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Wars of Religion: 16th Century Europe after Luther


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Title: Wars of Religion: 16th Century Europe after Luther

Wars of Religion 16th Century Europe after
Basic Developments in Europe 1500s
  • Francetime of conflicts
  • Who will ruleregional aristocracies, oligarchic
    noble families, royal house, king?
  • Will French domains be Catholic, allow
    Protestantism, what kind of Protestantism?
  • Britaintime of development
  • Will Britain continue in the path of
    Protestantism or return to Catholicism
  • Will Britain get respect as a major iimperial
    power in the face of Spanish competition
  • Spain
  • Will Spain hang on to its role as dominant world
  • What is the role of Spain in religious conflicts?
  • HRE
  • Will the HRE be torn apart by foreign monarchs as
    the major war between Protestants and Catholics
    rages in German speaking lands
  • Russia
  • Russia struggles for nationhood against powerful
  • Who will rulefights between nobles and ruler

  • Beginning of Absolutism monarch is supreme can
    exercise full and complete power over nation and
    subjects without any check of law
  • Huguenots people who do not accept the Catholic
    churchgeneral term for French protestants,
    whether Calvinist or one of the other groups

Background Charles VII (1422-61)
  • Presided over French recovery from 100 Years War
  • Expelled English definitively from France
  • 1st professional royal army recruited, paid,
    commanded by the state, not feudal lords
  • Pragmatic Sanction
  • declared the supremacy of council decisions over
  • suppressed payment of annates or first fruits
    (Catholic churchs/popes right to half of the
    first years salary of any appointed church
    official) The pope also got 1/10 of the
    officials salary after that first year.

Charles VIII (ruled 1483-98)
  • Valois family/son of Louis XI 13 at succession
    sister regent, married to a Bourbon
  • Regarded as pleasant and foolish, with bad health
  • At 21 married heiress (resulting in 4 children,
    who all died young) and declared self independent
  • French/Italian Wars
  • Claim to Naples through maternal grandma
  • Sforza convinces him to invade N Italy, help him
    in Milan vs his son
  • Triumphal through N Italy
  • Alliance to oppose him Venice, papal states,
    Austria, and ironically, Milan
  • Defeated at Fornovo, lost most of his army, and
    went home to rebuild
  • Ran into the door frame, died, no heirs
  • Consequences Italian Renaissance to France

Louis XII (ruled 1498-1515)
  • Actually a cousin of Charles VIII, who died
    without an heir, he married Charless wife to
    cement relationship with her father (Brittany)
  • He married three wives trying to beget an heir
    had two daughters by first wife
  • French-Italian Wars, continued
  • Claimed Milan, so invaded Italy several time
  • Successfully took Milan from Sforza in 1499 and
    kept it until 1511
  • Pope Julius lead armies against his forces with
    support of The Holy League (note the namebecause
    it was lead by the pope) which included Venice
    and England, Scotland, Austria, etc who came in
    and out throughout the wars.
  • The French were eventually driven from Milan by
    the Swiss in 1513.
  • French-Italian Wars, continued again
  • He pursued the French claim to Naples, fighting
    against Spain. Finally, the two countries
    partitioned the kingdom of course, the peace
    didnt last long.
  • Spain and France again fought for Naples the
    consequence French lost by 1504.

Francis I (ruled 1515-1547)
  • Father first cousin to Louis XII married to
    his daughter (but Salic Law women couldnt
    inherit the throne)
  • True Renaissance King
  • Fontanbleau employed Cellini and others start
    of whats in Louvre now
  • DaVinci d. in his arms
  • Educated, wrote poetry
  • Began French national library he signed law
    that decreed one copy every book published in
    France to be sent to national library

Chateau of Fontanbleu
  • Habsburg-Valois Wars 1-2
  • To check Habsburg power
  • Italy, wo central government, vulnerable ruled
    Milan until 1513
  • Allied with Henry VIII vs Charles V
  • Battle of Pavia Francis lead the armies himself
  • Defeated by the armies of Charles V
  • Captured to go home he had to sign
  • Treaty of Madrid
  • renounced his claims in Italy
  • surrendered Burgundy to Charles
  • Turned over Flanders and Artois..
  • Refused to abide by the treaty, which hed signed
    under duress, so attacked again
  • League of Cognac (1526) with Pope Clement VII,
    Henry VIII, Venice, and Florence
  • Defeated again ended with Treaty of Cambrai
  • Left Burgundy to France, but otherwise duplicated
    the Treaty of Madrid

The Battle of Pavia
Hapsburg Valois Wars 3-4
  • Francis invaded the 3rd time when Francis Sforza,
    of Milan died
  • Claimed succession there, invaded Italy
  • In turn, Charles invaded Provence, again defeated
  • Fourth time attacked the emperor, who allied
    himself (1543) with Henry VIII.
  • Supported by Ottoman Turk, Sultan Sulayman I
    (Suleiman), invaded Italy (again!)
  • Charles and Henry VIII invade France
  • Treaty of Crépy Francis relinquishes claims to
    Naples, Flanders, and Artois. Peace with England
    (1546) confirmed the loss of Boulogne.

Francis I and the Reformation
  • By 1519, there were people in Paris who were
    sympathetic to ideas of Luther and Zwingli.
  • However, Luther condemned as a heretic, Parlement
    of Paris ordered Luthers books burned, all
    versions of the Bible except the Latin Vulgate
  • At first, Francis I's attitude toward the
    Reformed ideas fluctuated between sympathy and
  • To gain the support of Parlement and the Sorbonne
    when Charles held Francis prisoner, Louise of
    Savoy, the king's mother and regent, okd
    suppression of heretical books and a commission
    to find and punish heretics.
  • On the king's return, at first favored reform,
    and even appointed Lefvre as tutor to his son.
  • In 1528, when a statue of the Virgin was
    mutilated, he ordered persecutions.
  • In 1532, to ally with the German Protestants and
    with England, where Henry VIII was antipapal, he
    changed again, favored reform once more, and in
    the royal palace of the Louvre listened to
    evangelical sermons.

