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Chapter 9 Human Resource Development

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Title: Chapter 9 Human Resource Development


1
Chapter 9Human Resource Development
BRATTON AND GOLD
2
Human Resource Development
Words of Wisdom
Skills matter. They help business to compete,
and they help individuals to raise their
employability and to provide a route to a better
life. The success of the country depends on its
skill base.
We must firmly convince our line managers of the
benefits of training. We must concentrate more on
evaluating our results and demonstrating the
benefits to the business.
The critical task for government policymakers
and leaders in organisations is to maximise the
learning ability of people by encouraging and
supporting individual and collective learning.
BRATTON AND GOLD
3
Human Resource Development
Chapter outline
  • Implementing human resource development p. 327
  • Workplace learning p. 339
  • Knowledge management p. 345
  • e-Learning p. 349
  • Introduction p. 307
  • Strategy and human resource development p. 308
  • Establishing human resource development p. 313

BRATTON AND GOLD
4
Human Resource Development
Human resource development (HRD) comprises the
procedures and processes that purposely seek to
provide learning activities to enhance the
skills, knowledge and capabilities of people,
teams and the organization so that there is a
change in action to achieve the desired outcomes.
BRATTON AND GOLD
5
Human Resource Development
Strategy and HRD
Integrating HRD into strategy requires the
development of the senior management team so that
the dilemma to be resolved between control
through planning and emergent learning becomes an
acceptable form of their thinking.
An orthodox view makes strategic HRD entirely
responsive to organizational strategy.
Alternative versions provide for a more
reciprocal and proactive influence on
organizational strategy.
BRATTON AND GOLD
6
Human Resource Development
Strategy and HRD
Even when strategy is given full consideration,
there are a number of possible paths that may be
taken.
Choosing a path other than skills and learning
lies at the core of a (UK) problem of low-priced
and low-quality production and a low demand for
skills.
BRATTON AND GOLD
7
Human Resource Development
Strategy and HRD
Diversity
The issue of diversity is prompting many
organizations to find a training response. This
needs to be
  • Long-term
  • Problem-oriented
  • In a supportive learning climate

