbergs sequence of activity in the pursuit
of objectives
  • Interpersonal ? managers internally build
    relationships with employees and network with
    other depts.
  • Information ? collect info and act as
    spokesperson for the group ? develop stable
    relationships ? quality information
  • Decisional ? decision making, setting objectives,
    resource allocation

  • Typical managers day
  • Frequent interruptions for brief conversation by
    phone, in person, email ? to keep managers
  • Rosabeth Moss, Tom Peter, Henry Mintzberg
  • Focus on strategic perspective on management
  • Importance of mission and vision
  • Customer oriented values
  • Paint a picture of the conditions necessary for
    organizational success

Leadership and management
  • Manager ? performs functions in orgs and hold a
    particular, formal, title and/or fulfill a role
  • Marketing manager ? marketing of a product
  • Personnel manager ? recruitment and selection of
  • Have a title, a role, a series of functions to
    perform, management of subordinates, management
    of financial resource
  • Planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding,
    controlling the activities of staff

  • Leaders ? aim to influence and guide others into
    pursuing particular objectives or visions of the
    future and to stimulate them into wanting to
  • Demonstrates the power of one individual over
  • Leadership is not necessarily related to
    hierarchical position (authority) as managers
    tend to be ? informal leaders
  • Leadership dynamic activity concerning more
    with changing attitudes, inspiration, emotional
    input than management

  • Managers may show leadership qualities on
    particular occasions
  • Mintzberg includes the leader role as one of his
    ten roles of management
  • Handy (1993), Watson (1983), Kotter (1990) ?
    leadership is merely part of the broader role of

  • General definition (Lundstedt 1965)
  • ? leadership involves influencing the behavior
    of others in any group or organization, setting
    goals, formulating paths to those goals, and
    creating social norms in the group

  • Definition of leadership ? two common elements
  • Group phenomenon ? 2 or more people must be
  • Influence process

  • Influence
  • ? flow from leaders to followers
  • ? Followers grant the leadership role
    to leader
  • ? leaders rallying people together and
    motivating them to achieve some common goals

  • Leader as Symbol ? move the group toward set
    goals in a definite manner
  • The Uniqueness of leadership roles
  • The achievement of Leadership Positions
  • Influence, Power, Authority in leadership

Influence Tactics (Yukl 1994)
  • Rational Persuasion
  • Inspirational Appeals
  • Consultation
  • Ingratiation
  • Personal Appeals
  • Exchange
  • Coalition Tactics
  • Legitimating Tactics
  • Pressure

  • Authority ? rational basis of power
  • Rational side of org ? what an org should do
    according to the official, formal dictates of org
  • Political side of organization ? what
    organizations actually do

  • the rationally based formal right to make
    decisions and influence behavior to implement
    decisions based on formal organizational
  • 2 subrights The right to decide
  • The right to issue appropriate implementing
    instructions or directions
  • Rights are determined by obligation
  • Obligation (responsibility) determine the nature
    of the right (authority) ? balanced

  • Authority a right determined by an obligation
  • Authority is solely associated with formal org,
    with formal sanction or approval from society

Forms of authority
  • Managerial authority
  • Staff authority
  • Situational authority
  • Operative authority

Managerial Authority
  • Managers are responsible for acquiring,
    deploying, controlling resources needed to
    accomplish objectives
  • Rights to choose among alternatives
  • The right to enforce those choices based on
    official position
  • Principle of parity of authority and
    responsibility ? Balance between responsibility

Staff Authority
  • Suggestions recommendations about the solutions
    to problems, procedure, or improvements
  • Right to recommend
  • Right to suggest
  • Right to advise
  • Right to attempt to exert influence to gain
    acceptance for ideas
  • Ex. TQM, suggestion boxes, employee empowerment,
    decentralizing org.

Situational Authority
  • Hybrid authority
  • Contains both managerial and staff authority
  • Delegated by managers to a staff expert

Operative Authority
  • All members have this authority
  • ? make certain decisions about how, in what
    order, which tools they carry out their tasks
  • ? right to work without undue supervision

  • the ability to impose ones will on others
  • the ability of one person to affect the
    behavior of someone else in a desired way
  • Based on factors such as knowledge, authority,
    information, personality, resource control

  • Authority ? simple power associated with formal
  • Power ? influence that does not necessarily
    depend on formal organizational recognition
  • Example

Two Perspectives on Power
  • The French and Raven Power Typology ? individual
    bases of power
  • Dependency, Critical Contingencies, and Power ?
    how individuals, groups, or departments gain
    power through dependency relationships

