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GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION

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St Mary s High School REVISION GUIDE What are the benefits of taking part in physical activity? Social Meet people, Make friends. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION


1
GCSE PE Revision
St Marys High School REVISION
GUIDE
2
What are the benefits of taking part in physical
activity?
What is a HEALTHY, ACTIVE LIFESTYLE?A lifestyle
that contributes positively to physical, mental
and social wellbeing
and includes regular exercise and physical
activity
  • Social Meet people,
  • Make friends.
  • Co-operation
  • Competition
  • Physical challenge
  • Aesthetic appreciation
  • Mental Relieve stress/tension
  • Stress-related illness
  • Physical Improve body shape
  • Good health

3
6 INFUENCES on your Healthy, Active Lifestyle
? Image Fashion the best boots, clothing and
equipment Media increases popularity London
Marathon, New Year, Wimbledon
? Health Illness Conditions
  • ? People
  • Family
  • Peers
  • Role Models

?Cultural Factors Disability resources,
opportunities, funding Age some sports have
age-restrictions e.g. minimum 18 for Marathon
Gender womens football taken less
seriously then mens Race ethnic background
fewer Asian footballers than other races
? Resources Availability if people are willing,
facilities need to be provided Location local
availability e.g. lack of space in inner-city
areas Access parking, public transport to
facilities Time availability for demand school
facilities available after hours
Good or bad role model?
? Socio-Economic Cost hire of facilities and
equipment e.g. ice-rink, skates Status employed
(more disposable income), unemployed (need to
save money)
4
OPPORTUNITIES to Become INVOLVED
Where are you?
Physical Education is not just about being the
best performer in a sport!
  • INITIATIVES To Get People Involved
  • Government At least 2 hours of high quality PE
    per week
  • PESSCL Strengthens links between school and
    local clubs (ages 5-16)
  • Club Links Opportunity to be performer,
    leader, official, volunteer
  • Step Into Sport
  • Sport England Start (participate), Stay
    (competition and Succeed (talented can progress)
  • Youth Sport Trust TOPS 14-16 organise festivals
    in local primaries, sports leadership courses
  • Active Kids Supermarkets run voucher programmes
    to aid purchase of equipment

5
Health
Key Definitions
  • Health is a state of complete physical, mental
    and social well-being and not merely the absence
    of disease or infirmity.

The ability to meet the demands of the
environment.
Fitness
  • a form of physical activity done primarily to
    improve ones health and physical fitness

Exercise
Performance
  • How well a task is completed

Remember you can be fit but not healthy e.g. Sir
Steve Redgrave has diabetes but is a 5-time
Olympic champion
6
5 HRF Definitions and their Tests
  • C.V. fitness
  • the ability to exercise the entire body for
    long periods of time.
  • TEST 12-min Cooper Run or Bleep Test
  • Muscular Strength
  • The ability to apply force and overcome
    resistance.
  • TEST Gripometer
  • Muscular Endurance
  • The ability to use muscles, many times without
    getting tired.
  • TEST Sit-Up Bleep Test
  • Flexibility
  • The range of movement at a joint.
  • TEST Sit and Reach
  • Body composition
  • The percentage of body weight which is fat
    muscle and bone.
  • TEST BMI

7
6 Skill-Related Fitness Components (BCRAPS)
Remember you need to fill in a Physical Activity
Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ) prior to taking
part in activity to assess the level of risk and
use the right protocols to perform safely.
  • Balance
  • retain centre of mass over base of support
  • TEST Stork Balance Test
  • Co-ordination
  • to use two or more body parts together
  • TEST Tennis Ball Throw
  • Reaction Time
  • time between the presentation of a stimulus and
    onset of movement
  • TEST Ruler Drop
  • Agility
  • ability to change direction at speed
  • TEST Illinois Agility Run
  • Power
  • ability to do strength movements quickly
    strength x speed

8
Principles of Training
  • Individual Needs matching training to the
    requirements of the individual e.g.
    struggle to complete game therefore CV fitness
  • Specificity matching training to the
    requirements of the activity e.g.
    goalkeepers training for agility, midfielders for
    cardiovascular fitness
  • Progressive Overload gradually increasing he
    amount of overload so as to gain fitness without
    the risk of injury.
  • Rest The period of time allotted to recovery
  • Recovery The time required to repair damage
    caused by training
  • Reversibility any adaptation from training is
    reversed during inactivity

