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History of American Public Education

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Title: History of American Public Education


1
History of American Public Education
  • Historic, economic, political, and social forces
    and their impact on schools 1600 to present

2
Pre-colonial
  • Contact with Europeans was minimal and focused
    mainly on trading. Tribes were autonomous
    political units. Hunter-gather economy based on
    the natural resources of the area. Kinship
    patterns were patrilineal or matrilineal.
    Spiritualist religion.
  • Native American children played games to develop
    knowledge and skills needed for success as
    adults.
  • Experientialist perspective

www.somd.lib.md.us
3
Colonial Period (1600-1624)
  • Education favored upper class boys.
  • The most commonly used book was the bible as
    religious views dominate education during this
    period.
  • No formal schools at this time as survival and
    religious faith do not allow for education to go
    beyond the family or private tutoring.
  • Perennialist perspective

www.genesis.net.au/7Ebible/
4
Early Colonial Period 1600-1624
  • The first settlement in Jamestown (VA) is
    established
  • Tobacco farms begin to be planted in Virginia in
    the early 1600s, precipitating the arrival of the
    first slaves a few years later
  • The Mayflower and its 101 Puritan colonists
    arrives and an early form of democratic
    government is established to protect the
    well-being of all
  • Though there is no formal schooling yet, the
    religious views of the Puritan colonists would
    eventually dominate education in the colonies

Jamestown, Virginia www.kirkwood.k12.mo.us
5
1625 - 1649
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony makes proper education
    compulsory
  • Virtually all schools were private and catered to
    wealthy boys and young men
  • Harvard University opens in 1638
  • Most early universities were established by
    religious denominations to train ministers

6
1625-1647
  • Early curriculum was composed primarily of
    reading and writing. This was important so that
    the children could read and study scripture.
  • Reading was also very important so that the
    people could read notices of civil affairs.
  • Curriculum included surveying, navigation, and
    bookkeeping.
  • Education was primarily for the wealthy.
  • College-prep schools emphasized Latin and Greek
    theology and philosophy for those getting ready
    to go into law or religion.
  • In 1647 Massachusetts law demanded that every
    town of 50 or more families have a writing
    teacher. A Latin teacher for towns with 100 or
    more families.
  • Females generally taught the basics so they could
    carry out their religious and family
    responsibilities.

7
1650 - 1674
  • Picture http//www.nd.edu/rbarger/www7/pur17.jp
    g
  • Dame schools in homes (often kitchens) of women
    who tutored young children (mostly boys ages 6-8)
  • Essentialist perspective discipline the young
    and teach them to be upright, contributing
    citizens
  • Main purpose of education understanding of
    religious and civic/governing codes
  • Education more of a social responsibility (no
    longer only the responsibility of parents)
  • Larger towns were required to hire schoolmasters
  • Traveling schoolmasters and Dame schools
  • Apprenticeships
  • College mainly for ministers

8
1650 - 1674
  • Historical
  • Religious emphasis
  • Read prayers/learn catechisms
  • Primarily for elite
  • Political
  • First laws related to education passed 1642
  • Citizens need to understand written codes of
    colonies

Source http//www.nd.edu/rbarger/www7/
  • Social
  • Dame schools
  • Social harmony via religion and literacy
  • Economic
  • Teachers paid for the first time
  • Perspective
  • Essentialism

9
Colonialism 1675-1699
  • Indian Wars battles between the Colonists the
    Native Americans
  • Religious emphasis in education
  • Schools to prepare students for jobs focus on
    reading, writing, basic math
  • Essentialist perspective

10
1675-1699
  • 1690 John Locke publishes his essay Concerning
    Human Understanding stating the human mind is a
    blank slate and we learn through experience.
    This is important because it went against many
    mainstream ideas at the time.
  • 1690 the first New England Primer is printed in
    Boston. Becomes the most widely used schoolbook
    in New England. Prior to this, education lacked
    having a standard curriculum to draw from other
    than the bible.
  • 1693 John Locke writes Some Thought Concerning
    Education this describes views on educating
    upper class boys to be moral, rationally-thinking
    and reflective young gentlemen. This was valued
    because many Puritans and Quakers felt we were
    losing moral ground as the country was
    expanding.
  • 1693 the 2nd college in the US is opened. The
    College of William and Mary is established. High
    emphasis on religious studies.
  • 1697 John Locke write On Working Schools it is
    published and focuses on educating the masses.
    Its main idea was on developing good work
    ethics. This was considered a big step in moving
    education forward to what we consider public
    education today.