BRATTON AND GOLD
8
Human Resource Development
Establishing HRD
A principle assumption underpinning HRD is that,
through the provision of learning activities in
whatever form, employees are worth investing in,
and there will be benefits for the individual
involved, the organization, the economy and
society as a whole.
Human capital theory peoples performance and
the results achieved can be considered as a
return on investment and assessed in terms of
costs and benefits.
Approaches to HRD Voluntarist approach
Interventionist approach
BRATTON AND GOLD
9
Human Resource Development
Establishing HRD
The following implications can be drawn from the
machine metaphor
Attitudes are important Individuals have
responsibility for their parts Learning is based
on a deficit model Training closes a gap Little
place for feelings
BRATTON AND GOLD
10
Human Resource Development
Establishing HRD
Developmental humanistic approach
Based on the personal empowerment of the
workforce through workplace learning.
The key argument is that individuals are the most
productive when they feel that their work is
personally meaningful. Learning provides a way of
coping with change and fulfilling ambitions.
HRD can therefore move beyond the technical
limitations of training and embrace key notions
of learning and development implied in such
concepts as the learning organization and
lifelong learning.
BRATTON AND GOLD
11
Human Resource Development
Establishing HRD
Skills and commitment
If HRD can have a positive effect on
profitability, attract good- quality staff,
indicate the values of the firm and engender
commitment in times of change, why is there still
a low commitment to HRD in the UK?
Many employers underestimate or do not recognize
skills gaps, or do not consider future needs.
Training is often concentrated among managers and
senior staff, whereas unskilled workers receive
very little.
The UKs failure to educate and train its
workforce to the same level as its competitors
may be responsible for its relatively poor
economic performance.
BRATTON AND GOLD
12
Human Resource Development
BRATTON AND GOLD
13
Human Resource Development 1 of 2
BRATTON AND GOLD
14
Human Resource Development 2 of 2
BRATTON AND GOLD
15
Human Resource Development
Establishing HRD
The UKs vocational educational system is
criticised for a lack of rigour compared with
that of other countries.
The Government's Apprenticeship system aims to
counter that criticism but it is not clear that
is has succeeded with concerns about
Completion rates and The quality of learning
BRATTON AND GOLD
16
Human Resource Development
Establishing HRD
The demand for skills
To ensure a high demand for skills, action is
required principally from within organizations.
Many organizations do not however regard HRD as
being central to their requirements.
If tasks are designed as requiring a high level
of skill, this will trigger a requirement for a
highly-trained workforce and for an investment in
that workforce if skilled labour is not available
in the external market.
BRATTON AND GOLD
17
Human Resource Development
Establishing HRD
The demand for skills
The presence of skilled employees can contribute
to the interpretation by managers that any
changes can be dealt with by their employees, so
they are able to take advantage of any benefits
that the changes may bring.
BRATTON AND GOLD
18
Human Resource Development
Establishing HRD
The Learning Movement
The recommendations, ideas and exhortations
relating to HRD and learning at work, plus the
structures to support these, are features of the
learning movement.
Even though the learning movement provides the
resources to support HRD, decision-makers still
have a choice and can remain oblivious to
pressures for more HRD, or sceptical about the
benefits.
BRATTON AND GOLD
19
Human Resource Development
Establishing HRD
The Learning Movement
Pursuing a policy of HRD has to reflect the
strategy of senior managers who are able to view
their organizations in a variety of ways.
Particularly important are the actions of
managers at all levels in supporting learning and
turning an aversion to risk-taking into
opportunity-spotting.
BRATTON AND GOLD
20
Human Resource Development
Implementing HRD
Who should take responsibility? How should needs
be identified? Whose interests should they
serve? What activities should be used? Will
they add value? How does HRD relate to
business goals?
BRATTON AND GOLD
21
Human Resource Development
BRATTON AND GOLD
22
Human Resource Development
Implementing HRD
A systematic training model
Essential prerequisites for any effort to
implement a training model are a consideration of
budgets, attitudes, abilities and culture or
climate. A key requirement of training activity
is that it is relevant and reflects the real
world.
BRATTON AND GOLD
23
Human Resource Development
Implementing HRD
A systematic training model
Bramley (1989) advocated turning the four stages
of the training model into a cycle in which
evaluation occurs throughout the process, with an
emphasis on managers taking responsibility for
the transfer of learning. In this way the model
is made effective rather than mechanistically
efficient.
BRATTON AND GOLD
24
Human Resource Development
Implementing HRD
An Integrated and Systematic Approach
An integrated and systemic approach highlights
key interdependencies within organizations, such
as the link to strategy, the role of line
managers, the link to team-based learning and
knowledge transfer.
A policy of HRD has to be translated into the
structures, systems and processes that might be
called a learning climate or environment. This
can be expansive or restrictive.
BRATTON AND GOLD
25
Human Resource Development
Implementing HRD
An Integrated and Systematic Approach
At the heart of the learning climate lies the
line manager-employee relationship. A number
of roles have been associated with managers to
support this, including coaching and mentoring.
BRATTON AND GOLD
26
Human Resource Development
BRATTON AND GOLD
27
Human Resource Development
BRATTON AND GOLD
28
Human Resource Development
BRATTON AND GOLD
29
Human Resource Development
Workplace Learning
Learning in the workplace is seen as the crucial
contributor to dealing with change, coping with
uncertainty and complexity in the environment and
creating opportunities for sustainable
competitive advantage.
Workplace learning casts a whole organization as
a unit of learning, allowing managers to take a
strategic view and others to think in terms of
how their learning impacts on the wider context.
Key ideas for application include the learning
organization and organization learning, knowledge
management and production and e-learning.
BRATTON AND GOLD
30
Human Resource Development
Workplace Learning
According to Senge (1990), the following
disciplines should form the foundation of the
learning organization
Personal mastery A shared vision Team
learning Mental models Systems thinking
BRATTON AND GOLD
31
Human Resource Development
BRATTON AND GOLD
32
Human Resource Development
BRATTON AND GOLD
33
Human Resource Development
Workplace Learning
Understanding learning
There is growing interest in how people learn on
an everyday basis, mostly with others on an
informal basis through their participation in
practice.
This contrasts with Kolbs theory which is
criticised for being overly focused on
individuals at the expense of their interaction
and involvement with others.
This links to the idea of organization learning.
BRATTON AND GOLD
34
Human Resource Development
Workplace Learning
Organizational learning
Single-loop learning The organization accepts
its current ways of working and resists any
attempts to change, apart from slight
modifications
Double-loop learning An organization challenges
its current principles of work so that it can
respond to changes in the environment and
understand the reasons why it might fail to do so.
BRATTON AND GOLD
35
Human Resource Development
Workplace Learning
Organizational learning
Cultural view organization learning is mostly
informal and improvisational, situated in a
particular context and is a function of activity
that occurs at a local level within communities
of practice.
Likely to be at variance from what managers want
to happen.
BRATTON AND GOLD
36
Human Resource Development
Knowledge Management
Knowledge management is the management of the
information, knowledge and experience available
to an organization its creation, capture,
storage, availability and utilization in order
that organizational activities build on what is
already known, and extend it further. (Mayo 1998)
Human capital accumulation has therefore become
one of the new reasons for an investment in HRD
and a contrast to the previous narrow conceptions
implied by human capital theory.
BRATTON AND GOLD
37
Human Resource Development
Knowledge Management
E-learning
One area in which the technology revolution is
having a massive impact in HRD is the provision
of e-learning.
E-learning is learning that is delivered, enabled
or mediated by electronic technology for the
explicit purpose of training in organizations. It
does not include stand-alone technology-based
training such as the use of CD-ROMs in isolation.
(Sloman Reynolds 2002)
BRATTON AND GOLD
38
Human Resource Development
Chapter summary
  • This chapter has examined the idea and practice
    of HRD as investment in peoples learning at
    work. The idea incorporates traditional views of
    training and development but seeks to extend
    attention to learning throughout an organization
    as a strategy to cope with change. The message of
    learning at work has become an obvious good
    thing, and this has led to growing interest in
    HRD as a profession and its theoretical
    development, although there are continuing
    debates about the meaning of HRD.