  • 1534 "Affair of the Placards."
  • Placards, attacking the Mass, posted in Paris
    and elsewhere, one even on the door of the king's
  • Response renewed persecution many heretics
    were burned and others fled death declared
    penalty for heretics. (Calvin left Paris at this
    time because he was in danger)
  • Later on, Francis became a consistent persecutor
    of heretics, by then 1/10 of population.
  • Edict of Fontainebleau persecution of
    heretics, mostly middle, lower classes.
  • The Sorbonne issued list of banned books
    printing and selling of Protestant works
    forbidden in France.
  • In 1545 terrible destruction of the Waldensians
    in Provence, with twenty-two villages destroyed,
    3-4000 massacred, 700 sent to the galleys for
    heresy (Protestantism).
  • In 1546, the "Fourteen of Meaux," burned at

Concordat of Bologna
  • Between Francis I and Pope Leo X
  • Terms
  • Pope got
  • All the income of the Catholic church in France
  • Papal veto of any leader the King of France chose
    that was deemed truly
  • Right to annates (which often lead to shuffling
    of prelates among dioceses
  • Affirmation that the Pope not subject to any
  • Francis got
  • Right to tithe churchmen
  • Restriction of their right to appeal to Rome
  • Right to appoint to benefices (especially
    archbishops, bishops, abbots), enabling the Crown
    to decide who was to lead the Church in France.
  • Consequences No easy reformation agreement in
    France because kings had no reason to support
    one. Sets up religious wars between Protestants
    and Catholics there

Henry II (r 1547-59)
  • His reign was marked by open conflict between
    Catholics and Protestants in France during the
    reigns of his three sons, kings after his death,
    9 wars religious wars devastated France
  • Habsburg-Valois Wars, continued
  • War in Italy, with some success, until Charles V
    abdicated, when his son, Philip, and brother,
    Ferdinand, split his empire
  • War continued in Flanders, with mixed success and
    French sacking of Spanish cities there
  • Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, a treaty forced on
    Henry, made him renounce all claims to Italy,
    allowed him to retain some Flemish areas.
  • Part of the settlement his daughter married
  • He arranged for his son to marry the young Mary,
    Queen of Scotland he brought her into his court
    to be raised there, hoping to use her in
    alliances against the Habsburgs.
  • Persecution of Huguenots
  • burned them alive or cut out their tongues for
    speaking their Protestant beliefs.
  • Even those suspected of being Huguenots could be
    imprisoned for life.

Wife Catherine de Medici
  • Catherine de Medici, daughter in last Florentine
    Medici dynasty (Lorenzo II)
  • Overshadowed by Diane de Poitiers, longtime
    confidante and counsellor, as well as mistress,
    to Henry
  • Important because she was mother and regent to
    three kings
  • Her uncle, Pope Clement VII, refused Henry VIIIs
    request for annulment he arranged her marriage
    because he wanted an alliance with Francis
    against Charles V

Longtime Confidante, Counselor, Mistress
  • Diane de Poitiers
  • Early life
  • married a relative of Francis I, had two girls
  • widowed, controlled her husbands lands, ruling
  • canny at both politics and finances.
  • In charge of Henrys education as courtier once
    returned from Spain, (three years as hostage in
    place of his father
  • A sharp intellect,
  • So politically astute she wrote many of Henry
    IIs official letters, signing them HenriDiane.
  • "brains behind the throne".
  • confidence, maturity, loyalty to Henri II most
    dependable ally in the court.
  • Henry IIs total adoration for Diane -- jealousy
    in Queen
  • Henri entrusted Diane with the Crown Jewels of
  • had a luxurious chateau built for her, and gave
    her another palace that Catherine had wanted for
  • As long as Henry lived, the Queen was powerless
    to change Dianes power.
  • In 1559, Henry II critically wounded in a
    jousting tournament Queen Catherine de' Medici
    took control, restricting access
  • Story the king called out repeatedly for Diane,
    but she was never summoned or admitted on his
    death, not invited to the funeral.
  • Immediately, Catherine banished Diane from the
    palace Catherine wanted Diane lived out her
    life in her own palace.

Henry IIs Death
Jousting to celebrate his daughters marriage to
Philip II, a lance penetrated through helmet to
right eye, skull died 11 days later
The Problem with a Regency Government
  • When a strong king isnt in power, aristocracy
    and nobility takes advantage to advance in power
    and authority
  • Three families and their supporters fought over
    power in France
  • Catherine de Medicis job
  • play the families against each other, without
    seeming to favor any, to keep a balance of power
    among them and keep them from taking power or the
  • reserve real power for the monarchy, in trust for
    her son, the king, who was still too young to
    govern and make his own alliances

The Players for Power
  • Bourbon family
  • Montmorency Chatillon family
  • De Guise family
  • Added together with weak young kings and a strong
    willed and religious queen, the recipe adds up to
    disaster and death,

Bourbon Family
  • Originally from a family in France whose heiress
    daughter married a son of Louis IX
  • Since they descended from a king, the family was
    prominent and had legitimate claims to the throne
    when the king died without heir.
  • During the wars of religion, several branches of
    the family played important parts
  • Louis I de Bourbon, prince of Conde and general
    in the French army against the Spanish, was a
    converted Huguenot, and lead Protestant armies,
    then was captured in 1562. He negotiated peace
    with the Catholics (Peace of Amboise), which
    didnt last, and was killed in battle.
  • At the beginning of the 16th C, a Bourbon was
    married to the Queen of Navarre, a small mountain
    kingdom sitting on the border of Spain in
    southwestern France the queen followed
    Calvinism, and made Navarre Calvinist.
  • In 1572, their son Henry became king of Navarre
    and leader of the Protestant forces in Western