11
Colonial Education 1700-1720
  • Students were taught the basics reading, writing
    and arithmetic
  • School was to prepare students for jobs or
    apprenticeships
  • Students read from the bible and used their
    hornbook to help them
  • Strong religious emphasis
  • Although some schools were free, some required
    tuition to be paid
  • Perennialist approach

12
Early Colonial Education 1700 - 1724
  • Few schools existed in early colonial times.
  • Most of the schools were parochial schools
    teaching religious practices.
  • A few were vocational/apprentice schools
    teaching a trade.
  • Some practical skills taught were navigation,
    bookkeeping, architecture, and agriculture.
  • Yale was founded 1701 to train ministers and
    magistrates.

13
1725-1749 The Birth of Public Education
  • Public primary, secondary and collegiate level
    schools flourished during this time.
  • Education was used to primarily train students in
    religious beliefs and practices, usually the
    Protestant faith.
  • Policy makers, such as Thomas Jefferson and
    Benjamin Franklin believed language skills and
    reading were essential for critical thought and
    preserving the countrys new freedom. Therefore,
    schools focused on teaching these skills to the
    wealthy white male students.
  • Women were taught domestic skills and social
    etiquette.
  • African Americans and poor children were
    forbidden from public education.
  • Developing citizens and future leaders for this
    new established country was the main influence on
    the public school curricula.

The Hornbook from which students learned the
alphabet, numbers and the Lords Prayer.
14
US Education 1750-1774
  • Religious Basis for Education Reading religious
    literature, Writing
  • Practical skills to prepare for working in a
    trade basic computation, drawing, surveying,
    navigation, merchant's accounting, agriculture,
    etc.
  • Political Influences Citizenship addition of
    history, geography, health and physical fitness

15
Colonial 1750-1774
  • The economy was mainly agricultural with artisan
    and merchants increasing as towns grew larger.
    Colonies were controlled by Britain and heavily
    taxed which would lead to the Independence
    movement.
  • Academics teach secondary students practical
    curriculum (drawing, surveying,merchants
    accounting) to become tradespeople and workers .
    Wealthy white male students could learn
    literature, mathematics, and science. Female
    students learned religious texts and skills
    important for running a household.
  • Experientalist and Intellectual Traditionalist
    Perspectives.

16
1775-1799
  • Some children attended school, but not all
  • Because the U.S. had just gained independence
    from England the curriculum focused on literacy
    citizenship
  • It was believed that teaching citizenship values
    literacy would keep the U.S. economy prosperous
    independent from England
  • Image from www.insidetech.com

17
1775-1799
  • Thomas Jefferson proposes a two-track educational
    system, with different tracks for the laboring
    and the learned.
  • Noah Webster writes A Grammatical Institute of
    the English Language, consisting of three
    volumes a spelling book, a grammar book, and a
    reader.
  • The Northwest Ordinance is enacted by the
    Confederation Congress and it specifically
    recognizes the importance of education.
    Religion, mortality, and knowledge, being
    necessary to good environment and the happiness
    of mankind, schools and the means of education
    shall forever be encouraged. More importantly it
    stipulates that a section of land in every
    township of each new state be reserved for the
    support of education.