French Raven Power Typology
  • Sources potency of power in org
  • Rational/legal power
  • Reward Power
  • Coercive power
  • Referent power
  • Charismatic power
  • Expert power

Dependency, Critical Contingencies, and Power
  • Power through control of resources
  • Power through solving critical or strategic
  • Level of substitutability
  • Power and location in the org
  • Power and position in the org

How to assess power ?
  • Determine by sources or origin of power ?
    judgment about how much of particular power a
    person/department possesses
  • Determine by consequences of decisions made by
    various actors
  • Determine by power symbols ? larger office,
    luxurious furniture, more expensive company cars
  • Representational indicators of power ?
    memberships on influential boards or committees

Three levels of leadership
  • Executive
  • Managerial
  • Supervisory
  • Informal leadership
  • Three major theories
  • Leadership organization theory

  • Executives
  • ? establish bureaus structure (including
    positions filled by managers and supervisors
  • ? maintain general view of the bureau and its
    place within political envi
  • ? Interpret political statements of intentions
    (unclear contradictory) into rational goals
  • ? Create environment that encourage goal
  • ? close attention to org environment (take
    advantage of opportunity protect org from

  • manager
  • ? depend on rules regulations that define their
    power over others
  • ? interpret org goals (set by executives) in
    concrete manner (into structure, procedure, tasks
  • ? often pulled by superiors subordinates
  • ? focus on how org can be best organized to
    achieve the overall goals established by

  • Supervisor
  • ? focus on motivation, productivity,
    interpersonal relations
  • ? work directly with production process
  • ? protect subordinates from political pressure

  • Informal leadership
  • ? have no official leadership positions
  • ? need to understand informal leadership
    phenomenon along with formal one

Executive leadership
  • Most important ? influence ? skillful playing of
    political game ? power
  • Administrative conservators
  • Preserve institution
  • Improve institution
  • what is political climate?
  • what is the resource base?
  • what is the potential for mobilizing support for
    the program?

The Managers
  • in the middle
  • Traits (Stogdill 1981)
  • Capacity? intelligence, alertness, verbal
    facility, originality, judgment
  • Achievement ? scholarship, knowledge
  • Responsibility ?dependability, initiative,
    persistence, aggressiveness, self-confidence
  • Participation ? activity, sociability,
    cooperation, adaptability, humor
  • Status ? Socioeconomic position, popularity
  • Situation ? mental level, status, skills, needs
    and interests of followers, objectives to be

The Supervisors
  • getting the work done
  • Three major focuses
  • Production
  • Maintenance of individual morale
  • Maintenance of group cohesiveness

  • Supervisory behavior (Bass 1990)
  • Consideration ? extent to which a leader shows
    concern for the welfare of the other members of
    the group, appreciation of good work, stress
    importance of job satisfaction
  • Initiation of structure ? extent to which a
    leader initiates activities in the group,
    organizes it, defines the way work is to be

Leadership School of thought
  • Three broad schools
  • Trait Theories
  • 20th century ? focus on personal characteristics
    of leaders
  • Partial explanation/superficial perspective on
    leadership issues
  • Behavioral theories
  • Focus on behaviors of leaders including styles of
  • Non-context specific
  • Situational theories
  • Focus on the leader in the context or situation
    in which he/she leads
  • Add richness to the study of leadership

Trait Theories
  • Individuals ability to lead
  • social background, intelligence, other
    personality features
  • Bennis and Nanus (1985) ? relationship bt
    leadership effectiveness and the traits (logical
    thinking, persistence, empowerment, self-control)

  • Logical thinking
  • Ability to translate ideas into simple forms
  • Persuasive abilities
  • Explaining phenomena in unique ways
  • Persistence traits
  • Considering setbacks as minor mistakes
  • Working long hours
  • Attempting to succeed against the odds

  • Empowerment traits
  • Enthusing people about their goals
  • Being enthusiastic and energetic oneself
  • Increasing confidence in employees own abilities
  • Self-control traits
  • Working under pressure
  • Remaining calm and even-tempered
  • Resisting intimidation

  • Other research ? meta-analytical work ? bring
    findings from separate research projects together
    (ex Kirkpatrick Locke 1991) ? list of
    leadership qualities ? disagreement, less
    insights, try to relate two or more unrelated

Behavioral Theories
  • Examines leadership behavior (that have
    influences the performance and motivation of
  • Focus on leadership style

