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Understanding How College Students Learn


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Title: Understanding How College Students Learn

Understanding How College Students Learn
  • A guide to teaching todays college students

  • Teaching in the absence of learning is just
  • Thomas Angelo

What Optimizes Students Learning?
  • The answer-Learner Centered Teaching
  • Being a learner-centered teacher means focusing
    attention squarely on the learning process
  • What the student is learning
  • How the student is learning
  • The conditions under which the student is
  • Whether the student is retaining and applying the
  • How current learning positions the student for
    future learning.
  • ( Maryellen Weimer, 2002)

What Optimizes Students Learning?
  • Firsthand experiences
  • Multisensory experiences
  • When the learning is important to the learner
  • When the learning is relevant to the learner

What Optimizes Students Learning?
  • When the learning is challenging to the learner
  • When the learning is authentic
  • When the learning is engaging
  • When the learner has some choice and say in the

Part One What is Learning
  • Definition of Learning
  • Learning is a change in the neuro-patterns of the
  • (Ratey, 2002)

www.bris.ac.uk/.../2002/ images/er1.jpg
A Teachers Definition of Learning
  • Robert Bjork, UCLA, Memory and Metamemory
  • The ability to use information after significant
    periods of disuse
  • And the ability to use the information to solve
    problems that arise in a context different ( if
    only slightly) from the context in which the
    information was originally used

The Purpose of Learning
  • The simple purpose to learn anything is to be
    able to use it in the future (David Sousa)

https/.../uploads/ Museum20Concepts202.jpg
The Brain and Learning
  • The key message about the brain is this The
    neurons that fire together wire together (Hebb,
    1949, Ratey 2002)

The Brain and Learning
  • Meaning that the more we repeat the same actions
    and thoughtsthe more we encourage the formation
    of certain connections and the more fixed the
    neural circuits in the brain for that activity
    become. (Ratey, 2002 pg 31)

graphics.fansonly.com/.../ gregg03action.jpg
The Brain and Learning
  • Use it or lose it Is the corollary if you
    dont exercise brain circuits, the connections
    will not be adaptive and will slowly weaken and
    could be lost. (Ratey 2002, pg.31)

www.pge.com/.../PGE_dgz/ images/body/1-4bi.jpg
The Brain and Learning
  • The brain is an analog processor, meaning,
    essentially, that it works by analogy and
  • It relates whole concepts to one another and
    looks for similarities, differences, or
    relationships between them. (Ratey, 2002, pg.5)

The Brain and Learning
  • The brain is nothing like a computer
  • Instead, the brain is largely composed of maps,
    arrays of neurons that apparently represent
    entire objects of perception or cognition, or at
    least sensory or cognitive qualities of those
    objects such as color, texture, credibility, or
    speed.( Ratey, 2002, pg. 5)

Part Two Students Attitudes towards Learning
How do Students See Formal School Learning?
  • 13-15 years of experiences about school has
    taught them
  • 1. Teachers makes most/all of the
    learning/teaching decisions
  • 2. The teacher is the authority
  • 3. The teacher tells the students what to do
  • 4. The teacher has the right answers

How do Students See Formal School Learning?
  • Students learn what they are told to learn
  • Students are given few choices in what to learn
  • Students are given few choices in how to learn
  • Grades are very very important
  • Grades are more important than learning

How do Students See Formal School Learning ?
  • Students Self-theories about Learning
  • Entity Theorist
  • Incremental Theorist

Entity Theorist
  • Entity Theory (C.Dweck, 2000)
  • Students view intelligence and ability as
    fundamentally fixed and unchangeable
  • This is the predominant perspective found among
    high school students by (Steinberg 1996) and in
    college students by (Covington 1992)

Entity Theorist
  • 85 of all high school students hold this belief
    about some aspects of their learningmostly in
    academic areas not so in co-curricular
    activities (Steinberg 1996)
  • For Entity theorist failure becomes direct
    evidence of their incompetence and the rationale
    for withdrawing from future challenge
  • Entity students believe people either get it or
    they dont

Incremental Theory
  • Incremental Theory ( C. Dweck, 2000)
  • Students view intelligence and ability as
    changeable and contingentmalleable like clay
  • Look at failure as feedback to help in making

Incremental Theory
  • Covington suggest that their self theory is
    probably the central issue in determining a
    students goal choice and their attitude toward
  • An orientation that sees failure as the enemy to
    be avoided produces a response of helplessness in
    potential learning situations and thus repeatedly
    and systematically inhibits learning