18
1800-1824
  • Private Education

Charity Schools
Vs.
http//www.link4life.org/media/graphics/large/945E
62A6-E9E0-4B4D-4464DF98C36EEC35.jpg
http//www.mindenmemories.org/academy/academ2.gif
19
The Birth of the Common Schools 1825-1849
  • Horace Mann first secretary of the State Board
    of Education for Mass (1837)
  • Advocated free public schooling open to all
    children
  • Democratic values accessible education for
    children from different social classes
  • Locally run and funded by taxes or charity
  • Influence spread around the country
  • Curriculum focused on basic skills (the 3 Rs)
  • Emphasis on creating a unified nation through
    education, leading to social harmony

Horace Mann
20
1825 - 1849
  • Horace Mann advocated for free public education
    in order to improve social conditions. Previously
    only wealthy children attended school.
  • Schools taught basic skills, history, geography,
    health, and P.E.
  • They believed literacy was the key to preserving
    freedom
  • Focus on citizenship in curriculum

21
Vocational 1850-1875
  • During the period between 1850-1870, most
    American achieving the free school system
    supported by property taxes rather than tuition.
  • Expending elementary education for girls as well
    as boys.
  • The first formal English-speaking kindergarten in
    America opens.
  • Progressivism perspective

22
1850-1874 Local Education
  • 1850-1852 Horace Mann- The father of Ed.
  • -Traveled around Mass. Compiling annual reports
  • -Established the creation of Common Schools.
    The purpose was to create opportunities for all
    social classes to have access to schools.
  • -1852- The first national Compulsory Education
    Law- Requiring that every child gets an
    education.
  • By 1865- Most states adopt similar laws
  • -Support from state legislatures establishes a
    need for students
  • .
  • Schools established and controlled locally
  • -Schools funded not by the federal government or
    states, but by local communities. Those
    communities built the mostly 1 room school
    houses, hired and paid teachers- who were
    basically independent from any sort of
    accountability.
  • By 1874- Vocational High Schools emerge
  • -Students encouraged and educated with specific
    jobs in mind- especially in manufacturing.

23
1875-1899
  • During this time schools are vocationally
    oriented and there are no subject matter
    divisions yet.
  • The Committee of Ten agrees that High Schools
    functions are to prepare the Elite Students for
    the real world.

24
1875-1899
Immigrants and economy enhanced diversity in
American school districts. American dreams and
cultural adaptation demanded the bilingual
education and modifying curriculum. Vocational
goals played an important role in curriculum
planning. William Harris, argues for bilingual
education. Harris establishes the first
kindergarten in America, taught solely in
German, to give immigrant students a head start.
1879 Federal officials begin separating Native
American children from their families and force
them to attend boarding schools off the
reservation. Students are punished when caught
speaking their native language.   1888-89
Attempts begin to legislate against German and in
favor of English. The 1889 Bennett Act in
Wisconsin legislates that children ages eight to
fourteen in public or private schools must be
instructed in English and American History.
1892-93 The National Education Association
appoints a Committee of Ten. The committee
concludes that schools should maintain a single
academic curriculum and all students should
master an equally rigorous curriculum.
25
1900s-1911
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson just passed in 1986 Separate
    but equal is found to be constitutional.
  • Rapid expansion of industrialization and
    urbanization.
  • Child labor.
  • Workers beginning to form labor unions.
  • Communism philosophy is on the rise.
  • Massive immigration and assimilation in the
    schools.
  • Dewey experimenting with progressivism.
  • Pavlov received Noble prize for behaviorism in
    education.
  • Helen Keller becomes first blind deaf person to
    graduate college.

26
1900 - 1909
  • The school year consisted of 99 days.
  • Half of the school-age population was enrolled in
    school.
  • 7 of American children were enrolled in
    Kindergarten.
  • 8 of enrolled students actually graduated from
    high school.
  • 50 enrolled achieved 8th grade status.
  • In 1905 Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon develop
    the Binet-Simon Scale to measure intelligence.

27
1900-1909
  • Known as the period of education for the masses.
  • With 13 million immigrants in America, the goal
    became to become American.
  • One aspect of becoming American was to learn the
    language.
  • The look of classrooms went to straight rows with
    teachers up front lecturing.

