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The Development of Physical Education


AS PE Unit 1 Part B Sport & Public Schools in 19th Century Physical education per se was not the key factor behind the development of sport in Britain s public ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Development of Physical Education

The Development of Physical Education
  • AS PE Unit 1 Part B

Sport Public Schools in 19th Century
  • Physical education per se was not the key factor
    behind the development of sport in Britains
    public schools
  • It was by headmasters to gain maintain social
    order within their communities
  • The insistence of boys on their right to play
    had caused serious breakdowns in control, to such
    an extent that in some instances the military or
    militia had to be called to put down such
  • The right to play included their wish to carry
    on their recreational activities, but it could
    also mean to do what they liked including
    frequenting the local ale houses where neither
    their presence not their behaviour were always
  • The riot I mentioned in my last (letter) at
    Winchester is all over, no one expelled. It was
    a formidable thing. For they had several brace
    of pistols. It began, as I hear by the landlord
    of the White Hart, desirous of some of the
    Commoners who were drinking at his house, not to
    drink anymore but to go home.

  • MacDonald Fraser
  • The World of the
    Public School

Public School Athleticism
Harsh Environment
  • The masters had little interest and much
    distaste for the rowdy raucous recreational
    preferences of their charges.
  • They also had little to do with the boys outside
    the classroom
  • Such places were spartan, harsh environments
  • They were remote in the sense that most boys
    were borders the schools were often critiscised
    for their teaching of a classical curriculum in
    an increasingly technical world.
  • Beatings were common by both masters prefects
  • The system of fagging, whereby junior boys were
    at the beck call of prefects were expected
    to perform all kinds of chores
  • This was accepted by most boys on the basis that
    as they moved up the school it would be their

Public School Athleticism
Channelling Excess Energies
  • Thomas Arnold, the legendary Headmaster of Rugby
    School, was instrumental in the transformation of
    such places
  • He developed a purposeful use of recreations
    established a means by which the boys could
    channel their excess energies
  • Much emphasis was placed on team games
  • However, this did not reflect any fondness on
  • In fact he preferred swimming, gymnastics
    walking in the hills of the Lake District
  • Arnold, did recognise that the boys placed value
    on this type of recreation therefore could be
    used as an agent of SOCIAL CONTROL
  • At the same time it developed other desirable
    character-building qualities in the boys

Public School Athleticism
  • The notion of ATHLETICISM where Christian Virtues
    are promoted through the physical emerged from
    growing popularity of games sports
  • It was used as a way of bringing what were known
    as muscular Christian values into the lives of
    Britains public schoolboys
  • The new form of manly acceptable exercise
    taught loyalty, integrity, obedience, magnanimity
    in victory, dignity in defeat and above all FAIR
  • These values were all part of the code by which
    boys were controlled and by which they in turn
    would eventually control others
  • The idea of Christian virtue had been the central
    plank of rationalised thinking for some time
  • To this was added the concept of manly virtue, or
  • The idea that there could be a physical aspect to
    Christian living was soon taken up by all public
  • Finally the quality of LEADERSHIP was tested on
    the playing field in preparation for the role of
    many public schoolboys in later life

State Elementary Education
Components/Outcomes of the Notion of Athleticism
Introduction of Rules
  • In order that they should become acceptable, the
    nature of the games had to change
  • The image of young rowdies chasing a ball
    around a field was not one that either ARNOLD or
    his contemporaries could support
  • The introduction of rules was essential to social
  • The Christian ethic of fair play ensured that
    it was seen as honourable to play within those
    rules and unacceptable to do otherwise
  • Thus, the energies of the boys were diverted into
    what were seen as worthwhile pursuits
  • Not essentially because they were physical but
    this happened to provide a useful diversion from
    alternative less desirable pursuits
  • The captains of cricket football were held in
    great esteem by both masters boys
  • The games ethic was also important as a training
    medium for the officers leaders of the next
    generation as it helped to develop tactical
    strategic skills
  • The harsh existence, the flagging system the
    subjugation of oneself to a greater cause were
    all seen as entirely appropriate in the training
    of Christian men

