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CSI2911 / SEG2911 / ELG2911 Professional Practice Pratique

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CSI2911 / SEG2911 / ELG2911 Professional Practice Pratique professionnelle TOPIC 1 Introduction, History of Computing & Engineering Histoire d informatique et de g nie – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CSI2911 / SEG2911 / ELG2911 Professional Practice Pratique


1
CSI2911 / SEG2911 / ELG2911 Professional Practice
Pratique professionnelle
  • TOPIC 1
  • Introduction,
  • History of Computing Engineering
  • Histoire dinformatique et de génie
  • Some of the material in these slides is derived
    from slides produced by Sara Basse, the Author of
    the Gift of Fire textbook , and also other
    professors who have taught this course including
    Stan Matwin, Liam Peyton, Emil Petriu and Claude
    DAmours

2
Outline of the course / Plan du cours
  • See the syllabus on the web / Voir le syllabus
  • http//www.site.uottawa.ca/tcl/eecs2911/
  • Many of the slides are adapted from those
    supplied by the textbook authors, and other
    professors who have taught this course including
    Emil Petriu, Stan Matwin, Claude DAmours,
    Carlisle Adams, and Liam Peyton

3
Teaching assistants / assistants à l'enseignement
  • Yang Xue YXUE063_at_uottawa.ca
  • Nima Zaker NZAKE034_at_uottawa.ca
  • Martin Scaiano MSCAI056_at_uottawa.ca
  • Xiaoguang Wang BWANG009_at_uottawa.ca
  • Naouar Yaagoubi NYAAG070_at_uottawa.ca (devoirs en
    Français)

4
Why this course? (1) Pourquoi ce cours?
  • Computing and electrical engineering have a
    tremendous positive impact we want to enhance
  • Informatique et de génie électrique ont un impact
    extrêmement positif que nous voulons améliorer
  • E.g.
  • Allowing us to communicate and access information
    in ways we never imagined / Ils nous permettent
    de communiquer et d'accéder à l'information de
    façon que nous n'avons jamais imaginé
  • Giving us entertainment and fun / Ils nous
    donnent divertissement et de plaisir
  • Stimulating the economy with business
    opportunities / Ils stimulent l'économie avec des
    activités commerciales

5
Why this course? (2) Pourquoi ce cours?
  • Positive / Positif
  • Generating medical breakthroughs by analysing the
    genome and proteome / Ils génèrent des des
    découvertes médicales en analysant le génome et
    du protéome
  • Creating and distributing the energy civilization
    needs / Ils créent et distribuent l'énergie
    nécessaire à civilisation
  • Making us all more productive and comfortable at
    work and play / Ils nous font tous plus
    productifs et à l'aise quand nous travaillons et
    jouons
  • Automating uninteresting, repetitive tasks / Ils
    automatisent les tâches qui sont sans intérêt ou
    répétitif

6
Why this course? (3) Pourquoi ce cours?
  • But, technology can have a tremendous negative
    impact we want to avoid / Mais, la technologie
    peut avoir un impact négatif énorme que nous
    voulons éviter
  • Disasters and other societal problems can be
    caused by / Les catastrophes et d'autres
    problèmes de société peut être causée par
  • Critical incidents where technology was at fault
    / Les incidents critiques où la technologie était
    en faute
  • Planes, trains, spaceships and automobiles
    crashing / Accidents d'avions, les trains, les
    vaisseaux spatiaux et les voitures
  • Overdosing patients / surdosage des patients
  • Failures of financial systems / Défaillances des
    systèmes financiers

7
Why this course? (4) Pourquoi ce cours?
  • Negative / Negatif
  • Management failures / Échecs majeurs de gestion
  • Huge cost over-runs from poorly run projects /
    Énormes dépassements de coûts des projets mal
    gérés
  • Privacy breaches / violations de la
    confidentialité
  • The actions of hackers and other criminals / Les
    actions des pirates et autres criminels
  • Etc.

8
The solution Professionalism / La solution le
professionnalisme
  • Taking responsibility for our work / Assumer la
    responsabilité pour le travail que nous faisons
  • Pride in quality work / La fierté de la qualité
    du travail
  • Acting ethically to clients, colleagues,
    management, society and the environment / Agir de
    façon éthique pour les clients, les collègues, la
    direction, la société et l'environnement

9
Professionalism(e) (2)
  • Ensuring we are
  • properly educated
  • know a little of the history of our field
  • have depth of understanding
  • apply best practices
  • S'assurer que
  • nous sommes bien renseignés
  • nous connaissons un peu de l'histoire de notre
    domaine,
  • nous avons profondeur de compréhension
  • nous appliquons les meilleures pratiques

10
Professionalism(e) (3)
  • Understanding risks, preventing failures /
    Comprendre les risques et la prévention des
    échecs
  • Continual improvement of ourselves, our
    profession and our technology / L'amélioration
    continue de nous-mêmes, notre profession et notre
    technologie