28
Early 20th Century
  • At the turn of the century-2/3 of schools were
    rural, one-room schoolhouses
  • Industrialization, immigration, urbanization
    influenced political educational leaders to
    restructure the nations schools
  • Conservative liberal reformers introduced
    vocational education to better connect the
    educational system with American business
  • The modern American university was created
    offering students practical, inquiry-based
    curricula (modeled after Europe)
  • Progressive education movement flourished

29
1920-1920
Historical Political Economic Social Forces
Decade of Progressive Movement John Dewey traveled the world teaching his philosophy Coming out of WWI People felt that is was a time of healing Success world wide This was soon to change Huge 2nd wave of Immigrants this really effected the country as a whole. This made the country nervous
30
1920-1929
  • The Progressive Education Association called
    for schools to create curriculum that reached all
    students' levels
  • The Scholastic Aptitude Test is first
    administered and standards were raised for
    students
  • Jean Piaget's theory of child cognitive
    development becomes influential
  • The Great Depression begins and schools close,
    teachers are laid off or given lower salaries

31
1930-1939
  • Political Eleanor Roosevelt publishes Good
    citizenship The purpose of education
  • -The Eight Year Study begins
  • Economic Great depression.
  • Most parents could not send children to school
    Social Deweys cooperative intelligence /
    socialized economy /social action
  • Historical The Springfield Plan Intercultural
    education/democratic citizenship
  • Progressive curriculum students needs/interests
    home economics, health, family living

32
1930-1939
  • Before 1930s businessmen help fund schools,
    during the Great Depression they wanted loans
    repaid. Many schools closed.
  • Progressive Prospective- curriculum based on
    students needs and interests, parallel to those
    found in society. Home Economics, health, family
    living, citizenship, and wood shop were added.
  • The Eight Year Study (1932-1940)- encouraged
    schools to restructure educational programs
    according to progressive tenets emphasizing
    problem solving, creativity, self directed study,
    and more extensive counseling and guidance for
    students. Students showed higher grades in all
    subjects in these schools.

33
1940-1949
  • A continued move away from small, locally
    governed
  • school moving into a centralized school
    government
  • and curriculum.
  • Larger, streamlined schools create a common
    experience
  • for the average American student.
  • World War II brings a global perspective to
    American
  • education
  • Progressive education persists to make its mark
    with the
  • inclusion of more hands on curriculum and focus

34
Education 1950 - 1959
  • The Soviet Union surprised the USA by launching
    Sputnik, the first satellite, into space. As a
    result the NDEA of1958 was formed to educate
    Americans with more rigor.
  • The space race, cold war and national defense
    were a focus of education.
  • Racial equality in education was a major focus as
    well. The status quo of separate but equal was
    no longer acceptable. Brown vs.. Board of
    Education started desegregation of schools.

35
1950-1959 The Math and Science Years
  • Russias Sputnik puts emphasis on science,
    mathematics, and languages
  • Inquiry based curriculum made for a more rigorous
    curriculum
  • The Excellence Movement

36
Historical, Political, Economical, and Social
Forces at work thought the 1960s
37
  • 1960 - American aid to Diem increased.
  • 1962 - Number of US military advisors in South
    Vietnam rises to 12,000.
  • 1962)- John F. Kennedy gave a speech on what
    later become what is know as the Peace Corps.
  • 1963 - Viet Cong, the communist guerrillas
    operating in South Vietnam, defeat units of ARVN,
    South Vietnamese Army. President Diem overthrown.
  • 1964 - US destroyer allegedly attacked by North
    Vietnamese patrol boats. This triggers start of
    pre-planned American bombing raids on North
    Vietnam.
  • 1964- Civil Rights Act
  • 1965 - 200,000 American combat troops arrive in
    South Vietnam.