How do Students See Formal School Learning?
  • Any change in what students experiences have
    taught them school is supposed to be are met with
    skepticism, discomfort and even hostility
  • They see the teacher as You are not doing your

Part ThreeStudents Readiness for Learning
  • Our obligation is to teach those who arrive in
    our classroom not those who we wish had taken
    our class
  • The ACT composite score of Ferris students ranges
    from 17 to 36this is a 70 percentile range

Readiness to Learn
  • Working memory doesnt maturewhen something is
    brand new it is like being in kindergarten again

Cognitive Readiness of Learners
  • 18-25 vs. 26-65
  • Dualism
  • Use of discrete, concrete and absolute categories
    to understand people, knowledge and values.
  • See instructor as the authority that should "tell
    me what I need to know"
  • Low tolerance for ambiguity.

Cognitive Readiness of Learners
  • 18-25 year olds
  • Multiplicity
  • Acknowledge that there are multiple perspectives
    to a given problem or topic.
  • There can be more than one right answer

Cognitive Readiness of Learners
  • Relativism
  • Recognizes that knowledge is contextual and
  • Can evaluate their own ideas and others
  • Authorities no longer defied but valued for their

Cognitive Readiness of Learners
  • Commitment in Relativism
  • Realize the need to endorse their own choices
    from the multitude of truths that exist in a
    relative world
  • Recognize of diverse personal themes in ones
    life much of this may occur after college.

Other Factors that Influence Cognitive Readiness
  • Depth and Breadth of Experience
  • Self theoriesEntity or Incremental
  • Learning and Study Strategies

Social and Emotional Readiness
  • The following slides are based on the work of
    Elkhonon Goldberg from his book The Executive
    Brain-- Frontal Lobes and the Civilized Mind 2001

www.neuroskills.com/ images/frontal.jpg
Social and Emotional Readiness
  • Importance of the learning
  • Motivation for the learning
  • Willingness to contribute to the learning
  • Discipline needed for the learning
  • Ability to see relevance in the learning
  • Ability to manage time
  • Respect for self and others
  • Ability to deal with challenge and failure

Understand When and in What Ways Students become
Adult Learners
  • The prefrontal cortex of the brain plays the
    central role in forming goals and objectives and
    then in devising plans of action required to
    attain these goals.

Understand When and in What Ways Students become
Adult Learners
  • It selects the cognitive skills required to
    implement the plans, coordinates these skills,
    and applies them in a correct order.

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Understand When and in What Ways Students become
Adult Learners
  • Finally, the prefrontal cortex is responsible for
    evaluating our actions as success or failure
    relative to our intentions

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Understand When and in What Ways Students become
Adult Learners
  • The prefrontal cortex may not become completely
    developed until a person is 25 (Robert Sylwester,
  • Until then emotional decision making is often

Understand When and in What Ways Students become
Adult Learners
  • Human cognition is forward-looking, proactive
    rather than reactive. It is driven by goals,
    plans, aspirations ambitions and dreams, all of
    which pertain to the future not the past.
  • These cognitive powers depend on the frontal
    lobes and evolve with them

Understand When and in What Ways Students become
Adult Learners
  • Most students have learned vertical decision
    making as a result of attending 12 years of
    public education
  • Vertical meaning dealing with finding the truth
    or right answer

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Understand When and in What Ways Students become
Adult Learners
  • However, most of lifes decisions are adaptive
  • Dealing with ambiguity
  • Choosing from all of the options which are good
    or best for me

Understand When and in What Ways Students become
Adult Learners
  • Students most often have learned to resolve
    ambiguous situations by making decisions by trail
    and error

Part FourRecognition of Patterns
  • James Ratey in his book The Users Guide to the
    Brain offers this simple description of the human
    brain the brain is a pattern seeking device

Patterns are a Key
  • The way in which a student organizes new
    information - the degree to which she can create
    meaningful and familiar patterns is a key to
    retaining the information.
  • The information must be integrated into our
    permanent conceptual scheme

  • Try to remember the following
  • 15084972637

  • Now try again
  • 1- (508) 497-2637

  • Try to remember these letters

  • Now try again

Recognition of Patterns
  • Helping students to see or discover the patterns
    that exist in the information that we teach is a
    vital part of helping them to become successful
  • As students discover the patterns within
    information it moves their learning from
    memorizing isolated bits of data or information
    to meaningful understandings of how ideas and
    concepts are formed or fit together.