11
Disciplines in EECS (1)
  • Electrical engineers / Les ingénieurs électriques
  • Since 1800s
  • Design power, electronics, communication, control
    systems, instrumentation and devices
  • Computer scientists / Les informaticiens
  • Since 1940s
  • Develop software, data structures, algorithms,
    hardware and scientific underpinnngs of computing

12
Disciplines in EECS (2)
  • Computer engineers / Les ingénieurs
    informaticiens
  • Offshoot of EE and CS in 1970s
  • Design hardware and hardware-software systems
  • Software engineers / Les ingénieurs logiciels
  • Offshoot of computer science in 1980s
  • Apply engineering methods to large scale software

13
Background questions / Questions générales
  • Answer with Top Hat Monocle
  • What program are you in? / Dans quel programme
    êtes-vous inscrit?
  • How well do you understand English? / Comment
    comprenez-vous langlais?
  • How well do you understand French? / Comment
    comprenez-vous le français?

14
Historical perspective Antiquity
  • Science
  • Geometry, Algebra, Philosophy,
  • Production of goods and services
  • Artisans, Guilds
  • Engineering
  • Military Engineering
  • Early civil engineering Heating systems,
    viaducts

15
Historical perspective 17th - 18th Century
  • Science
  • Calculus, Logic, Chemistry, Physics
  • Production of goods and services
  • Still largely artisans and guilds
  • Engineering
  • Civil and Mechanical engineering

16
Historical perspective 19th Century
  • Science
  • Rapid advances in all areas. Biology develops
  • Production of goods and services
  • Industrial revolution railroads for distribution
  • Engineering
  • Many core principles developed
  • Ability to draw up specifications based on an
    understanding of the science and engineering
    principles
  • Automobiles, telegraph, telephone, electricity,
    control
  • Mechanical computing Punched cards at IBM

17
Early 20th Century
  • Early concepts underlying computer science
  • Information theory, concepts of computability
  • Mass production
  • World wars Horror, but impetus for innovation
  • Key disasters See coming slides
  • Quebec bridge Engineering in Canada
  • New London School Explosion Engineering in the
    US

18
Quebec Bridge Disaster Aug 29, 1907
  • Quebec Bridge is (still) the longest cantilevered
    span in the world 550m
  • Le pont de Quebec est le plus long en porte-
    a-faux au monde 550,
  • Collapsed during construction in 1907
  • Lepont sest effondré pendant sa construction en
    1907
  • 75 workers killed / 75 morts

19
Quebec Bridge Disaster - 2
  • Bedrock location determined span length
  • Theodore Cooper (New York) hired as consulting
    engineer.
  • Responsible for design and guaranteeing bridge
    strength
  • Beams, columns, shipped from Pennsylvania
  • Two halves built from each shore to meet in the
    middle

20
Quebec Bridge Disaster - 3
  • As south side reached 200m, some compression
    members started bending
  • Serious Site engineer McLure
  • Construction suspended
  • Exchange of telegrams with Cooper for 3 weeks
  • McLure then travels to New York
  • Cooper convinced
  • Add no more load till after due consideration

21
Quebec Bridge Disaster - 4
  • Chief site engineer Hoare mistakenly resumed work
  • Collapse
  • Royal commission findings
  • Serious errors in design
  • Actual stresses above safe limits
  • Consulting engineer Cooper rarely visited
  • Chief site engineer Hoare not technically
    competent to supervise
  • Communication problems

22
Quebec Bridge Disaster - 5
  • A realization developed that only competent,
    ethical people should practice engineering
  • Professional engineering licensing introduced
  • Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer (iron
    ring) instituted
  • Another collapse in 1916 when hoisting new middle
    section into place kills 13
  • Bridge finally completed in 1917
  • Still in use, although a modern autoroute bridge
    is now next to it

23
Quebec and Pierre Laporte bridges today
24
New London School Explosion March 1937
  • Gas explosion due to faulty engineering killed
    over 295 students and teachers
  • Prompted Texas and other states to require
    engineering licensure

25
Some professions requiring a license
  • Engineering / Génie
  • Because most designs (buildings, airplanes,
    power systems) can cause harm if they fail.
  • But not everybody has a license!
  • Medicine, nursing, dentistry etc. / Médecine,
    sciences infirmières, dentisterie, etc
  • Malpractice can kill
  • Teaching / enseignement
  • Children are vulnerable
  • Geoscience /géosciences Chartered
    Accounting/comptabilité
  • Fake or wrong results can cause great financial
    harm

26
Trades requiring a license
  • Plumbing
  • Electrician
  • Hairdressing
  • A trade does not require a university degree

27
Professions not requiring a license (yet)
  • Most sciences
  • Peer review is used for quality control
  • University teaching (except of some licensed
    professions)
  • Computer programming
  • The field grew too large before anybody thought
    about this
  • A lot of software is not safety critical

28
Question for discussion / à discuter
  • Should some computer science practice also be
    subject to a license (restricted practice?) just
    like engineering
  • Est-ce que certaines pratiques de l'informatique
    devraient également être soumis à une licence
    (exercice restreint?)