38
  • 1965- In March a group of professors decided to
    cancel class to protest the US occupation of
    Vietnam.
  • 1966 - US troop numbers in Vietnam rise to
    400,000, then to 500,000 the following year.
  • 1966- More than three thousand undergraduates
    were getting intensive training in thirty-six
    languages during summer programs at more than
    twenty-two institutions through provisions in
    National Defense Education Act.
  • 1966- Availability of equal educational
    opportunities to children of different race,
    color, religion, and national origin.
  • 1968 - Tet Offensive - a combined assault by Viet
    Cong and North Vietnamese Army on US positions -
    begins. More than 500 civilians die in My Lai
    massacre.
  • 1969 - President Nixon draws back US ground
    troops from Vietnam.

39
Financial, Political and Social Forces in the
United States during the 1960s
  • Don Nissen

40
Funding of Education 1960 through 1969
  • Education was on the minds of past presidents
    Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F.
    Kennedy way before the 1960s. Each president saw
    education as a way to improve industry and
    commerce. But it wasnt until the cold war and
    the successful launching of Sputnik in 1957 by
    the Soviet Union that concern peaked with alarm
    that the United States educational system was
    inferior to the Soviets and we needed to produce
    superior scientists.
  • Historical levels of wealth during the early 60s
    led to an age of American optimism, where
    anything was possible.
  • President Lyndon B. Johnson decides that
    education should work towards the goal of
    improving society. He reworks an idea from
    President Kennedy and uses it as his main idea
    to declare War on Poverty.

41
Funding of Education - Part 2 1960 through 1969
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of
    1965 (ESEA) President Johnson felt that access
    to education was paramount to success in society.
    ESEA was designed to address educational
    inequality that had been exposed by activists
    associated with the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It
    passed through congress in 87 days with
    bi-partisan support and no amendments.
  • ESEA contained the seeds of Title 1 a program
    serving the educationally deprived(which
    continues today). ESEA has developed five Title
    programs offering assistance to schools through
    the college level. Funding in 2002 was over 8
    billion dollars for these programs. provisions.
  • Prior to ESEA education related decisions were
    made on the state by state level.

42
Political Background 1960 through 1969
  • From 1964 to 1966 the Johnson administration
    pushed through an unprecedented amount of
    antipoverty legislation which included
  • The Revenue Act of 1964 (1964)
  • The Economic Opportunity Act (1964) provided the
    basis for
  • Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO)
  • Job Corps
  • Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
  • Upward Bound
  • Head Start
  • Neighborhood Youth Corps
  • Community Action Program (CAP)
  • The College Work-Study Program
  • Neighborhood Development Centers

43
Political Background Part 2 1960 through 1969
  • The Civil Rights Act (1964)
  • The Food Stamp Act (1964)
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)
  • The Higher Education Act (1965)
  • Social Security amendments created
    Medicare/Medicaid (1965)
  • The Department of Housing and Urban Development
    (1965)
  • The Voting Rights Act (1965)
  • The Model Cities Act (1966)
  • The Fair Housing Act (1968)
  • The Republican administration of President Nixon
    continued many of these programs under pressure.
    But started to shift more authority to the
    states. President Reagan continued to
    de-regulate some of these federal programs.

44
Social Background 1960 through 1969
  • The plight of the poor was brought to the
    publics attention in the early 1960s through
    several books, newspaper and magazine articles.
    Here are two
  • Appalachian Poverty by Homer Bigart an article
    written for the New York Times.
  • The Other America by Michael Harrington.
  • Both of these articles motivated John F. Kennedy
    to visit West Virginia coal mines to visit the
    working poor.
  • At the time there was an estimated 50,000,000
    forgotten Americans living in poverty.

45
Social Background Part 2 1960 through 1969
  • The early 1960s were dominated by the Civil
    Rights Movement. African Americans seeking equal
    rights were often met with violence, beatings and
    bombings of their churches. The compassionate
    leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. lead several
    protests, his most famous a Washington DC march
    with where he made his "I Have A Dream" speech in
    August of 1963.
  • The mid and late 60s were filled with different
    ideas. A percent of the youth pulled away from
    the affluent social attitudes gained by the
    previous generation. Disassociation from
    mainstream conservatism and materialism led to a
    counterculture.
  • Anti-war movements in reaction to the Vietnam War
    contributed to the divisive feelings throughout
    the US.
  • 1969 Apollo 11 astronauts walked on the moon.