Montmorency-Chatillon families
  • Prominent rulers of central France
  • Though Catholic, these supported the Protestants
    because of their political rivalry with the
    Guises, alliances with the Bourbons
  • Major player Gaspard de Coligny, a friend of a
    major Catholic leader (de Guise), he was
    converted to Protestantism, then used his
    position as admiral to try to protect them
    (established a colony in Brazil, but the
    Portuguese expelled them)
  • Called for religious toleration and reform at
    death of Henry II, but opposed by his former
    Catholic friend (Guise)
  • Lead Protestant armies well, he negotiated peace,
    which didnt last
  • He married a Countess and returned to court and
    got the favor of the king, which worried the
    (very Catholic) queen mother and regent.

The de Guise family
  • From Lorraine (dukes of Lorraine), created Duke
    de Guise by Francis I
  • His daughter married James V of Scotland Mary,
    Queen of Scots, was their daughter
  • When she came to France as bride of Francis II,
    the family gained more prestige
  • Through her charm and love of the not-quite-all
    there, King Francis II, Mary wielded more and
    more influence through him
  • Her uncles, who had high positions in the French
    government (one was also a cardinal), gained
    great power in France
  • They lead the Catholic League, organized
    opponents of the Huguenots in France

Francis II
  • Married to Mary, Queen of Scots, at 4 (She was
    crowned queen at 9 months.) They married when he
    was 14, giving the king of France claim to the
    thrones of Scotland, and later, England.
  • At 6 Mary came to live in France she was poised
    and fluent he stuttered and very short
  • When Francis was 15, his father died, and he was
    crowned king. Though Catherine was regent,
    Marys uncles, the Guises, held the real power.
  • When Francis was 16, an ear infection turned into
    an abscess, and he died.

Charles IX (r 1560-74)
  • Became king at age 10 when Francis, his older
    brother, died his mother, again, was regent.
  • Married to a princess of Austria with whom he had
    two daughters one illegitimate son from his
    middle class mistress (whose legitimate daughter
    became mistress to Henry IV), but no male heirs!
  • Involved in St. Bartholomews Day Massacre

St. Bartholomews Day Massacre
  • Causes
  • Peace of St. Germaine en Laye 1570 ended 3rd
    war of religion in France
  • Leader, Conde, killed Henry (Bourbon) of Navarre
    became leader of the Huguenots
  • Henry and King Charles sign treaty Catherine
    and Charles want peace because the war costs too
    much money and the conflict divides the court
  • Treaty allows Protestants to keep walled cities
    in the South, hold office in France, and to seal
    the treaty, Catherine gives her daughter
    Marguerite (Cath) as wife for Henry of Navarre
  • Consequence Admiral de Coligny again accepted
    at court, becomes friend with the king, worrying
    Catherine and arousing resentment of de Guise
  • Marriage of Henry of Navarre and Marguerite 18
    Aug 1572
  • Opposed by Catholics, the pope, Philip II
    Parlement of Paris decides to boycott wedding
  • Common people aroused against Protestants and
    wedding by preaching of super-Catholic Capuchin
    monks in Paris
  • Economic/Social conditions
  • Resentment over luxurious preparations for the
  • Harvests bad luxury good prices so high, only
    very rich can afford them

  • What started it
  • Failed assassination attempt on Admiral de
    Coligny 23 Aug
  • Maurevent
  • Possible instigators?
  • Duke Henry of Lorraine (de Guise) leader of
    Catholic League, to avenge the murder of Francis
    de Guise by Coligny 10 years before
  • Duke of Alba, Spanish governor of the Netherlands
    (under Philip II) because Coligny was planning to
    invade and take Protestants cities in Flanders
    the summer before Coligny had secretly sent
    troops to back Protestant revolts there
  • Catherine de Medici, threatened by the influence
    of Coligny over her son, the king however, she
    and her son were trying to establish peace
    between Protestants and Catholics, so probably

What happened
  • Protestant leaders accompanied Henry of Navarre
    to Paris at the marriage of Henry of Navarre to
    Marguerite (Margot), Catherines daughter
  • After much haranguing, Charles agreed to allow
    Swiss mercenaries, directed by Henry de Guise, to
    massacre Protestants in Paris for wedding
  • Originally, proposed to allow noble born
    Protestants to escape
  • Reportedly, Charles exclaimed, Kill them all.
    None should be left to reproach me!
  • First, de Guise killed Coligny in his sickbed,
    dragging body into streets
  • Swiss guard dragged Protestant leaders out of the
    palace, to kill them in the streets
  • Marguerite hid Henry of Navarre so that he would
    not be killed he escaped Paris during the
    massacres, got back to his Protestant forces in
    the south.
  • Out of control, the populace went wild, killing
    anyone suspected of having Protestant sympathies
  • The massacre spread throughout the country
    usually lower class peasants urged on by
    religious fanatics, rose up and killed Protestant
    middle class, peasants, etc.
  • Estimates 2,000 killed in Paris (gates locked
    so they couldnt escape) probably around 10,000
    killed in the countryside, but estimates range
    from 2,000 to 100,000

