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Natural Education

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Natural Education Pestalozzi Froebel Montessori Created by Vanessa L. Cortez Antonio Rivera Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Swiss educator Return to nature philosophy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Natural Education


1
Natural Education
  • Pestalozzi
  • Froebel
  • Montessori

Created by Vanessa L. Cortez Antonio Rivera
Developing the Whole Child
2
Pestalozzi (1746-1827)
  • Swiss educator
  • Return to nature philosophy
  • Enlightenment rationalism
  • Rousseau

3
Pestalozzis Life
  • Born in Zurich, Italian Family
  • Barbara Schmid (Babeli)
  • Helvetic Society
  • Search for a profession
  • The Farm

4
Neuhof and Writings
  • 1774, The school for working and learning
  • Vocational, moral, and intellectual development
  • Failure in 1779
  • Leonard and Gertrude Home and School
  • Researches into the Course of Nature in the
    Development of the Human Race
  • How Gertrude Teaches Her Children

5
Stans, Burgdorf and Iverdon
  • French Revolution in Switzerland
  • Orphanage Director Rehabilitating victims of war
  • Educational Institute at Burgdorf
  • ABC of Anschauung Reduction of education to
    simplicity
  • Yverdon, Pestalozzis greatest achievement
  • Failure due to bad management

6
Philosophy of Education
  • Nature Physical reality that appears to our
    senses in an array of independent objects
  • Objects exist independent of peoples knowledge
    but can be known through sensation
  • Two levels of nature
  • a) objective order of reality
  • b) operations that direct development
  • Human development as a tree

7
Art of Instruction
  • Development based on nature and harmony
  • Human, Intellectual, and Physical development
    must grow balanced
  • The amoral, physically weak genius
  • Natural Education Psychology of Learning
  • Phase II Exercises, experiences and materials

8
Anschauung
  • Definition The single unitary operational
    process that is the source of all human
    cognition.
  • Sensation
  • Perception
  • Cognition

9
Art of Sense Impression
  • Object Lesson (Conceptualization)
  • Pestalozzi believed that thought began with
    sensation and that teaching should use the
    senses. Holding that children should study the
    objects in their natural environment, Pestalozzi
    developed a so-called "object lesson" that
    involved exercises in learning form, number, and
    language. Pupils determined and traced an
    object's form, counted objects, and named them.

10
System of Natural Education- 2 phases
  • (1) General Method- creating an emotionally
    secure learning environment
  • (2) Special Method- Instruction in subject matter
    and skills

Educating the Whole Child
11
General Method Emotional Security
  • Sought to create an emotionally secure
    educational environment for the child
  • Love and security ( family- school connection)
  • Embrace the techniques, experiences, and
    activities necessary for moral, intellectual, and
    physical development
  • Provide emotional support


12
Special Method
  • Instruction was to begin with the learners
    direct experience with concrete objects found in
    the environment
  • Sensation and experience- begin with familiar
    objects and tasks before abstract kinds of
    learning

13
From the Near to the Far
  • Instruction should begin with the learners
    immediate environment and the objects that were
    part of the environment.
  • Eventually lead to widening circle of mankind
    that leads children from the home through the
    socioeconomic environment into the world.
    (Continuity of experience)

14
From the Simple to the Complex
  • Build from simple tasks to more complex
  • Ex. Language lessons began with speaking sounds,
    then words, then phrases, finally sentences,

15
Pestalozzis Major Contributions to Early
Childhood
  • Pestalozzi's contribution to early childhood
    education was to stress the education of the
    whole child, the importance of a loving and
    emotionally secure environment, and recognizing
    the dignity of the child in education.

16
Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852)
  • German educator Influenced by idealism and
    romanticism
  • Occupations Forester, naturalist, chemist,
    teacher
  • Visit to Iverdon
  • 1813 The war
  • Griesheim Music, play, self-activity
  • Burgdorf Switzerland
  • Blankenburg Germany First Kindergarten

17
Philosophy of Education
  • The Education Man (1896)
  • Human nature unfolds the preformed potentialities
    in a person
  • The teacher stimulates the process of unfolding
  • Teachers provide space and time in order for
    children to develop

18
Conception of the Child
  • The human race could be viewed as one human
    being.
  • Family and all human beings are united through
    God
  • The role of school is to help students penetrate
    the external reality of objects into higher
    internal spirituality.
  • Kindergarten songs, play, stories, games
  • Types of play gifts and occupation

19
Object Lesson
  • Childrens ideas grow and gain full consciousness
    in adulthood.
  • Symbols water, sand and clay, group occupations

20
The Kindergarten Movement
  • 1851 Kindergarten prohibited
  • Movement England, Switzerland, Germany, France,
    Italy, Netherlands

21
The American Kindergarten Movement
  • Introduced by immigrants from Germany
  • Public schools adapted Kindergarten as the first
    step on U.S. educational ladder
  • Elizabeth Peabody Founded and institute to
    prepare Kindergarten teachers
  • St. Louis Missouri Superintendent William Torrey
    introduces Kindergarten to public schools
  • Kindergarten today

22
Maria Montessori1870- 1952
Never help a child with a task at which he feels
he can succeed. The greatest sign of success
for a teacher... is to be able to say, "The
children are now working as if I did not exist.
Maria Montessori
23
  • The goal of Montessori is to provide a
    stimulating, child-centered environment in which
    children can explore, touch, and learn without
    fear, thus engendering a lifelong love of
    learning as well as providing the child the
    self-control necessary to fulfill that love.

24
Montessoris Curriculum
  • Three major kinds of activities and experiences
  • (1) Practical Life (setting a table, serving a
    meal, basic social amenities)
  • (2) Sensory Training- (sensory, muscular, and
    coordination)
  • (3) Formal skills and studies- (reading, writing,
    and arithmetic) sandpaper letters, colorful rods,
    etc.-( didactic materials)

25
Implementation
  • Montessori is a highly hands-on approach to
    learning. It encourages children to develop their
    observation skills by doing many types of
    activities. These activities include use of the
    five senses, kinetic movement, spatial
    refinement, small and large motor skill
    coordination, and concrete knowledge that leads
    to later abstraction.

26
Montessori Classrooms
27
Video Clip
  • Maria Montessori Her Life and Legacy
  • http//video.google.com/videoplay?docid7480195940
    80989064qmontessoriclassroomshlen

28
American Montessori Revival
  • American Montessori Society- (AMS)
    http//www.amshq.org/
  • At least 4,000 Montessori schools in America and
    7,000 worldwide
  • Over 1,100 AMS member schools in America

29
Famous Montessori students
  • Jeff Bezos, founder of Amazon
  • Sergey Brin and Larry Page, co-founders of Google
  • Anne Frank
  • Jimmy Wales, founder of Wikipedia
  • Katherine Graham, owner-editor of The Washington
    Post
  • Sean Combs, famous rapper of Bad Boy Records
  • Julia Child, first TV chef
  • Helen Hunt, Academy Award-winning actress
  • George Clooney, Academy Award-winning actor
  • Gabriel Garcia Marquez, novelist and Nobel
    Laureate

30
Independence
Developmental
Sensory
Manipulatives
Environment
Individuality
Intellectual
Physical
Exploration
Choice
Nature
Prepared Leraning Environments
31
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32
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