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WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTURE Introduction

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WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTURE ... + heat energy Water temperature = = active inactive z z z z z z Fertilization organic inorganic Feed Common carp Marine shrimp ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTURE Introduction


1
WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTUREIntroduction Part 1
By Leonard Lovshin and Lucas Manomaitis Department
of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Auburn
University, Alabama, 36849 USA
2
Aquaculture and Seafood
Capture from the oceans is maximized.
  • Aquaculture is growing as a source of the
    worlds seafood supply.

3
Benefits of Aquaculture
Ability to bring fresh, or even live, seafood to
market at a specific time, quality and quantity.
Asian fresh seafood market
US seafood market
4
Aquaculture is based on water
  • The key to the successful culture of aquatic
    organisms is maintenance of water quality.
  • Poor water quality poor harvest.

Fish ponds in China
5
Water Quality
  • Source
  • During culture
  • Discharge
  • Water quality issues should be taken into
    account at every point of the aquaculture cycle.
  • Dr.Claude E. Boyd

6
Source
From where?
underground
surface
7
Source
well
reservoir
spring
How much?
irrigation canal
stream
8
Source
pasture
quality
Red tide
unpopulated
forested
underground
populated
9
Water Quality
Clear water
During culture
Fertile water
Turbid water
10
Water Quality
Discharge
Catfish pond
Shrimp pond
11
Factors that influence water quality
  • Photosynthesis/Respiration
  • Water temperature
  • Fertilization
  • Feeds
  • Aeration
  • Water exchange

12
Photosynthesis/Respiration
photosynthesis
6CO2 6H2O light energy ? C6H12O6 6O2
respiration
C6H12O6 6O2 ? 6CO2 6H2O heat energy
13
Water temperature

active
z
z
z

z
z
z
inactive
14
Fertilization
inorganic
organic
15
Feed
Marine shrimp
Common carp
Rainbow trout
Channel catfish
16
Aeration
Aspirator
Defused air
Fish mortality due To low D. O.
paddlewheel
Pond aeration
17
Water exchange
Salmon cages
Catfish raceways
Trout raceways
Carp cages
18
Testing Water Quality
Water quality parameters often tested
are Dissolved oxygen Water temperature pH Total
Ammonia Nitrogen Nitrite Alkalinity/Hardness Salin
ity
Water test kit
19
How water quality values are expressed as
20
Dissolved oxygen and water temperature
Oxygen meter
dissolved oxygen and water temperature usually
vary over a 24 hour cycle.
Surface dissolved oxygen, mg/L
Surface water temperature, C
31
15
29
10
27
summer
5
25
0
6 a.m.
6 a.m.
midnight
6 p.m.
noon
21
Dissolved oxygen and water temperature
Stratification can cause dissolved oxygen and
temperature to vary at different depths in the
same pond.
22
pH
pH is a measure of acidity (hydrogen ion
concentration) in water or soil.
pH - log H
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
neutral
acid
alkaline
23
Alkalinity and Hardness
hardness
alkalinity
Total titratable bases
Total divalent salts
calcium
magnesium
Mg
Ca
Calcium bicarbonate
Ca( HCO3 )2
24
Alkalinity and Hardness
The form alkalinity takes is linked to pH of the
system.
25
Alkalinity and Hardness
Alkalinity buffers against diurnal variations in
pH.
26
Total Ammonia Nitrogen
Total ammonia nitrogen ( TAN ) is a measure of
the unionized-ammonia (NH3) and ammonium levels
(NH4) in the water
The ratio of ammonia and ammonium varies in an
equilibrium determined by pH and water
temperature.
Ammonia as a of total ammonia nitrogen
27
Nitrite/Nitrate
feces
Bacterial decomposition
28
Salinity
Brackish water is 2 g/L to 34 g/L
Fresh water is less than 2 g/L
Sea water is more than 34 g/L
NaCl
29
End of Introduction Part 1
Good Water Quality Good Harvest
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