Henry III (ruled 1574-89)
  • Ruled Lithuania until his brother Charles died
  • Edict of Beaulieu
  • Minor concessions to Protestants
  • Catholic Henry de Guise formed the Catholic
    League (religious and military party supported
    by Catherine, the pope, Philip II of Spain)
  • Henry III accepted the League and made himself
    the head BUT
  • Assassination of Henry de Guise
  • When Henry IIIs younger brother died, next heir
    under Salic Law was Henry of Navarre (head of the
    Protestants!) Henry III had no children
    probably gay adopted very effeminate dress and
    ran around with homosexuals
  • De Guise insisted on Henry III making a
    proclamation outlawing Protestantism and
    disinheriting Henry of Navarre
  • Henry III had de Guise assassinated he invited
    him and his Cardinal brother, Louis, to await him
    in the palace, then had guards kill Henry (Louis
    the next day) he imprisoned de Guises son so
    no Guise heir could claim the throne.
  • War of Three Henries (Henry III, Henry de Guise
    (dead), Henry of Navarre)
  • Inflamed by the assassination, the Catholic
    League rose up against Henry III, proclaiming
    Charles Bourbon (another imprisoned cardinal) as
    Charles X
  • Henry III was forced to flee Paris and ally with
    Henry of Navarre
  • With both Henrys armies, they were besieging
    Paris when a crazed Dominican monk, Jacques
    Clement, with false papers, pretended to have
    messages for Henry III, got access, and stabbed
    him to death.

Henry IV (Bourbon)
  • Called Henry the Great (Henri le Grand), le bon
    roi Henri ("good king Henry") or le Vert galant
    ("the Green gallant").
  • Baptized Catholic, he converted to Calvinism, his
    mothers religion.
  • When Henry III died, he was next in line to
    become king.
  • The Catholic League opposed him, proclaiming a
    distant relative,

Henry IV Winning the Monarchy
  • Catholic League with support from outside,
    especially from Spain, was strong enough to force
    Henry IV to stay to the south
  • Henry had to set about winning his kingdom by
    military conquest, aided by money and troops
    bestowed by Elizabeth of England.
  • The League proclaimed Henry's Catholic uncle, the
    Cardinal de Bourbon King as Charles X, but the
    Cardinal himself was Henry's prisoner. Henry was
    victorious in battles against the League, but
    failed to take Paris.
  • After the death of the old Cardinal (Charles de
    Bourbon), the League could not agree on a new
    candidate. While some supported various Guise
    candidates, the strongest candidate was probably
    Isabella, the daughter of Philip II, whose mother
    Elisabeth had been the eldest daughter of Henry
  • The publicity about her candidacy and violation
    of the Salic Law hurt the League, which thus
    became suspect as agents of the foreign Spanish
  • Nevertheless Henry was unable to take control of
    Paris, Catholic, opposing a Protestant
  • With the encouragement of the great love of his
    life, Gabrielle dEstrees, on Henry declared that
    Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a
    Mass") and permanently renounced Protestantism
  • Thus earning the resentment of his former ally
    Queen Elizabeth.
  • But it secured for him the allegiance of the
    vast majority of his subjects
  • He was crowned King of France in 1553 and
    proceeded to make peace with all of his subjects

  • Improved the lives of all
  • a chicken in the pot every Sunday was one of
    his aims
  • Through Sully, his right hand man, promoted
    agriculture he drained swamps for new crop
    land, reformed taxes to take burdens from the
  • Improved the economy
  • Made peace with Catholics and Protestants and
    threatened or bought off noble opponents with
    titles and land no wars prosperity
  • Encouraged education for all. Created College
    Royale (now a military school)
  • Saved forests from devastation, built new system
    of tree-lined highways.
  • Renewed Paris and undertook public works, such as
    Pont Neuf in Paris, new canals.
  • Encouraged exploration and colonization
  • Financed expeditions of Champlain to Americas,
    which allowed France to claim territory in Canada
  • 1598 Pronounced Edict of Nantes
  • Sustained Catholicism as the established religion
    of France
  • Protestants gained no exemption from paying the
    tithe, observing Catholic holidays and marriage
  • Protestant freedom of worship, but only in
    specified geographic areas, outside city walls.
  • Only Protestant and Catholic coexistence the
    Edict did not include Jews or Muslims. In fact,
    France expelled its Muslims in 1610.

Death of Henry IV
  • 1610, as prepared to move vs Habsburgs, King
    Henry IV was assassinated in Paris by Francis
    Ravaillac, who stabbed the king to death while he
    rode in his coach.
  • Succession
  • Never had children with Marguerite of Valois, and
    eventually had the marriage annulled so he could
    marry another
  • In 1600 he married Marie de Medici, daughter of
    an Austrian princess and granddaughter of the
    Holy Roman Emperor. (She also brought with her a
    sizeable dowry.)
  • Not very bright, but very stubborn, she feuded
    with the Kings chief mistress, Henriette
  • She never escaped the charge of having known of
    the king's assassination her best friend was
    Mme.dEpernono, who could have, but did not ward
    off Ravaillac's blow, and who was proved to have
    known the murderer personally for a long time.
  • She served as regent to their 9-year-old son,
    Louis XIII, until 1617.
  • His mistresses included Gabrielle dEstrees and
    Henriette dEntragues.

England Golden Age
  • Henry VIII progeny
  • Katherine of Aragon --- Mary I
  • Ann Boleyn -- Elizabeth I
  • Jane Seymour Edward VI

Edward VI (r 1547-53)
  • Though king at the age of 10, he was really a
  • His Seymour uncles battled with and ultimately
    lost the Protectorship to the ambitious John
    Dudley, duke of Northumberland. 
  • Edward demonstrated impressive piety and
  • Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, moved
    the English church, with Edwards acquiescence,
    toward Protestantism
  • Concerned about the need for a statement of
    belief for the English church, Cranmer compiled
    and wrote 42 Articles, a summary of Anglican
    doctrine that lead the Church of England in a
    more Protestant direction.
  • He was also responsible for the Book of Common
    Prayer, which broke from Catholic doctrine
  • It toned down the idea of transubstantiation in
    the Eucharist
  • It removed prayers for the dead, and other
    ceremonies, including the admixture of water with
    the wine at Communion, the exorcism.
  • Cranmer also encouraged the destruction of
    images, in imitation of the followers of Calvin
    and Zwingli.
  • Edward died an agonizing death at 15, possibly
    from TB measles (Dudley kept him alive with
  • Northumberland (Dudley) persuaded him to leave
    the throne to his Protestant cousin, Lady Jane
    Grey, declaring both Mary and Elizabeth
    illegitimate (against his dads declarations
    he a minor and not eligible to make such
  • This decision (because Mary was Catholic, and
    Elizabeth too strong politically) began one of
    the most tragic tales of Tudor England.