Background Information
  • New learning needs to be connected to old
  • The amount of old learning (background)
    information often determines the ease or
    difficulty of a new learning situation

Background Information
  • The teaching tools that help teachers to connect
    to their students backgrounds are
  • Analogy
  • Metaphor
  • Example
  • Especially when the students background is not
    specific to the new learning

Background Information
  • Its like this
  • Or
  • You know how a works its like that
  • Or
  • A good analogy would be

Adult LearnersAre they more ready for Learning?
  • Keys
  • 1. They may be less dualistic
  • 2. They may have a deeper background
  • 3. They may be more disciplined
  • 4. They may be more mature emotionally
  • 5. They may be more focused in their goals

Adult Learners
  • 6. They do expect to be more involved in their
  • 7. They may need more flexibility in due dates
    and timelines
  • 8. They be more attached to their beliefs even
    those that are in error
  • 9.Their backgrounds may be a mile long but an
    inch deep

Part FiveThe WHYs of Teaching
  • Students will decide for the themselves what is
    important for them to learn (James Zull, The Art
    of Changing the Brain)
  • This decision is deeply affected by the
    teachers ability to explain WHY what is being
    taught is important.

The WHYs of Teaching
  • 1. How does this current learning fit into future
  • 2. How does this current leaning fit into my
    career goals?
  • 3. Where ( in what other classes ) will I use
    these skills or information?
  • What makes this learning important?

The WHYs of Teaching
  • 5. Why do I need to learn this in this particular
  • 6. Why do we have to learn in groups?
  • 7. Why do I have to speak in public?
  • 8. Why dont you lecture?
  • 9. Why do you make us do all the work?
  • 10. Why do you give cumulative exams?

The WHYs of Teaching
  • 11. Why do I have to teach other students?
  • 12.Why do we have to write summaries?

Part SixWhat will help Students to Remember
Using Teaching to Improve Long Term Memory
  • The job of a college instructor must be more
    than just exercising the short term memory of
    his/her students.

Teaching for Long Term Memory Formation
  • College teaching and
  • students learning must
  • be about long-term
  • memory formation

www.nald.ca/fulltext/ adlitUS/graphics/fig1.GIF
How information or a skill is learned has a
great affect on if it gets retained
  • Students need adequate time to learn new
  • information or skills - this includes time for
  • reflection on how to best organize it and to
  • complete an analysis of what is important to
  • remember (Marilee Sprenger, Learning and Memory,

Learning takes Time
  • When students do not have enough time to
  • learn new materialthey are very likely to
  • try and just memorize it ( Rote Memory)
  • Faculty wants students to become thinkers, but
    thinking takes time and practice.

Connections to Prior Knowledge
  • How the information gets connected to prior
  • knowledge - the linkages can create many
  • ways for the information to be recalled
  • or
  • Can severely limit the cues that will work for
  • recall.

We Remember what is Important and Relevant
  • The relevance and
  • importance of the
  • information affects what
  • gets retained. (James Zull, pg.
  • 82)
  • Humans remember things
  • more readily when
  • they have the emotional
  • connection.

Elaboration of Information
  • When the information or
  • skills are elaborated -
  • that is, when the student
  • looks to find as many
  • areas of connection to
  • prior knowledge as
  • possible, retention is
  • enhanced.

www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/ exhibitions/brain/im...
Translate in to Own Words
  • When students put the
  • information into their
  • own words it enlarges
  • the potential of detecting
  • connections to already
  • held patterns - summary
  • writing is a good example
  • of this.

www.nsrc.org/helpdesk/ AFNOG/summary/img011.GIF
Key Assessment Activities or Assignments would
  • Ask students questions
  • that require them to put
  • the information into their
  • own words
  • If they cannot
  • translate it into their own
  • language they do not
  • understand it and will not
  • be able to apply it or have
  • useful recall of it

www.chass.ncsu.edu/ ccstm/scmh/essay.GIF
Teaching Students to Remember
  • The one who does the talking, does the
    learning. -Thomas Angelo
  • Students should teach each other
  • Students should present their work in public
  • Students should share their understanding orally
    in public (classroom discussion)

