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Child and Adolescent Development: Cognitive development

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Child and Adolescent Development: Cognitive development Week 2-1 Overview: Basic theoretical issues Cognitive-Developmental theory (Piaget) Sociocultural theory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Child and Adolescent Development: Cognitive development


1
Child and Adolescent DevelopmentCognitive
development
  • Week 2-1

2
Overview
  • Basic theoretical issues
  • Cognitive-Developmental theory (Piaget)
  • Sociocultural theory (Vygotsky)

3
1.Basic theoretical issues
  • Definition of development
  • Certain changes that occur in human beings
    between conception and death
  • Temporary change caused by a brief ill or drugs
    is not considered part of development
  • Can be divided into many different
    aspects,including physical development,personal
    development,social development, and cognitive
    development.

4
General principles of development
  • People develop at different rates
  • Development is relatively orderly
  • Development takes place gradually
  • Development is affected by both heredity and
    environment

5
2.Piagets Cognitive Theory
  • Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9,
    1896. 
  • In 1918, received his Doctorate in Science from
    the University of Neuchâtel. 
  • In 1952, he became a professor at the Sorbonne

6
Background of Cognitive Theory
  • Student of biology and zoology
  • Learned that survival requires adaptation
  • Any individual organism, as well as an entire
    species, must adapt to constant changes in the
    environment
  • Viewed development of human cognition/intelligence
    as the continual struggle of a very complex
    organism to adapt to complex environment

7
Piagets Cognitive Theory
  • Human development described in terms of functions
    and structures
  • Functions inborn biological mechanisms that are
    the same for everyone, remain unchanged during
    lifetime help construct internal cognitive
    structures
  • Structures change repeatedly during development
  • Schemes cognitive structures

8
Schemes
  • Fundamental aspect of theory
  • Not something that a child has, is what a child
    does
  • Relationships between two elements, an object in
    the environment and the childs reaction to the
    object
  • E.g., Ball - can push it, throw it, mouth it
  • Psychological structure, reflects childs
    underlying knowledge that guides interactions
    with the world.

9
Schemes
  • It is the nature and organization of schemes that
    define a childs intelligence at a given time.
  • Schemes are flexible, typically have a broad
    scope, change over time

10
Example
  • 3.5 years child reading the map of China
  • Shandong to Shanghai
  • Shandong to Beijing
  • How will we go from shanghai to beijing to call
    on someone?
  • Conclusion The child merges two schemes into a
    unit

11
Functions
  • Two major functions
  • 1) Organization Cognitive structures are related
    and fitted into the existing system.
  • Involves integration, not just adding on.
  • 2) Adaptation Tendency of the child to fit with
    its environment in ways that promote survival.
    (Sub-processes are assimilation and
    accommodation.)

12
Piagets Cognitive Theory
Constructivism
  • Childrens knowledge of events in the environment
    are not an exact reproduction of those events.
    Not like a photograph.
  • Children shape what they learn from their
    environments and shape it to fit with existing
    schemes.

13
Stages (periods) of development
  • Sensorimotor (0-24 months)
  • Preoperational period (Ages 2 to 6 years)
  • Concrete operational period (6 - 11 years)
  • Formal operations period (11 years - adulthood)

14
Sensorimotor stage (0 to 24 months)
  • Six substages
  • Reflexes graduate to more flexible action
    patterns
  • Show increasing levels of intentional and goal
    directed behavior
  • Begin to understand object permanence
  • Mental representation develops
  • Deferred imitation, make-believe play

15
Preoperational stage (24 months to 7 years)
  • Make-believe play becomes more complex, evolves
    to socio-dramatic play
  • Dual representation develops (realize that photos
    represent things in the world)
  • Helps preschoolers understand others
    perspectives
  • Still quite egocentric
  • Animistic thinking
  • Conservation and hierarchical classification
    still difficult

16
Teaching preoperational child
  • Use concrete and visual aids
  • Short instruction with actions and words
  • Pay attention to the inconsistent perspectives
  • More hands-on practice
  • When learning concepts and language,provide a
    wide range of experiences