BRATTON AND GOLD
39
Human Resource Development
Chapter summary
  • For HRD to become a feature of organizational
    strategy, senior managers must incorporate the
    need for learning within their consideration of
    trends and signals in the environment, such as
    changes in markets and technology. A strategy for
    HRD can often respond to organizational strategy
    by the use of competencies to set performance
    expectations and targets. Strategic HRD can also
    influence organizational strategy through the
    development of new ideas, especially where senior
    managers appreciate that learning is a way of
    responding to external pressures for change.

BRATTON AND GOLD
40
Human Resource Development
Chapter summary
  • In the UK, there is little evidence that HRD is a
    key consideration in strategic management. People
    are not usually a top priority, marketing and
    financial matters having greater importance.
  • There is, broadly speaking, a voluntarist
    approach to HRD in the UK, contrasted with a more
    interventionist approach in some other
    countries. Decision-makers in organizations
    determine the demand for skills, taking a broadly
    human capital view that may lead to a restricted
    approach to HRD. In contrast, some organizations
    adopt a developmental humanist approach, which
    can lead to a greater focus on the potential of
    people for learning.

BRATTON AND GOLD
41
Human Resource Development
Chapter summary
  • There is evidence to suggest that learning has an
    impact on an individuals earning power and
    employment prospects. For organizations, HRD is a
    key element of the bundle of HR practices that
    impact on performance. For nations, investment in
    skills has implications for competitiveness and
    social inclusion. The UK government has given
    significant attention to supporting progress
    towards a learning society. Low skill levels
    among many workers remain a problem in the UK,
    but there have been developments to improve the
    HRD infrastructure through a national framework
    of qualifications and institutions to administer
    national programmes and encourage a demand-led
    approach.

BRATTON AND GOLD
42
Human Resource Development
Chapter summary
  • A systematic approach to training is still the
    preference in many organizations this emphasizes
    the need for cost-effective provision. Recent
    years have seen attempts to develop a more
    integrated approach that recognizes
    interdependencies with organizations and the
    importance of line managers in HRD. This often
    involves the use of competency frameworks and
    performance management systems.
  • The learning climate or learning environment in
    an organization greatly influences the
    effectiveness of HRD policies, especially the
    relationships between managers and employees. To
    support HRD, managers have been encouraged to
    become mentors and coaches. Both roles can
    provide a link between HRD activities, evaluation
    and the transfer of learning.

BRATTON AND GOLD
43
Human Resource Development
Chapter summary
  • HRD makes a unitarist assumption about
    organizations, leading to top-down approaches.
    Competency frameworks describe a one best way
    to perform work, which may restrict creativity.
    There is likely to be a variety of views on work
    and learning.
  • Workplace learning is a more recent notion that
    takes a broad organizational perspective on
    learning and allows a range of influences on HRD,
    including ideas relating to the learning
    organization. The importance of learning at work
    has increased attention to learning theories,
    especially experiential learning and models that
    examine personal meanings and encourage
    reflection.

BRATTON AND GOLD
44
Human Resource Development
Chapter summary
  • Organization learning has become a key field of
    interest. Some explanations assume that
    organizations learn like people, but there are
    also attempts to provide different explanations
    by focusing on the culture of groups and how
    learning occurs in the context of their practice.
  • Advances in ICT have resulted in a greater
    interest in knowledge production and knowledge
    management. Knowledge can be concerned with facts
    and explanations that can be codified and easily
    communicated. There is also knowledge that is
    tacit, more indeterminate, difficult to express
    and concerned with responding to difficult
    problems.

BRATTON AND GOLD
45
Human Resource Development
Chapter summary
  • Technology is creating an e-learning revolution,
    leading to a new alliance between providers, new
    methods of delivery and the formation of virtual
    communities of learners. HRD specialists are
    learning new skills to support e-learning
    provision.

BRATTON AND GOLD
46
Human Resource Development
Key concepts
  • Strategic human resource
  • development
  • Human capital theory
  • Learning movement
  • Interventionist approach
  • Transfer of learning
  • Knowledge management
  • Voluntarist approach
  • Systematic training model
  • Coaching and mentoring
  • Learning climate or
  • Environment
  • Developmental humanistic
  • Approach
  • Learning organization
  • e-Learning
  • Organization learning
  • Evaluation

BRATTON AND GOLD
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