Teaching Students to Remember
  • Students should do as
  • much firsthand and
  • multi-sensory learning as
  • possible. (Conway, MA ,Changes in Memory
    Awareness in Learning)
  • Labs
  • Internships
  • Field trips
  • Service learning
  • Community service

www.sensesmart.com/.../ multisensory.gif
  • Examples
  • Presenting case study findings
  • Explaining the process (es) used in problem
    solving especially ill-structured problems
  • Students prepare the test questions
  • Presenting to authentic audiences

Recognize the Primacy and Recency Effect
  • The information that is presented in the first 20
  • minutes will receive the students greatest
  • attention and offer the best chance to be
  • recalled.
  • The information presented in the last
  • 10 minutes has the next best chance of being
  • recalled (David Sousa, pg. 91)

  • Recognize the affect teaching methods
  • have on potential for retention.
  • Retention after 24 hours
  • Lecture 5
  • Reading 10
  • Audiovisual 20
  • Demonstration 30
  • Discussion Group 50
  • Practice by Doing 75
  • Teach Others 90

(NTL Institute)
Practice, Practice , Practice
  • Perfect practice makes
  • perfect- the more
  • students are asked to
  • demonstrate what they
  • have learned, the more
  • permanent their long
  • term memories become.

/url?qhttp// www.mind-control-method.com/rep.gif

Part SevenWhat will Aid Students Learning
  • 1. A sense of community

Learning is a Social/Emotional Experience
Learning is a Social/Emotional Experience
  • Instructors teach the whole person not just the
    cognitive mind.

www.ambercoaching.com/ images/pic02.jpg
Learning is a Social/Emotional Experience
  • Most learning outside of formal schooling happens
    in a community contextwith friends, family,
    church, teams, clubs, organizations etc. (John
    Brandsford, 2000, How People Learn).

www.scoutinghaarlem.nl/ photobook/rsw2004deeln...
www.scoutinghaarlem.nl/ photobook/rsw2004deeln
Learning Environment
  • Issues of Fear
  • 1. Amygdala
  • 2. Fear/Anxiety

ahsmail.uwaterloo.ca/kin356/ ltm/hippocampus
Recognize the Impact Fear has in Learning and
Address It
  • When students amygdales are active it means the
    cognitive parts of the brain needed for learning
    will be less active (.Robert Sylwester,
    Celebration of Neurons)

Recognize the Impact Fear has in Learning and
Address It
  • In addition, since a person can only pay
    attention to one thing at a time the amygdala
    will make certain they pay attention to the fear
    or anxiety etc. and not the teacher.

www.rosescafe.net/ cards/afraid.jpg
Learning Environment
  • Teach to the pleasure
  • centers of the brain
  • Engage the Front of
  • the Brain
  • Movement Equals
  • Pleasure (James Zull)

www.math.tu-dresden.de/ belov/brain/limbic2.gif
How to Reach the Students
  • Attention
  • Attention is a cognitive process that allow a
    student to control irrelevant stimuli, notice
    important stimuli and to shift from one stimulus
    to another (Anderson, 2001)

Attention is Necessary for Learning
  • Novelty is a big part of getting students to
    attend (Ratey, 2001)

Attention is Necessary for Learning
  • Choice is a key to keeping students attention
    (Glasser Choice Theory)
  • Humans seek to be in control, they need freedom
    and power. (James Zull)
  • Giving students choices and input to control
    their learning makes them feel empowered and it
    builds trust and increases engagement.

Emotion and Memory
  • Emotional arousal organizes and coordinates brain
    activity (Bloom, Beal Kupfer 2003)
  • When the amygdala detects emotions, it
    essentially boosts activity in the areas of the
    brain that form memories (S. Hamann Emony, UN.)

Emotional Hooks
  • Emotions are contagious so teachers need to be
    excited about what they teach
  • (Lewis, Amini Lannon 2000)
  • Examples
  • Dress the Part Costumes of characters get
    students attentions

www.missem.com/historical/ images/day-group.jpg
Emotional Hooks
  • Music has emotional anchors. Use it to aid
    memory formation
  • Stories are powerful the brain loves stories
    use them to illustrate learning
  • Make students take a side or a position on issues
    these arouse emotions

Advanced Organizers
  • Advanced organizers are powerful instruments for
    focusing students attention
  • Examples
  • Agree-Disagree Chart
  • Helps emotions and helps illustrate concepts

Advanced Organizers
  • Similarities and Differences

Advanced Organizers
  • Mind Maps show relationships in various ways and

www.hedley.org.uk/.../ mindmapsindex.jpeg
Learning Styles
  • Students need to know their preferred learning
    style as a way to enhance how they put
    information into long-term memory

www.learning-styles-online.com/ images/memleti...
Brainstorming Activity
  • Students perform better when they are provided
    with criteria, models and examples that clearly
    illustrate the teachers expectations (Schmoker,
  • Example
  • Brainstorming lets students tell what they
    already know this provides the hooks to hang
    the new information on.