29
A Few Key People in Electrical Engineering
  • Volta, Ampere, Ohm, Faraday, Maxwell Key
    electrical scientists that developed core
    concepts
  • Joseph Fourier Fourier Transform
  • Samuel Morse, Charles Bright Telegraphy
  • Edison, Bell, Tesla, Westinghouse, Marconi Key
    innovators in power, telephony and radio
  • Claude Shannon Information theory
  • Charles Jenkins, Philo Farnsworth, John Baird TV
  • Darlington, Shockley Transistors
  • Jack Kilby, Robert Noyce Integrated circuits

30
A Few Key People in Computer Science
  • Boole Boolean logic
  • Blaise Pascal, Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace
    mechanical calculating devices
  • Alan Turing, John Von Neumann, Church key
    concepts of algorithms and computing
  • Grace Hopper Compilers
  • Vanevar Bush, Tim Berners-Lee Hypertext, WWW
  • Edsger Dijkstra, CAR Hoare Algorithms
  • Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg, Bjarne Stroustrup
    Object orientation
  • Donald Knuth The Art of Computer Programming
  • Marvin Minsky, Herbert Simon Artificial
    Intelligence
  • Niklaus Wirth, John McCarthy Programming
    languages
  • Bill Joy, Linus Torvalds Unix/Linux
  • Bill Gates, Steve Jobs Corporate innovators

31
Key companies
  • Consolidated Edison
  • General Electric
  • Westinghouse
  • IBM
  • ATT
  • Xerox
  • Digital Equipment Corporation / Compaq / HP
  • Sperry / Unisys
  • Northern Electric -gt Northern Telecom -gt Nortel
  • Microsoft
  • Apple
  • Google

32
Key institutions
  • AIEE IRE IEEE 129 years of history
  • IEE -gt IET Electrical Engineering in Britain
  • ACM Association for Computing Machinery
  • CIPS Canadian Information Processing Society

33
Rapid Pace of Change
  • 1940s The first computer is built
  • 1956 First hard-disk drive weighed a ton and
    stored five megabytes
  • 1964 Attempts at having a computer act like a
    human
  • Eliza http//www.manifestation.com/neurotoys/eliza
    .php3
  • 1991 Space shuttle had a one-megahertz computer
  • Today Pocket devices hold a terabyte (230 109
    bytes) of data
  • Today Automobiles have many 1GHz computers

34
Recent and upcoming developments Electronics and
power systems
  • Spintronics harnessing electron spin
  • Memristors Low power consumption devices
    (memory resistors)
  • When current flows in one direction, resistance
    increases
  • When current flows in the other direction
    resistance decreases.
  • Ubiquitous photovoltaics
  • Smart grid

35
Recent and Upcoming Developments Converged
pocket devices
  • Until recently you might need to carry
    separately
  • Cell phone, GPS, calculator, iPod, dictionary,
    game console, first aid manual, camera, video
    camera, carpenters level, book
  • Now these and much, much more are all in one
    device
  • Other upcoming technologies for cell phones
  • TV, environmental sensor, TV remote, satellite
    radio, credit/debit card substitute, garage door
    opener, language interpreter, integration with
    cordless phones (like Femtocells), microscope,
    telescope, facial recognition
  • But
  • Using these devices while driving is a problem
  • They can interfere with solitude, quiet and
    concentration
  • Cameras in cell phones present privacy issues

36
Recent and Upcoming Developments Artificial
Intelligence and Robotics
  • Artificial intelligence can solve a number of
    expert, difficult tasks
  • Machine translation is becoming closer to reality
  • Robotic devices are often special-purpose
    devices, and may require AI to function
  • Can operate in space, in hazardous situations, or
    perform routine physically laborious tasks
  • Machine Learning and Data Mining methods or
    algorithms enable adaptive systems
  • Can help us understand patterns in data, e.g. for
    weather and business forecasting, detecting
    security violations etc.

37
Recent and Upcoming Developments Assisting the
disabled
  • Restoration of abilities, productivity and
    independence
  • Screen readers and scanners for the blind
  • Speech recognition for the deaf
  • Prosthetics with motion sensors

38
What other innovation is coming?
  • Encrypted medical records on chips attached to
    medical bracelets or on your cell phone
  • Biology, electrical engineering and computer
    sciences will combine new ways to insert devices
    into the body
  • Communicate directly with the brain
  • Control the world by thought
  • Monitor health constantly

39
Discussion Questions
  • What changes and new developments do you expect
    in the next 50 years?
  • Top Hat Monocle In 2-3 words name the technology
    you are most looking forward to / En 2-3 mots
    nommer la technologie à laquelle vous êtes le
    plus d'impatience
  • How will life be different than it is today?

40
But what problems do we need to deal with?
  • Criminals, terrorists and hostile governments
    also have the power of computing at their
    disposal
  • Combating these requires restrictions and
    inconveniences
  • Personal data can leak out, reducing privacy
  • Some people become less social due to interacting
    more and more with technology
  • Fire was a gift when our ancestors discovered it
    but it has also caused a lot of destruction
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