  • Ohio State University research (1940s and 1950s)
  • Two fundamental types of leader behaviors
  • Initiating structure
  • Consideration
  • Initiating structure ? behavior which focuses on
    the achievement of objectives and includes clear
    supervision and role clarification, planning
    work, and a results orientation
  • Consideration ? behaviors which encourage
    collaboration and focus on supportive networks,
    group welfare and the maintenance of job

  • University of Michigan
  • Leaders exhibited
  • Employee centered (people orientation)
  • Production centered (task orientation)
  • One best style of leadership
  • Leader who exhibits high initiating structure and
    high consideration behaviors (strong orientation
    of both task and people)

  • Leadership style
  • the behavior of leaders towards subordinates,
    the manner in which tasks and functions of
    leadership are conducted
  • Tannenbaum Schmidt (1973)
  • Continuum in leadership styles
  • boss-centered approach --- subordinate-centered

Simple style continuum
Leaders style can be mapped along a continuum
between the authoritarian and democratic ends
Criticism Only one dimension
  • Join ? leader define problem, but leave it open
    for alternative problem definitions to arise ?
    and for the scope of the endeavor to expand ?
    become member of the problem-solving group and
    hands over decision making power to the group
  • Consults ? leader identifies the problem and
    makes decision (only after listening and possibly
    adopting solutions suggested
  • Sells ? manager decides on the solution to the
    problem ? persuades staff that his/her decision
    is more valid
  • Tells ? leader identifies problem, decides on
    solution, expect staffs to implement such
    decisions without questioning

  • Leaders decisions will always be influenced by
    the situation they find themselves
  • Contextual factors
  • Group effectiveness
  • Nature of task environment
  • Pressures of time
  • Forces in subordinate ? Subordinates level of
    experience and the style to which they are
  • Forces in the leader ? knowledge and preferred

Combine to determine the most appropriate
leadership style
Choosing an appropriate style
  • Leader consider
  • their own value system and leadership inclination
  • Level of confidence they have in their
  • Subordinates ability to cope with uncertainties
    of the situation
  • Evaluate the nature and experience of their
  • Subordinates readiness to assume responsibility
  • Subordinates knowledge and interest

  • John Adair
  • Action-centered leadership ? 3 areas of need
    which leader must satisfy
  • Task needs
  • Individual needs
  • Team maintenance needs

  • Conclude 4 broad leadership style
  • Task/structure orientation
  • People/interpersonal orientation
  • Directive/autocratic leadership
  • Participative/democratic leadership

McGregors Theory X and Theory Y
  • McGregors Theory X and Theory Y
  • Leader and managers could be differentiated from
    one another according to their attitudes and
    assumptions about human nature
  • Theory X leader ? believe people are lazy, dont
    want responsibility, no ambition ? they need to
    be controlled, directed, coerced and punished
    (Maslows hierarchy of need 1 and 2)
  • Theory Y leader ? believe people align themselves
    with org goals ? need little control or
    direction, seek reward consistent with their
    performance, have initiative and creative skills
    ? motivated by affiliation, esteem, and self
    actualization (Maslows 3,4,5)

  • Blake Mouton (1964) ? managers style can be
    mapped along
  • Degree of People orientation
  • Degree of Production orientation
  • High people High Production ? desirable

  • Trait ? what a leader is
  • Behavioral ? what a leader does
  • Criticism ?
  • high task (structure) high people
  • high performance
  • reality is more complicated leadership might
    be both cause and effect
  • ignore the context or situation in which
    leaders and followers find themselves

Situational Theories
Trait (T)

more complex and more promising explanation of
Behavioral (B)

Context (C) Contingent factor
Fiedlers Contingency Theory
  • leadership behavior interacts with the
    favorableness of a situation to determine
  • Some situations are more favorable than others ?
    require different behaviors
  • Require the assessment of
  • Leaders style
  • Three broad characteristics of the context
  • Leader-group member relations ? nature of work
    atmosphere ? loyalty, trust, etc
  • Task structure ? clarity of groups work,
    understanding of groups goals
  • Position power ? a leaders legitimate power to
    tell others what to do

  • Leadership style
  • Relationship-centered leader is motivated to
    maintain good interpersonal relations
  • Task-centered leader is motivated to get on with
    the job
  • Leaders indicate their orientation toward their
  • least-preferred co-worker (LPC)
  • Accepting LPC relationship-orientated
  • Look at LPC as few qualities task-orientated