Lady Jane Gray
  • Descended from sister of Henry VIII fourth in
    line for throne, after her mother.
  • Dudley persuaded her parents to marry her off to
    his son, Guildford, thus insuring his continued
    influence on the throne.
  • Jane didnt like Guildford, but didnt want a
    Catholic monarch (Mary) either she married, then
    when Edward died, accepted the crown, but was
    only a figurehead for Dudley. She reigned 9
  • When Edward died, Dudley moved to capture
    Elizabeth and Mary to silence opposition to
    Janes monarchy, but Mary escaped and gathered
    support. (She was popular the people thought her
    mother had been badly treated.)
  • Nobles, seeing the way things were going,
    deserted Dudley. He tried to march with an army
    Janes dad as general, but Jane cried and her
    dad refused. Then town after town declared Mary
    queen. Even Janes dad pledged to support Mary.
    Mary is declared queen Jane and her followers
    are all traitors.

  • Eventually only Jane, her father in law and
    husband were left, imprisoned in the tower.
    Though Mary did not want to execute her, Marys
    advisors pointed out that Jane had been
    consecrated queen and could be a rallying point
    for Protestants to depose Mary.
  • After the execution of Dudley and some of the
    nobles that supported Jane, Jane, along with
    Dudleys 4 sons, were tried and plead guilty to
    treason. The four were sentenced to die by being
    drawn and quartered, and were executed.
  • Janes parents joined the Catholic church and
    were accepted in court, becoming some of Marys
    favorites. They were assured that though Jane
    had been sentenced to death, Mary had no
    intention to execute her.
  • However, when Mary announced plans to marry the
    Catholic Spanish King Philip II, the whole
    country rebelled. Janes father tried to join
    the rebellion Janes fate was set. Marys
    advisors urged her to execute Jane, because she
    was a rallying point for the rebels.
  • So Mary had Jane beheaded, believing the girl was
    innocent and merely manipulated.

Mary Tudor (r 1553-58)
  • Supported as queen by Catholics and by most
    British, who felt she and her mother were badly
    treated by Henry VIII
  • BUT she believed the support was not only for her
    as queen, but for her to return England to the
    fold of Catholicism
  • She was urged to marry quickly and provide a
    Catholic heir, since she was already 37 she
    chose Philip of Spain, her cousins son, since
    she liked the thought of marrying him, a widower
    of 26, and he was the champion of Catholicism

  • Bad decision
  • The leaders of England were appalled she was
    likely to die heir-less, her husband would
    inherit the kingdom Britain would be one more
    part of the Spanish Empire
  • Conspiracies abounded against the marriage
    Wyatts rebellion ended with Jane Grays
    execution and defeat of the rebels outside
    Londons gates
  • Mary, feeling picked upon, imprisoned Elizabeth,
    as a possible focus for rebellions of her
    Protestant subjects
  • Consequences of the marriage
  • Purely political for Philip he lived with Mary
    for 14 months, then found an excuse to leave
  • Mary, in love with Philip, thought herself
    pregnant, but it was a hysterical pregnancy or
    tumor, instead. (Interestingly, Philip had
    Elizabeth released from the tower, providing she
    lived quietly in a castle away from London,
    because he wanted her to look on him favorably if
    Mary died.)
  • Philip persuaded Mary to join Spain in the
    Italian wars against France. However, the pope
    sided with France. The Spanish forces were
    defeated. England lost Calais to France, making
    Philip and Mary even more unpopular.
  • Bloody Mary
  • Mary persuaded Parliament to repeal the
    Protestant religious laws passed by Edward and
    Henry before her. The agreement took several
    years, and major concessions thousands of acres
    of monastery lands confiscated under Henry were
    not returned to the monasteries new landowners
    created by this distribution remained
  • Mary I put in Catholic officials at the top of
    the English Church, and had many of Edwards
    church officials, including Thomas Cranmer,
    executed. In all she had 283 Protestants burned
    at the stake, earning her nickname Bloody Mary
  • After another false pregnancy, Mary died at 42,
    probably of ovarian cancer.

Elizabeth I (r 1558-1603)
Acceptance Problems
  • Ascension confusion/dispute
  • Legitimacy
  • Personal image (turned liabilities to assets)
  • Young (25), Female
  • Out of power stream during Mary Tudor's reign
  • Virginused hints of marriage as manipulation
    both domestically and with foreign
  • Coronation
  • Ring on marriage finger as to the people of
  • Visits to the Lords
  • "Good Queen Bess"

Scottish Problems Independent since 1314,
resentful of England
  • Mary Queen of Scots
  • Mother sister of Henry VIII
  • John Knoxs religious movement
  • Husband, Francis II, French king, dies, and she
    returns to Scotland
  • Not well liked in Scotland (Catholic, seemed
    French, exiled Knox, others)
  • Married Darnley and had a son, and then Darnley
    killed (syphilitic, drunk)
  • Mary married Bothwell, forced to abdicate (refuge
    in England)
  • 20 years in prison there numerous plots of
    Catholics vs Elizabeth
  • Casket letters Mary, Mary execution 1587
  • James VI (Stuart) of Scotland (her son raised by