9
F.I.T.T Principle
  • Overload is applied to a training programme by
    using the FITT principle.

Increase the Frequency how often Increase
the Intensity how hard Increase
the Time how long Choose correct Type of
exercise method of training e.g. someone
wanting to improve their CV Endurance Frequency -
3 times per week Intensity - 60-80 of maximum
HR Time - 30 minutes per
session Type - Method e.g. continuous running
10
Goal Setting
People who set sensible goals are able to focus
their energies on their training and achieve
them. Specific e.g. I want to run half a lap
further in the 12-min run Measurable e.g. running
half a lap further easy to measure! Achievable e
.g. training plan to build on CV fitness half
lap achieved! Realistic e.g. running half a lap
is more realistic than 4 extra laps Time-bound e.g
. 6 week training programme put a clear end
point in This are the first steps towards
designing your Personal
Exercise Programme (PEP)
11
Training Methods
Each is designed for a specific purpose, to
improve a specific aspect of fitness -
combination of METHODS develop sporting
performance (CROSS TRAINING)
CONTINUOUS Defined as high duration, low
intensity exercise without rest periods e.g.
(30 mins jogging) Sports e.g. cycling,
swimming, team sports in pre-season to build
aerobic base Advantages Cheap, wide range of
activities available, can apply FITT to suit needs
INTERVAL Defined as high intensity periods of
work followed by defined periods of
rest e.g. (sprint 60m, 30s rest)x6, 5-min
rest then perform set again - SPEED e.g. (15
mins jogging, 3 minutes rest) x4 CARDIOVASCULAR
FITNESS Sports e.g. Swimming, Athletics,
Football Advantages improves speed and CV
fitness, high intensity, works high HR zones
?SPRINT? 30s rest ?SPRINT?30s rest ?
CIRCUIT Defined as A number of exercises
arranged to avoid training the same muscle
groups e.g. (6-10 stations can work muscles
and CV system, also skills in your sport) e.g.
work for set time (1 min), set reps (30 reps),
rest for 2 mins at end of 1 circuit Sports e.g.
football, cricket, tennis, badminton Advantages w
ork (strength, speed, CV, muscular endurance in 1
session), aerobic/anaerobic
FARTLEK Swedish for Speed Play Defined as A
combination of fast and slow running Sports e.g
. rugby, football, netball those with changes
in speed throughout Advantages can include hill
work and different terrains, flexible to suit
individual sport/needs
JOG---SPRINT--- 75---JOG
WEIGHT Defined as a common type of training
to develop strength and size of skeletal
muscles Sports e.g. speed, strength, power
sports (long jump, javelin, football,
rugby) Advantages can improve musc. strength,
musc. endurance, power, easy to overload, variety
12
Exercise Session
  • Warm up PREVENTS INJURY, IMPROVES PERF.
  • Pulse raisers, stretches, mobilising joints
  • Main activity WORKS SPECIFIC GOALS/COMPONENTS
  • Skills, drills, tactics
  • Cool down PREPARES FOR FUTURE SESSIONS
  • To remove lactic acid and repay oxygen debt.

Target Heart Rate Zones
  • Heart rate number of times the heart beats per
    min
  • Maximum heart rate (220 age)
  • Training/ target zones are calculated using this
    equation
  • Less than 60 MHR Recovery zone (cool down)
  • 60 80 MHR Aerobic training zone
  • 80 - 90 MHR Anaerobic training zone
  • 90 95 MHR Speed training zone.

13
Anaerobic Exercise
  • Without O2 (Oxygen)
  • Very short period of time 1-10 seconds

How would you improve your ability to work
anaerobically?
  • Work very, very hard in short bursts
  • Be around 85 of your maximum heart rate
  • (220 - age 100)
  • GLUCOSE ENERGY LACTIC ACID

14
Aerobic Exercise
  • Exercise with (using) O2
  • Over a long period of time

How would you improve your ability to work
aerobically?
  • Work hard and for a long time (at least 20
    minutes in training zone)
  • Work between 60 and 80 of the maximum heart
    rate
  • (for a 14 year old that is between approx
    125-170bpm)
  • Use large muscle groups
  • GLUCOSE OXYGEN CO2 WATER
    ENERGY

15
Diet and Nutrition
Dietary Intake and Performance
Carbo-LoadingA system mainly used by marathon
runners e.g. Marathon 1 week today
(Sunday) Protein-rich foods (Mon-Tues)
depletes carb stores Carb-rich foods (Weds-Sat)
fully replenishes storesBody is fooled into
storing more carbs due to starvation processThe
protein is needed to repair muscle, carbs to fuel
the activity.It is important to take food
within the 2 hours after a race/activity to
replenish lost stores.Blood-Flow During
ExerciseBlood is shunted from other areas of the
body (particularly organs) to the working muscle
during exercise.Less blood is available to
digest food in the gut can cause
cramp.Exercise should ideally not start until
2-3 hours after the meal.
  • Most
  • Valuable
  • Player
  • Football
  • Club
  • F
  • W
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fibre
  • Water