Leaders personality trait or Leaders
motivational pattern
  • Task orientation ? suits highly favorable or
    highly unfavorable situations
  • Highly unfavorable situation ? ex. Military
    dangerous task to perform (face with enemy in
    unfamiliar territory unstructured task with
    strong position power ? adopt task orientated
    approach (giving clear orders and demand
  • Highly favorable situation ? ex. Managers enjoy
    good relations with workers ? clearly structured
    task (not much debate or no decision-making
    ability is required) ? adopt task oriented
    approach to ensure high productivity

  • Relationship orientation
  • Best suit to average situational favorability
  • Org should not focus on attempt to change
    leaders personality ? BUT should select leaders
    to match the situations favorability

Houses path-goal theory
  • It is a leaders function to clarify pathways for
    subordinates to achieve their desired rewards ?
    their motivation increase
  • Leader provides rewards and clarifies pathway
  • Employee effort and performance
  • Performance and reward

Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
  • Effective leaders increase motivation and
    satisfaction among subordinates when they help
    them pursue important goals
  • Leaders help subordinates to see the goals
  • The paths to achieve those goals
  • How to follow those paths effectively
  • Show the values of outcomes
  • Using appropriate coaching and directing
  • Removing barriers and frustrations to those paths

  • Directive behaviors planning, setting
    expectations and clarifying instructions
  • Supportive behaviors offering friendly
  • Participative behaviors involving subordinates
    in decision making
  • Achievement-orientated behaviors setting
    objectives and expecting them to be achieved

  • Directive leadership
  • ? good for ambiguous task
  • ? bad when task is well structured and clear
  • Supportive leadership
  • ? good when tasks are frustrating and stressful
  • ? bad when groups or other parts of org already
    provide plenty of encouragement
  • Achievement-oriented leadership
  • ? good for tasks toward ambitious goals
  • Participative leadership
  • ? good for ambiguous task that subordinates
    feel their self-esteem is at stake
  • ? participation allows them to influence
    decisions and work out solutions

Vroom and Yetton Contingency Model
  • Develop a decision-making leadership contingency
  • Three leadership styles
  • Autocratic
  • ? decision or problem solving, using information
    available to leader at the time
  • ? leader collects information and then makes
    decision/solves the problem
  • Consultative
  • ? leader shares the problem with subordinates
    individually or as a group and then leader makes
  • Group
  • ? leader shares the problem with the group and
    together they find solution or consensus

Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
  • Dyadic relationships
  • between a leader and individual subordinates
  • On development of low-exchange and hi-exchange
  • Low-exchange relationships
  • ? little mutual influence between the leader and
  • ? subordinate follows formal role requirements
  • ? receive standard benefit (salary)
  • High exchange relationships
  • ? leader establishes with a set of trusted
  • ? mutual influence relations
  • ? subordinates receive benefits in the form of
    more interesting assignments and participation in
    important decisions
  • ? leaders expectation of hard work, loyalty,
    more responsibility

Transformational Leadership
  • Transactional Leadership
  • Motivate followers by recognizing their needs and
    providing rewards to fulfill those needs in
    exchange for their performance
  • Transformational Leadership
  • Raise followers goals to higher level goals ?
    self actualization (Maslow)
  • Motivate followers to transcend their own narrow
    self-interest for the benefit of the community or
    the nation (MLK Jr.)

Transformational behaviors
  • Idealized influence
  • Arouses followers emotional attachment to the
    leader and identification with him/her
  • Intellectual stimulation
  • Engages followers in recognizing and confronting
  • Individualized consideration
  • Provides support, encouragement and coaching
  • Inspirational motivation
  • Communicates an appealing vision by using symbols
    or modeling appropriate behaviors

Transactional Behaviors
  • Contingent reward
  • Clarifying the work required for rewards
  • Ensuring that rewards are contingent on
    appropriate behaviors
  • Passive management by exception
  • Punishments in response to obvious deviations
    from acceptable standards
  • Active management by exception
  • Looking for mistakes and enforcing rules to avoid

Leading Managing(Bennis and Nanus)
  • Managing
  • Taking charge, accomplishing goals with
  • doing things right
  • Leading
  • Guiding directions, actions, opinions
  • doing the right thing

Excellent leader
  • Attention through vision
  • Create visions of successful futures
  • Bring out the best of both leaders and followers
  • Meaning through communication
  • Transmit the vision to others through giving
    meaning to their works and their quest
  • Trust through positioning
  • Choosing the best course
  • At knowing what is right and neccessary