John Knox
  • Trained as a Catholic priest, he became converted
    to Protestantism, objecting to the form of
    Communion, the religious heirarchy
  • Escaped to France, captured and served as a
    galley slave, which hurt his health permanently
  • Lived in Britain and Germany, preaching in
    Protestant faits
  • Scottish religious reformer, credited with
    bringing the Reformation to Scotland
  • Calvinistic, not part of English church
  • Protestantism was adopted by Parliament as the
    Scottish national religion.
  • Knox, assisted by five other ministers,
    formulated the confession of faith for the
    Scottish church
  • The First Book of Discipline priests were
    replaced by ministers, proposal to replace
    bishops with superintendents implemented later
  • Basis for Presbyterian church
  • First Blast against the Monstrous Regiment of
  • Written against Mary Tudor, queen of England
  • women were not fit to rule, "idolatresses" who
    set reason aside and ruled by their emotions.
  • This view of female psychology made Knox
    offensive to Mary Queen of Scots and to
  • Wrote that it was legitimate for the people to
    overthrow and even execute female rulers because
    of precedents in the Bible, (Jezebel, for
  • She had him tried with heresy and arrested, but
    he defended himself and was acquitted.

Money Problems
  • Lords support Elizabeth's visits
  • Stopped the wars
  • Promoted industry and trade
  • Privateers
  • Sir Francis Drake
  • Dont forget his voyages of exploration claim
    to N. American lands

French Problems
  • English war with France
  • In alliance with Spain (instigated by Mary Tudor
    m to Philip II)
  • Sided with Catholic League against Henry IV
  • Complication Mary, Queen of Scots, once married
    to French king therefore, England open to
    invasion from France AND Scotland.
  • Elizabeth drew out, instead secretly supported
    Henry IV vs Catholic League (backed by Philip II)

Spanish Problems
  • Rivalry with England
  • Intense because of religious differences
  • Philip II Flanders interference
  • Fought to keep the Low Countries Catholic
  • England and Spain officially at war from 1585
    after years of underhanded conflict, the war
    lasting until the Queen's death. Philip died in
    1598, but his son, Philip III, continued the war,
    even though he did so half heartedly.
  • Privateers (sea dogs)
  • Inroads into shipments of gold and silver from
    New Spain (Americas)
  • Endorsed by the queen, who took a share of their
    booty income to the throne more than legitimate
    taxes (favorite Drake Raleigh sponsored, used
    money for his colonies)
  • Battle with Spanish Armada (1588)
  • Attempts at Colonization
  • Roanoke

Religious Problems
  • Protestant versus Catholic division
  • Reaction to undo all of Mary's acts
  • Parliament dissolved ties to Catholicism
  • 39 Articles Ch of England performances
  • Elizabeths policy
  • external acquiescence to Ch of England (attend
    church or fines) no concern with private beliefs
    UNLESS pushed
  • I desire to open a window to no mans
  • Puritan zealousness
  • Elizabeths compromises with Catholics offended
  • Changes in Book of Common Prayer so Catholics
    could worship in C of England
  • Vestments of priests ornate like Catholics
    (Puritans called it popery Elizabeth liked them

English Problems
  • Vision for the country
  • Merchants
  • Seafarers
  • Promotion of the Golden Age
  • Prosperity and leisure
  • Arts
  • Language
  • Drama

Spain/Germany Decline of Habsburg Power
  • Charles V
  • Background g.son Ferdinand and Isabella and of
    HRE Maximilian
  • Becoming Emperor of HRE
  • Bribed with loans from Fuggers (over Francis I,
    Henry VIII)
  • Greatest empire since Charlemagne (Spain, Naples,
    Sicilly, Sardinia, Burgundy, Netherlands,
    Austria, Germany, Hungary)
  • Aim keep them and keep them Catholic
  • Italian Wars (Habsburg-Valois Wars)
  • Defeated Charles VIII, Louis XII in Italy
    Francis I tries to take revenge, taken prisoner,
    French forced to give up claims to Italy and
    Burgundy pope allies to fight Charles
  • Spanish defeat Fr/pope alliance sacks Rome and
    captures pope pope forced to side with Charles
    vs France and Turks
  • Further fighting with France over Flanders Henry
    III fights in Italy Spain defeats him Charles
    rules all Italy except Venice
  • Treaty of Cateau/Cambresis ends Habsburg-Valois

Charles V Continued
  • Standing against the Turks
  • Suleiman the Magnificent, greatest sultan of the
    Ottoman Empire
  • Ottomans advanced to capture most of Hungary
    (HRE), killing 20,000 of its inhabitants
  • Suleiman tries to capture Vienna (siege of
    Vienna) stopped by Charless armies
  • Counterattack Charles captures Tunis, in N.
  • Champion of Catholicism in the face of
    Reformation pressures
  • Presides at Diet of Wurms
  • Fought Schmalkaldic Wars result Peace of
    Augsburg (cuius regio)
  • Abdication
  • At 55, physically old lower lip extended jaw
    out so far, couldnt chew or speak clearly, most
    teeth gone, had to be held up to walk suffered
    from ulcers, gout, asthma, indigestion,
    arthritis retired to monastery
  • Divided empire
  • Ferdinand I, brother to Charles, got HRE
  • Philip II (Charless son) got Spain, the Low
    Countries (Flanders and Netherlands), and Spanish

Philip II (r. 1556-98)
  • Empires economic troubles
  • Charles left 6 million ducats income 74 million
    dollar deficit (wars) debt 8 x annual income
  • Conquistadores Pizarro said, Everything comes
    down to one thing money and more money.
  • Income 1/5 of all metals from America
  • Spaininflation from gold and silver coming in
    from Americas
  • Champion vs Turks
  • Battle of Lepanto
  • 5 hour naval battle off W Greece between Holy
    League (HRE, pope, Venice, Genoa, others) and
    Ottoman fleet
  • Commanded by don Juan of Austria, Philips
    illegitimate brother
  • Holy League victory ended Turkish expansion in
    the Mediterranean