Advanced Preparation
  • Students need to know that doing the advanced
    preparations teachers ask (homework, reading or
    review of notes) activates the prefrontal cortex
    of the brain
  • This is the area that performs higher level
    functions it ensures better performance in
    learning new material.

  • The amount of time students can stay focused is
    their age in minutes (Defina, 2003)
  • 18 years old 18 minutes
  • Perry (2000) strongly suggests that (lectures)
    presentations must weave between neural systems.
    The neurons in any one system fatigue in 4 8
    minutes, so use the emotional, social and
    cognitive system

Wait Time for Answers
  • The average wait time for teachers after asking a
    question is 0.9 seconds just extending wait
    time to 3.0 seconds will significantly improve
    response, interaction, students asking their own
    questions and students understanding

Keep Students Talking
  • Two Easy Questions
  • What else? There are other acceptable answers
  • Tell me more? More in depth

Pause Time and Reflection
  • Short pauses 3 10 seconds send the message
    Think about it some more
  • Reflection leads to new understanding
  • Reflection happens in the frontal lobes this is
    the executive part of the brain

Have students reflect on what has been taught
  • Students gradually learn how they best learn and
    remember. This is greatly enhanced by reflection.

ccdf.ca/NewCoach/english/ newimages/Module20D...
Visualize the Information as Reflection
  • Using your visual/spatial intelligence allows for
    multiple coding (more than one sense) of new
  • I look at the map in my memory and see the

www.umr.edu/explore/ physio/maps/memory.gif
Journaling helps Reflection
  • Writing about an experience provides a feeling of
  • Journal about
  • I learned
  • I want to learn more about
  • I liked
  • I did not understand

Collaborate when Reflecting
  • Learning with others for some is a great way to
    imbed information into long-term memory but
    they must want to help each other

www.wildcatnet.lester-ms.pac.dodea.edu/ SIP/im...
  • You dont know anything clearly unless you can
    state it in writing
  • (SI Hayakawa)

www.education.ky.gov/.../ foto23.jpg
  • Recoding is about having students put the
    information into their own words using their
    strongest sensory pathways
  • Recoding allows information to be organized
    around more familiar patterns our own language

www.bbc.co.uk/.../images/ robert_diary1_325.jpg
Organizing Information
  • We need to teach students how to organize
  • Categorize
  • Create images for the words or ideas
  • Classify
  • Comparing
  • Contrasting
  • Summarize

Organizing Information
  • 7. Venn Diagram
  • 8. Components
  • 9. Location
  • 10. Parts to whole
  • 11. By function
  • Cause and effect
  • Many researchers believe that we always store
    information in both language and images

Feedback to Students
  • Stronges 2002 conclusions about effective
  • Use pre-assessments to target skills that need
  • Use good monitoring strategies by directing
    questions to the lessons targets
  • Identify likely misconceptions and look for them
    in students work

Feedback to Students
  • Clear, specific and timely feedback
  • Feedback is supportive and encouraging
  • Re-teach to those that didnt achieve mastery

www.users.globalnet.co.uk/.../ feedback.gif
Part Seven Long Term Learning
  • To get information into long-term memory it must
    be rehearsed
  • Humans remember sometimes to a very specific cue
    this is called limited memory

listenmissy.com/photos/ rehearsal/meg_crop.jpg
Long Term Learning
  • To recall information without a cue at all, it
    must be stored in many areas of the brain for
    some this can take a very long time (Siegel,

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Rote Rehearsal
  • Rote rehearsal is effective when information will
    be used in the same format or design as the

moonjumpers.com/christopher/ thirty_four_month...
Elaborative Rehearsal
  • Elaborative rehearsal relies on creating meaning
    meaningful information is more memorable
    connects to what is already stored.