17
Concrete Operational stage (7 to 11 years)
  • Thought becomes more logical and organized
  • Conservation develops Shows that kids can
    de-centre and reverse their thinking
  • Seriation and inference develops
  • Cognitive maps develop
  • Cultural practices and education have a profound
    effect at this stage

18
Teaching the concrete-operational students
  • Use concrete props and visual aids
  • Give students chances to manipulate and test
    objects
  • Presentation and readings should be brief and
    well-organized
  • Use familiar examples to explain complex ideals
  • Give opportunities to classify and group objects
    and ideals on increasingly complex levels
  • Present questions the need logical,analytical
    thinking

19
Formal Operational stage (11 years )
  • Abstract thinking appears
  • Deductive reasoning emerges
  • Even many university students only think in
    abstract ways on topics with which they have
    extensive experience.

20
Teaching formal operational students
  • Continue to use concrete-operational teaching
    strategies and materials
  • Give students the opportunity to explore many
    hypothetical questions
  • Give students opportunities to solve problems and
    reason scientifically
  • If possible, teach broad concepts, not just
    facts,using materials relevant to the real life

21
Educational implications
  • Children is not small adults
  • Understanding students thinking
  • Teaching based on the developmental levels of
    students thinking
  • Learning is a constructive process

22
Limitations of Piagets Theory
  • The trouble with stages(lack of consistency in
    childrens thinking)
  • Underestimating childrens abilities
  • Childrens trouble with Piagetian tasks can be
    explained by information processing theory
  • (neo-Piagetian theories )
  • Cant explain youths thinking(post-formal
    operation)
  • Overlooking the effects of culture and social
    group

23
3.Vygotskys Sociocultural theory
  • Born on November 5, 1896 in Byelorussia (Soviet
    Union)
  • He was first educated as lawyer and a philologist
  • He began his career as a psychologist in1917 and
    only pursued this career for 17 years before his
    death from tuberculosis in 1934.

24
Basic viewpoints
  • Emphasized the way that values, beliefs, customs,
    and skills of a culture/social group influence
    children
  • Focused on dialogues between children and more
    experienced members of society
  • Language leads to self-talk and the development
    of cognition, and later metacognition
  • (errors in text p44)

25
Vygotskys theories
  • Cultural tools theory
  • Private/self speech theory
  • Theory of zone of proximal development

26
Cultural tools theory
  • Social interaction is the origin of individual
    thinking
  • Cultural tools,including real tools and symbolic
    tools play very important roles in cognitive
    development
  • Higher-order metal processes are mediated by
    psychological tools

27
Private speech theory
  • Children speak to themselves for self-guidance
  • Start doing this openly, then to self (you may
    see their lips move)
  • Language forms the foundation for all higher
    cognitive processes
  • Children with learning difficulties show more
    private speech over a longer period

28
Private speech and self-regulation
  • First, behavior is regulated by others
  • Next, using the same language to regulated
    others behavior
  • Third , using private speech to regulate ones own
    behavior
  • Finally, regulated his/her behavior by silent
    inner speech

29
Theory of zone of proximal development
  • A The area where child can solve a problem alone
  • B Problems beyond the childrens capabilities
  • C Zone of proximal development the area where
    the child cant solve a problem alone,but can be
    successful under adult guidance or in
    collaboration with a more advanced peer
  • Instruction should be given in the ZPD

30
Implications of Vygotsgys theory for teachers
  • Assisted learning
  • Scaffolding
  • From heteronomous to autonomous
  • The zone of proximal development
  • Assessment of learning potential
  • Guide students by explanations,demonstrations,and
    with other students

31
Differences between Piaget and Vygotskys theories
Piaget Vygotsky
Background
Course of Development
Agents of Development
Implications
32
Pause and Discussion
  • What makes the differences between Piagets
    and Vygotskys theories?

33
Application and Generation
  • Analyse the reasons why your English study are
    relatively ineffective.
  • Design a suitable project for enhancing your
    English performance.

34
The End
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