Philip II Champion of Counter Reformation
  • Against England
  • Armada 2nd attempt 9 years later, but Philip
  • Netherlands
  • Cardinal Granville checked Protestants by
    reforming Catholic abuses
  • 17 Netherlands provinces joyeuse entrée with self
    government and own laws and tax systems
  • Spanish took independence from the 17 Netherlands
  • replaced them with Catholic control, laws, taxes
  • missionaries and Inquisition to convert back
  • Persecution and punishment for those who didnt

Netherlands Revolt
  • Consequences of Spanish repression
  • Rebellion against laws and governors
  • Protestants fled Low Countries for England and
  • Iconoclasmwave of violence against images in
    churches (Calvinistic)
  • Duke of Alba sent with 10,000 Spanish troops to
    restore order
  • Spanish atrocities under Alba spurred rebellion
  • Repression with execution of over 1,000 rebels
  • Alba established Council of Troubles
  • known to the people as the Council of Blood) to
    judge those involved with the rebellion and the
  • Several changes of leadership finally Duke of
    Parma came to negotiate instead of fight
  • BUT Spanish Fury (Sack of Antwerp)
  • Spanish troops unpaid Spain declaring bankruptcy
  • Siege outside Antwerp (now Belgium) Spanish
    commander died
  • Troops decide to desert, take their paysack
    Antwerp with much rapine and death
  • Ended peaceful negotiation

Netherlands Rebellion Continued
  • William (Nassau) of Orange (who was actually
    Catholic) champion of rebels)
  • Had been brought up before Albas Council
    refused to appear, so declared an outlaw,
    stripped of lands and office
  • Lead the troops against Spanish many citied
    opened their gates to his forces
  • Spanish siege of Leiden won when Dutch cut dikes
    Wm established university there
  • The Pacification of Ghent signed in 1576, was an
    alliance of the provinces of the Netherlands to
    drive out the Spanish
  • The northern (Protestant) and southern (Catholic)
    provinces of the Low Countries put aside
    religious difference, united in revolt against
    the Spanish
  • First major expression of the Netherlands'
    national self-consciousness.
  • Called for the expulsion of Spanish troops from
    the Low Countries, the restoration of provincial
    and local prerogatives, and an end to the
    persecution of Calvinists

Rest of the Story
  • The alliance breaks apart
  • Calvinists more radical, tried to forbid
    Catholicism in their areas of control.
  • William was opposed for personal and political
    reasons, wanting freedom of religion, and the
    support of the less radical Protestants and
  • Treaty of Arras
  • 1579 several southern provinces, unhappy with
    William's radical following,
  • Agreed to accept Spanish regent, Duke of Parma
  • Final Peace Union of Utrecht
  • Five northern provinces of the Low Countries
    confirmed their unity
  • William opposed the Union, hoping to unite all
    provinces. Nevertheless, later, he formally gave
    his support.
  • The Union of Utrecht de facto constitution for
    Holland, only formal connection between the Dutch
    provinces until 1795.
  • Later accepted by Parma Holland would be
    independent what later became Belgium would
    remain in Spanish control

Decline of Spain from heights of power in 1588
to 2nd rate nation in 1715
  • Social Traditions
  • Continuation of inheritance lawsall children of
    nobility nobility with titles divide estates
    cant work or participate in commerce
  • Best and brightest going into powerful church,
    not business, agriculture, nor government
  • Agricultural crisis
  • Expulsion of moriscosno one to work the land in
    South wilderness
  • Replacement of cattle by sheep on Meseta
  • Gradual Transformation of the Americas
  • Mexico and Peru develop own industry while Spain
    busy on continent
  • Economy with mineral, agriculture, industrial
    wealth, competes with Spain
  • Defeat of the Armada
  • Loss of prestige
  • Loss of investment
  • Though Philip begins another, Spain bankrupted

Fall of the Habsburgs in Spain
  • Increasing Economic Weakness of Spain
  • Inflation from gold and silver depreciating
    currency while prices of goods rose
  • Debt begun by Charles V with purchase of HRE
    title and with wars and building programs
    continued with Philip II and continued to rise
  • Bankruptcy of government in face of rising
    expenses of Netherlands wars
  • Growth of English and Dutch Overseas Trade
  • Spanish monopolies in the Americas weakened,
    broken illegally
  • Dutch and English colonies throughout the world
    competing with Spain, no longer dominant
  • Trade fell 60 between 1610-1650
  • Weakened leadership excessive inbreeding of
  • Philip III weaker than father, though carried
  • Philip IV weaker yet
  • Charles II complete imbecile Habsburg features

(No Transcript)
The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)General
  • Last, most destructive of all wars of religion
  • Catholic vs Protestant AND Calvinist vs Lutheran
  • Sacrifice all for religion belief hatred
    ironic since all Christian
  • Involved all of W.Europe, including Denmark and
  • Changed alliances of Europe and helped shape the
    Europe of today

  • Peace of Augsburg
  • Assured sovereignty of small HRE regions own
    taxes, own money, tolls and customs duties
  • Travel and trade harder and harder
  • Holy Roman Empire
  • Small principalities, etc afraid of growing power
    of empire
  • Feared intimidation, take over, etc. by Charles
    or Philip
  • Sought help from other European powers against
  • Special fear Catholic emperors would force
    Catholicism on Protestant regions

Foreign Nations Involvement Because of
  • Spain Spanish Netherlands was on the western
    border of the German states. (The Netherlands had
    revolted against the Spanish domination, gaining
  • France the German states because were weak
    neighbors, compared to the Habsburgs realms which
    surrounded France.
  • Sweden and Denmark wanted control over northern
    German states bordering the Baltic Sea.