46
Curriculum Changes 1960 through 1969
  • The low average high school graduation rate of
    35 and the scare provided by Sputnik in 1957 led
    to a reappearance of curriculum concerned with
    mathematics and science during the early 1960s.
  • Phonics was used in elementary schools by reading
    specialists to try and fix the problems perceived
    from the previous decade.
  • In 1966 a Johns Hopkins University study
    (Equality of Educational Opportunity) was
    commissioned by the United States Government to
    assess the overall availability of equal
    educational opportunities provided to children of
    different race, religion, color, and nation of
    origin. This led to later integration and bussing
    of students in the 1970s.

47
1970-1979 US Public Education
  • 1971 - In the case of Pennsylvania Association
    for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania, the
    federal court rules that students with mental
    retardation are entitled to a free public
    education. (reconstructionist, progressivist)
  • 1972 - Title IX of the Education Amendments of
    1972 becomes law. Though many people associate
    this law only with girl's and women's
    participation in sports, Title IX prohibits
    discrimination based on sex in all aspects of
    education. (progressivist)
  • 1974 - Federal Judge Arthur Garrity orders busing
    of African American students to predominantly
    white schools in order to achieve racial
    integration of public schools in Boston, MA.
    White parents protest, particularly in South
    Boston. (resconstructionist, progressivist)
  • 1975 - The Education of All Handicapped Children
    Act (PL 94-142) becomes federal law. It requires
    that a free, appropriate public education, suited
    to the student's individual needs, and offered in
    the least restrictive setting be provided for all
    "handicapped" children. States are given until
    1978 (later extended to 1981) to fully implement
    the law. (progressivist)
  • 1975 - Newsweek's December 8 cover story, "Why
    Johnny Can't Write," heats up the debate about
    national literacy and the back-to-the-basics
    movement (perennialist).

48
1970-1979
  • 1971 Federal court ruled that students with
    mental retardation are entitled to a free public
    education.
  • 1974 Federal Judge Arthur Garrity orders busing
    of African American students to predominantly
    white schools in order to achieve racial
    integration of public schools in Boston.
  • 1975 The Education of All Handicapped Children
    Act becomes federal law. It requires that a free,
    appropriate public education, suited to the
    student's individual needs, and offered in the
    least restrictive setting be provided for all
    "handicapped" children.
  • 1975 Back-to-the-basics movement heats up
    because of Newsweeks cover article Why Johnny
    Cant Write.
  • 1979 Department of Education is created,
    administered by Secretary of Education Shirley
    Hufstedler.
  • Social Behaviorist Perspective

49
1980 - 1989
  • Federal Government Involvement in Education
  • Department of Education (May, 1981) Federal
    funding and enforcement of federal educational
    laws
  • Secretary of Education
  • Shirley Hufstedler (First Secretary of Education)
  • Terrel Bell (A Nation at Risk The Imperative for
    Educational Reform)
  • President Regan (1981-1989) platform was against
    federal government in education. Promotion of
    social issues such as opposition of abortion to
    support of mandatory prayer in public school.
  • A Nation at Risk The Imperative For Educational
    Reform (18 member commission)
  • Responded to observations that the US was failing
    to meet our nations need for a competitive
    workforce.
  • Results showed
  • SAT scores dropped over 50 points in the verbal
    section and nearly 40 points in the math section
    between 1963 - 1980.
  • Nearly 40 of students could not draw inferences
    from written material.
  • Only 1/5 could write a persuasive essay and 1/3
    could solve multi-step mathematical problems.
  • Recommendations
  • Content 4 years of English, 3 years of math,
    science, and social studies and 1/2 year of
    computer science
  • Raised admission standards to enter college,
    consideration of longer school day and year, and
    salaries of teachers to become professionally
    competitive and performance based.
  • Noted, Federal government needed to protect the
    rights of special needs groups.
  • The 1989 Education Summit
  • Attended by the President and the nations
    Governors
  • National standards wont work by themselves. We
    need state and local standards as well.