Ensure you know why calcium and Iron are needed
16
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17
Extreme Body Types (Somatotypes)
  • Endomorph lots of fat
  • Mesomorph lots of muscle
  • Ectomorph - skinny
  • Overweight
  • Having weight in excess of normal. Not harmful
    unless accompanied by over-fatness
  • Over-fat
  • Having body fat in excess of normal
  • Obese
  • Describes people who are very over-fat
  • Anorexia
  • A prolonged eating disorder due to the loss of
    appetite
  • Optimum Weight
  • Best weight or desirable weight the best
    weight a player performs at

18
Factors Affecting Optimum Weight
(Potential 6 mark question for you to
discuss)
  • Height taller people often (not always) heavier
  • Gender Men/women have different body
    composition
  • Bone Structure Frame of skeleton depends on
    bone structure e.g. broad shoulders/thick wrists
    compared to narrow shoulders/hips
  • Muscle Girth increases with training, larger
    muscle weighs more so sportspeople need to look
    at the appropriate charts
  • Genetics body weight and shape are largely
    passed on by parents
  • OPTIMUM WEIGHT IN SPORT
  • Needs to be compared to similar with sports,
    positions and events e.g. between forwards in
    rugby, jockeys in horse racing and footballers.
    The rules of a sport can often govern what an
    optimum weight is (boxing weights for example)

19
Drugs
20
Stimulants
Narcotics/Analgesics
  • Drugs that have an effect on the central nervous
    system, such as increased mental and / or
    physical awareness.
  • Amphetamines, Cocaine, Ephedrine
  • Help to overcome tiredness
  • Offset the effects of lactic acid
  • Side effects
  • Insomnia, irritability, irregular heart beat,
    high blood pressure, addiction
  • Drugs that can be used to reduce and / or mask
    pain.
  • Heroin, methadone, morphine
  • Can return to competition quicker
  • Increase risk of long-term injury
  • Side effects
  • Loss of concentration, balance, co-ordination,
    bring on hallucinations

Performance-Enhancing Drugs (B.S.N.A.P.D)
21
Recreational Drugs
  • Nicotine
  • Cigarettes. Nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide.
    Affects sports performance by getting less oxygen
    to working muscles so aerobic fitness is
    decreased. Improves alertness but extremely
    addictive.
  • Alcohol
  • Affects co-ordination, balance, reaction time.
    Acts as a SEDATIVE, slowing reactions and
    impairing judgement. Increases dehydration

Socially Acceptable Drugs
Socially Unacceptable Drugs
Drugs prescribed over the counter by a doctor
such as paracetamol and aspirin to treat medical
conditions
Illegal and unacceptable to most people e.g.
heroin, cocaine, LSD. All have negative effects
and can lead to death.
22
Risk Assessment and Preventing Injuries
23
Risk Assessment and Prevention of Injury
Warming Up / Cooling Down WU warm the muscles
gradually to prevent injury CD prevents injury
and disperses lactic acid preventing soreness and
aches
  • Checking Equipment and Facilities
  • Are they safe and secure?
  • In good condition?
  • Check pitch-side for debris, are the markings
    clear?

Rules Ensure safety and help the game
flow Ensure fairness and give the game
structure. When broken, participants are punished
by bans/fines
  • Protective Equipment and Clothing
  • Football, Hockey, Sailing.
  • Remove jewellery, ensure your equipment isnt a
    danger to others.
  • Footwear appropriate to activity e.g. length of
    studs, supportive for the ankles, comfortable.

Physical Readiness Completing a physical
activity readiness questionnaire is important to
ensure all those participating are safe and
healthy to do so. It highlights beforehand any
potential issues.
  • Balanced Competition
  • Weight Categories Weightlifting, Boxing
  • Mixed/Single sex Contact sports split e.g. rugby,
    football
  • Athletics split on fair competition grounds
  • Hockey/Racquet sports mixed and open comp
  • Age Children split in age group
  • Seniors/Veterans in golf, marathon, tennis
  • Handicap System Golf to allow those of mixed
    ability to play together

Example Question All sporting activities have
clearly stated rules. State three reasons why we
have rules in sport. (3)
24
Keep Checking..
Check www.mrt10.wordpress.com weekly for the
additions to the body systems from your Y11
course!
25
Cardiovascular System
26
Respiratory System
27
Muscular System
28
Skeletal System
29
REMEMBER !!!As soon as the exam starts write
these key points down
  • Mental, Social, Physical benefits
  • HRF Body Comp, CV, Musc.Endurance,
    Flexibility, Musc.Strength
  • (FBMMC)
  • SRF Balance, Co-ord, Reaction time, Agility,
    Power, Speed. (BCRAPS)
  • SPORRI - Specificity, Progressive Overload, Rest
    and Recovery, Individual Needs
  • Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type. (FITT)
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