Leadup Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria
  • His first marriage was childless.
  • By his second wife, Maria Ann of Austria

    (daughter of his sister HRE Ferdinand
    two sons, with the oldest, Ferdinand Maria,

    succeeding him.
  • Weak in health, Maximilian had high

    ambitions, tenacious and resourceful
  • Ablest prince of time, he tried to prevent
    Germany from being battleground of Europe
    rigidly Catholic, but not always subservient to
  • Refrained from interference in German politics
    until entrusted executing the imperial ban
    against a Protestant stronghold. His troops
    occupied the city, and he moved to restore
  • Protestant princes, alarmed at this action,
    formed the Protestant Union
  • Maximilian, in answer, helped establish the
    Catholic League.
  • Under his leadership organized army, but strictly
    defensive he refused to allow the League to
    become a tool of Habsburgs.
  • Dissensions among colleagues led the duke to
    resign, but trouble brought about his return to
    the League about two years later, opposing
    Frederick IV of the Palatinate and his Protestant

Calvinism, Fredericks and the Palatinate
  • Palatinate territory along Rhine (ruled by
    count palatine) Hohenstaufen family electors
    (Golden Bull) of HRE
  • Frederick III, a staunch Calvinist, inherited the
  • it became one of the major centers of Calvinism
    supporting Calvinist rebellions in both the
    Netherlands and France
  • It allied with England, Netherlands, Henry of
    Navarre in religious wars
  • Frederick III's grandson, Frederick IV, and his
    adviser, Christian of Anhalt, founded the
    Evangelical Union of Protestant states in 1608.
  • In 1619 Elector Frederick V (the "Winter King")
    (the son-in-law of King James I of England)
    accepted the throne of Bohemia from the Bohemian
  • In charge of Protestant forces (Evangelical
    Union of Protestant states)

The Bohemian Period (1618-1625) Revolt vs the
  • Ferdinand II elected to become king of Bohemia
    and of Hungary against Protestant wishes
  • educated to be staunchly Catholic by the Jesuits
  • Immediately revoked religious freedom from
    Bohemian Protestants.
  • Defenestration of Prague
  • F. sent two Catholic counsellors to rule at
    castle in Prague (Bohemian capital)
  • Mock trial Calvinists through them out of
    window (50 feet up)
  • Catholic story angels rescued Protestant
    story landed in pile of manure
  • Angry Bohemians declared the Calvinist elector
    Palatine, Frederick V their overlord.
  • Became part of Evangelical Union he headed
  • Ferdinand was compelled to call on his nephew,
    King Philip IV of Spain for assistance.
  • With Spanish help Ferdinands Army had managed to
    subdue and conquer the Palatinate, and
    re-catholicize Bohemia.
  • Frederick V defeated by Emperor Ferdinand II
    allied with Maximilian and Philip IV at the
    Battle of White Mountain in 1620
  • Spanish and Bavarian troops soon occupied the
    Palatinate itself. Emperor tried to force
    Catholicism on this Calvinistic region.
  • In 1623, Frederick was put under the ban of the
    Empire, and his territories and Electoral dignity
    granted to the Duke (now Elector) of Bavaria,
    Maximilian I

Ferdinand II
The Danish Period (1625-29)
  • The Lutheran King Christian IV of Denmark, wished
    to extend Danish influence in the HRE.
  • Helped neighboring Protestant Saxony vs HRE
  • Feared for sovereignty of Denmark if Saxony under
    HRE dictatorship
  • Lead Protestant forces against Catholic
  • Financed by Richelieu of France (Catholic)
    Dutch against HRE power
  • Christian was quickly humiliated and forced to
    retreat by Ferdinand.
  • Ferdinand hired Albrecht of Wallenstein as a
    mercenary. Wallenstein was a Bohemian nobleman
    who had made himself rich from the confiscated
    estates of his countrymen.
  • pledged his army of between 30,000 and 100,000
    soldiers to Ferdinand II in return for the right
    to plunder the captured territories
  • However, By 1628 Wallenstein commanded as army of
    100,000 and was no longer under Ferdinands
    control. Victory over Christian took him to the
    gates of the capital of Denmark..
  • However, without a navy, couldnt conquer
    completely, and with war too expensive, Ferdinand
    settled. Christian agreed to abandon his support
    of Protestants if could keep Denmark.
  • Edict of Restitution
  • Ferdinand II wanted to take back the Lutheran
    holdings that were, according to the Peace of
    Augsburg, rightfully the possession of the
    Catholic Church.
  • two Archbishoprics, sixteen bishoprics, and
    hundreds of monasteries.
  • It looked like Catholics had won and the war was
    over, BUT

The Swedish Period (1630-35)
  • Gustavus Adolphus of the strongly Lutheran Sweden
    came to rescue of Protestant forces
  • Worried about HRE aggression vs Sweden
  • Protestant, wanted to support others
  • Wanted economic influence with German cities
  • bankrolled by France and the Dutch, and allies
    with Brandenburg and Saxony, decided to join the
  • Adolphus, a military genius, won a smashing
    victory at Breitenfeld in 1630.
  • Ferdinand fired Wallenstein, then reinstated him
    vs Gustavus Adolphus

  • Adolphuss army met Wallensteins at the Battle
    of Lutzen, Nov. 1632.
  • Swedish forces won, but Gustavus Adolphus killed
    in battle (see illustration) Without Swedish
    leadership, the Protestant forces lost battles
  • Ferdinand had Wallenstein assassinated in 1634.
  • W was negotiating peace with Protestants
  • Ferdinand feared he might desert to Protestants
  • Swedish portion of war ends with Peace of Prague
  • Delayed enforcement of the
    Edict of
    Restitution for 40 years
  • United army of emperor with
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