How many characteristics of Popular Recreation
can you see?
Introduction of Rules cont
  • The growing popularity of the nations public
    schools led to a growth of a new generation of
    such establishments
  • Insufficient places in the great old public
    schools meant that others such as Marlborough,
    Malvern, Clifton and Wellington etc, were founded
    to fill this need
  • A whole generation of public schools offered the
    sons of the newly prosperous middle classes a
    similar education to that enjoyed by the sons of
    the aristocracy
  • Other ancient grammar and foundations were
    adapted to copy this model and a whole host of
    endowed establishments took on the new image
  • Theses schools were endowed by various monarchs,
    and named after a King Edward, Queen Elizabeth,
    King Henry etc
  • They became largely day-boy images of their
    more renowned boarding counterparts
  • Although team games remained the central plank of
    athleticism, the range of activities at these
    schools also included purely athletic and
    combative, swimming, boating, country pursuits
    and gymnastic activities

Public School Athleticism
Introduction of Rules cont
  • The image of Victorian public school is preserved
    in many contemporary publications, the best known
    is Tom Browns Schooldays (published 1857)
  • The author Thomas Hughes was a pupil at Rugby
    School during Arnolds time
  • Hughes went on to be instrumental in the
    foundation of the National Olympian Association
    in 1866 in the Amateur Athletic Club, a
    forerunner of the Amateur Athletic Association
  • Hughes was one of 3 brothers whom went to Rugby
    School, it is probable that the character of
    young Arthur was based on Hughess younger

Physical Education by Military Intent
  • It is generally accepted that physical education
    on the continent influenced development in
  • There is debate- as there was in the 19th Century
    about whether the development of physical
    education in public schools was educationally
    derived or the outcome of a wider agenda
  • During Queen Victorias reign 1819 1901 the
    British Empire was involved in some 28 campaigns
    from war in the Crimea to others that were mere
    skirmishes in comparison
  • The army looked to the public schools to fulfil
    the need for officers
  • The meeting called by Lord Elcho at the Thatched
    House Tavern in 1860 (to discuss the introduction
    of drill in public schools) is often referred to
    as the point from which physical education
    (training) began to figure prominently
  • This, in fact, was more concerned with military
    than physical training
  • In the eyes of many this pointed to the fact that
    it was militarism which drove the development of
    physical education in public schools rather than
    educational concern

State Elementary Education
Archibald MacLaren
  • The outcome of Lord Elchos intervention was the
    establishment of the Officer Training Corps as
    opposed to programmes of physical education
  • However, the involvement of ARCHIBALD MACLAREN
    did much to develop the physical rather than the
    purely militaristic aspects of training
  • MacLaren was Scottish, who had trained in France,
    he was a gymnastic and a fencer and had opened a
    gymnasium in Oxford in the 1850s
  • His involvement in the formation of the Army
    Gymnastic Staff at Aldershot did 2 things
  • 1st, it provided trained instructors to work
    with enlisted men in the regiments at home and
  • It also created a greater number who on leaving
    the army were appointed to public schools as both
    drill instructors and teachers of gymnastics.
  • In one sense therefore it might be said that both
    military and educational agendas were equally
    well served
  • MacLaren was also hugely influential in the
    building of gymnasia in public schools from the

State Elementary Education
Archibald MacLaren
  • In one sense therefore it might be said that both
    military and educational agendas were equally
    well served
  • MacLaren was also hugely influential in the
    building of gymnasia in public schools from the
  • His model became the norm for all gymnasia
    constructed before Swedish gymnastics rose to
    prominence towards the 19th Century
  • Although the first known school gynasium was at
    Uppingham in 1859
  • It was closely followed by MacLarens first
    school gymnasium at Radley College, Oxford in
    1860 where he taught gymnastics to the boys
  • He also built a gymnasium at Rugby school in 1872