50
1980-1989
  • Mt. Saint Helens Erupts (1980)
  • Sandra Day OConner became the first woman in
    Supreme Court (1981)
  • Reagan Announces Defense Plan Called Star
    Wars(1983)
  • Space Shuttle Challenger exploded 74 seconds
    after liftoff (1986)
  • Nancy Reagan launches Just Say No campaign
  • Berlin Wall Falls (1989)
  • What is happening in Education?
  • A Nation at Risk The Report of the National
    Commission on Excellence in Education (1983)-
    President Reagan supported the findings
  • A Nation Prepared Teachers for the Twenty-First
    Century (1989)
  • National Education Summit (1989)
  • Curriculum Perspective Essentialism

51
The 1990s
  • The rhetoric of standards continued to influence
    public education.
  • Both the federal government and business
    leaders expressed concern that American students
    were not performing as highly as their
    international counterparts. They demanded high
    standards that would be universal across all US
    school districts.
  • However, this demand for universal standards was
    at odds with the popular belief that schools
    should be controlled at a local level - by
    states or districts.

This pictures shows then-president Clinton
speaking at a Summit on Education for business
leaders and politicians.
  • As the tension between state control and federal
    standards developed, some communities created
    school choice programs such as charter schools or
    voucher systems.

52
The Nineties
  • 1990 - Congress enacts National Environmental
    Education Act
  • Computers allow increase in distance courses for
    higher ed.
  • ca. 1992, states increase investment in
    class-size reduction (focus K-3)
  • Late 90's Voucher Programs in Dayton, New York,
    and Wash. DC show increased test scores for
    African American students
  • 1994 Congress allows for funding of Tribal
    Education Departments through US dep. ed.

www.edutopia.org/ paul-tough-harlem-childrens-zone
53
2000-2004 Accountability, National Security
Economic Competitiveness
  • January 23, 2001 The No Child Left Behind Act
  • Standards-based education reform Setting high
    standards establishing measurable goals
  • An increased focus on reading
  • Federal mandates for rigorous student testing
  • Curriculum development trends include Curriculum
    mapping and backward design (Understanding by
    Design (UbD) model, for example)
  •  
  • September 11, 2001
  • Education for national security
  • The second Sputnik moment for foreign language
    education
  • Events lead to the National Security Language
    Initiative of 2006
  • International Convergence
  • Continued participation in international
    assessments
  • TIMSS Trends in International Mathematics and
    Science Study
  • PISA Programme for International Student
    Assessment

54
2000- 2004
  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act became law in
    2001. Public schools require to test third
    graders through eighth graders in reading and
    math annually.
  • The war on terrorism started with 9/11. The
    real war started in Afghanistan and Iraq in 2001
    and 2003 respectively.
  • NCLB Act expends the role of federal government
    role in education.
  • The law has the concept of essentialism in
    curriculum perspectives.

55
2005-present NCLB Dominates, Teachers Resist
  • Emphasis on standardized tests, threats of
    sanction and equal (vs. equitable) treatment
    shape the public school system.

http//www.stthomas.edu/magazine/2009/Winter/NCLB.
html
  • An essentialist perspective and a top down
    approach meet resistance from educators.

http//images.huffingtonpost.com/gen/54498/thumbs/
s-ARNE-large.jpg
Were poised for change, but unsure what will
come next.
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56
2005-Present
  • Extend NCLB testing mandates throughout public
    schools
  • Encourage rigorous and advanced coursework to
    improve academic performance
  • Schools have more flexibility to take into
    account local priorities and contexts
  • Curriculum fails to move away from the current
    overemphasis on academic subjects and downplaying
    of vocational skills
  • Barack Obama will reform No Child Left Behind
  • Invest in early childhood education
  • Promote efforts to enhance the rigor of
    state-level curriculum
  • Make college affordable to all Americans
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