www.lyonhealy.com/hall/ Hall20pics/Hi20res2...
Long Term Learning
  • New skills need at least 24 practices to reach
    80 proficiency (Marsano, Pickering Pollack,
  • With each exposure to information, the time it
    takes to recognize the information lessens

Long Term Learning
  • Until memories are consolidated in the brain,
    they are retrieved via the pathway where they
    were stored only when consolidated can
    information be recalled without cues or triggers
  • Understanding DOES NOT memory formation

Long Term Learning
  • Studies show that students that engage in regular
    practice of their knowledge and skills, improve
    their performance on tests, 21 44, more than
    those who do not practice. (Ross, 1988, Bloom,
    1976, Komar, 1991)

www.caps.ku.edu/ graphics/testanxiety.jpg
  • Rehearsing the information and skills is most
    effective when done in intervals with quality
    sleep in between (Schirmer, Patel Hobson,
  • Most memory researchers agree memories are
    encoded during sleep Millroad Mitru, 2002)
  • However the sleep needs to be 7.5 8 hours for
    full benefit (Stickgold, 2000)

Long Term Learning
  • Cramming especially staying up late and getting
    less sleep does not lead to memory of the
    information except for a short period of time

www.normanrockwellvt.com/ Plates/Cramming.JPG
Value of Homework
  • Students that do homework that reinforces
    learning and applies to information learned, earn
    25 gains in test results if the homework is
    graded the increase reaches 30. (Marzano,
    Pickering Pollack, 2001), Brown Cocking, 1999)

www.hasslefreeclipart.com/.../ homework.gif
  • Often Students dont know what they dont know

www.niehs.nih.gov/ kids/images/homework.gif
  • 3 Sins of memory commonly occurring among
    students are
  • Blocking information stored but cant be
    accessed (Schacter, 2001)
  • Misattribution attributing a memory to the
    wrong situation or source (Zola, 2002)
  • Transience memory lost over time forgetting
    curve (Schacter, 2001)

  • The key to effective review is to begin as soon
    as information is received and to review it every
    1-2 days through out the whole course

physics.uoregon.edu/.../ Exams/exam1-dist.jpg
  • Giving frequent quizzes that cover all of the
    previous material is a way to force review
  • NOTE Students need to be taught how to take
    tests And a review of this process should be
    done each year.

Review and Memory
  • Each time a student accesses a memory, he/she is
    more likely to be able to access it again--LTP
  • Asking students to recall their conceptual
    understanding of an idea and apply it in a
    different context will reinforce their critical
    thinking skills

  • The brain draws on the connections it can make
    from current situations (the cues available)
  • Brains logically access memories that are useful,
    have been repeated and require the least effort!
    (Pinker, 1999)

Retrieving Memories
  • Wanting to remember something for later recall,
    aids its lasting ability (Squire Kandel, 1999)

www.nadir.org/.../agp/ gender/desire/desire.jpg
Retrieving Memories
  • The availability of the memory may depend on the
    strength of the cue(s) provided
  • We tend to store memories bye similarity, but
    retrieve by difference. (Sousa, 2001)

Retrieving Memories
  • It is fairly easy to give students False
  • Neurons organized in the brain around concepts
    will react when language or images similar to
    those concept are stimulated

Retrieving Memories
  • Multiple choice and true/false tests can easily
    lead to false memories
  • Test questions, answers and distractors can
    activate memory systems that confuse and cause

www.epa.gov/.../ images_sge/confused.jpg
Retrievals Effect on Memory
  • Memories are constructed each time you recall a
    memory it changes
  • The context of the recall
  • The reason for the recall, (to add new learning
    to a memory)
  • The time between recalls
  • all can AND do (slightly) change the memory

  • It is perhaps self-evident that the more
    effective teachers use more effective
    instructional strategies. It is probably also
    true that effective teachers have more
    instructional strategies at their disposal
  • Robert Marzano, What Works in Schools

  • A teachers knowledge level and skill level can
    drastically affect student achievement
    (Darling-Hammond, 1997)
  • Teacher expectations either enhance or worsen
    student achievement( Danielson, 2002)

  • 75 of a students performance is based on what
    occurs prior to review and assessment.
    Motivation, attention, recoding, reinforcement
    and rehearsal make up ¾ of a students grade.(
    Schenck 2000)

  • The End
  • A Special thanks to Jennifer Cox for her help in
    putting this PowerPoint show together

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    Alarik Arenander and Fred Travis
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