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Plant Biotechnology

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Chapter 6 Plant Biotechnology Plant Structure CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2 Plant Structure Agriculture: The Next Revolution Biggest industry in the world ($1.3 trillion ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plant Biotechnology


1
Chapter 6
  • Plant Biotechnology

2
Plant Structure
3
Plant Structure
CO2 H2O ?C6H12O6 O2
4
Agriculture The Next Revolution
  • Biggest industry in the world (1.3 trillion of
    products per year)
  • Plant transgenesis allows innovations that are
    impossible to achieve with conventional
    hybridization methods
  • Resistant to herbicides
  • Pest resistant
  • Vaccines

5
Methods Used in Plant Transgenesis
  • Unique advantages of plants
  • The long history of plant breeding provides plant
    geneticists with a wealth of strains that can be
    exploited at the molecular level
  • Plants produce large numbers of progeny so rare
    mutations and recombinations can be found more
    easily
  • Plants have been regenerative capabilities, even
    from one cell
  • Species boundaries and sexual compatibility are
    no longer an issue

6
Methods Used in Plant Transgenesis
  • Protoplast Fusion to create plant hybrids
  • Degrade cell wall with cellulase
  • A cell lacking a cell wall is called a protoplast
  • The protoplasts from different species of plants
    can be fused together to create a hybrid
  • The fused protoplasts grow in nutrient agar for a
    few weeks
  • The colonies are then transferred to media to
    induce root and shoot growth

7
Methods Used in Plant Transgenesis
  • Ti plasmid found in Agrobacter, a type of soil
    bacteria that infects plants
  • Integrates into the DNA of the host cell, making
    it an ideal vehicle for transferring recombinant
    DNA to plant cells

8
Methods Used in Plant Transgenesis
  • Leaf fragment Technique
  • Small discs of leaf incubated with genetically
    modified Agrobacter Ti plasmid
  • Treat with hormones to stimulate shoot and root
    development
  • Limitation cannot infect monocotyledonous plants
    only dicotyledonous such as tomatoes, potatoes,
    apples and soybeans

Transgenic Plant Animation
9
Methods Used in Plant Transgenesis
  • Gene Guns
  • Use on Agrobacter-resistant crops
  • Blast tiny metal beads coated with DNA into an
    embryonic plant cell
  • Aim at the nucleus or a chloroplast
  • Shoot in gene of interest and a gene marker
    (reporter)

10
Methods Used in Plant Transgenesis
  • Chloroplast Engineering
  • More genes can be inserted at one time
  • Genes are more likely to be expressed
  • DNA is separate from the nucleus

11
Methods Used in Plant Transgenesis
  • Antisense Technology
  • Flavr SavrTM tomato introduced in 1994
  • Ripe tomatoes normally produce the enzyme,
    polyglacturonase (PG) which digests pectin
  • Scientists isolated the PG gene, produced a
    complementary gene which produces a complementary
    mRNA that binds to the normal mRNA inactivating
    the normal mRNA for this enzyme

12
Methods Used in Plant Transgenesis
  • RNA Interference (RNAi)
  • Inhibits gene expression by interfering with
    transcription or translation of RNA molecules

RNAi video and animations
13
Practical Applications in the Field
  • Vaccines for Plants
  • Contain dead or weakened strains of plant viruses
    to turn on the plants immune system
  • Transgenic plants express viral proteins to
    confer immunity

14
Practical Applications in the Field
  • Genetic Pesticides
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces a protein
    that is toxic to plant pests
  • Transgenic plants contain the gene for the Bt
    toxin and have a built-in defense against these
    plant pests

15
Practical Applications in the Field
  • Herbicide Resistance resistant to glyphosate

16
Practical Applications in the Field
  • Safe Storage
  • avidin-blocks the availability of biotin for
    insects
  • Stronger fibers
  • Enhanced Nutrition
  • Golden rice that is genetically modified to
    produce large amounts of beta carotene

17
Practical Applications in the Field
  • The Future From Pharmaceuticals to Fuel
  • Plant-based petroleum for fuels, alternatives to
    rubber, nicotine-free tobacco, etc

18
Practical Applications in the Field
  • Metabolic Engineering
  • Manipulation of plant biochemistry to produce
    nonprotein products or to alter cellular
    properties

19
Health and Environmental Concerns
  • Human Health
  • Allergens
  • Environment
  • Super weeds
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