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Physical Education and Activity for Kids

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Title: Physical Education and Activity for Kids


1
Physical Education and Activity for Kids
Sponsored by Human Kinetics The University of
North Texas Developed by The UNT Department of
Kinesiology, Health Promotion, Recreation
1
2
UNT Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion,
Recreation Faculty involved in PEAK
  • Karen Weiller, Ph.D.
  • Scott Martin, Ph.D.
  • James Morrow, Jr., Ph.D.
  • Allen Jackson, Ed.D.
  • Miguel Perez, Ph.D.
  • Patsy Caldwell, Ed.D.

www.coe.unt.edu/khpr/peak
2
3
Topics Covered
  • Physical Activity and Health
  • Minority Issues Related to Physical Activity and
    Health
  • Teaching Physical Education to Promote Physical
    Activity
  • Changing Directions

3
4
Physical Activity and Health
4
5
Notes for the Importance of Physical Activity 460
BC to 1996
  • Throughout history we have known that the human
    body needs regular physical activity to achieve
    optimum health.
  • The future health status of the population of the
    U.S. is going to be related to the physical
    activity levels present in our lifestyles.

5a
6
Notes for Who Recommends Physical Activity for
Health
  • Almost all major health organizations recognize
    the benefits of physical activity in the
    prevention of chronic disease.
  • The question is not who does recommend physical
    activity but who doesnt.

6a
7
Notes for Surgeon Generals Comment
  • The Surgeon Generals report on physical activity
    and health is the culminating scientific position
    on the need for regular physical activity to
    improve the health of the citizens of the U.S.

7a
8
Notes for Physical Activity and Exercise Should
Lead to Improved Health Related Physical Fitness
  • Health related fitness identifies physical
    fitness factors that are related to health
    outcomes.
  • Cardiorespiratory endurance - cardiovascular
    disease
  • Body composition - obesity
  • Musculoskeletal fitness (strength, flexibility,
    local muscular endurance) - functional capacity,
    osteoporosis, and low back pain

8a
9
Notes for Physical Activity Patterns in Young
Children are Not Good
  • Too many of our children are physically inactive
    to achieve and maintain good health.
  • Childhood obesity and physically inactive
    lifestyles can track into adulthood.

9a
10
Notes for Physical Activity Patterns in Children
and Adolescents
  • The percentage of young people who are physically
    inactive grows as they age and we have a young
    adult population where the majority are
    physically inactive.

10a
11
Notes for Lower Cardiovascular Endurance Levels
in Children
  • The lack of physical activity leads to many
    teenagers who are physically unfit. The problem
    is especially serious in teenage girls.

11a
12
Notes for Increased Body Fatness as Children Age
  • Over 30 percent of adults in the U.S. are
    considered overweight for good health.
  • A growing trend of obesity is present in our
    children.
  • Teenage obesity has been shown to track into
    adulthood.

12a
13
Notes for Healthy People 2000
  • The Healthy People 2000 program of the U.S.
    Department of Health and Human Services was
    initiated in 1990 to improve the health of U.S.
    citizens.
  • Increased levels of physical activity was one of
    the major goals.

13a
14
Notes for 1995 Midcourse Review
  • Unfortunately the goals for increased levels of
    physical activity through physical education are
    not being met and probably will not be achieved
    by the year 2000.
  • Some of the physical activity objectives are even
    moving in the WRONG direction.

14a
15
Notes for U.S. Surgeon General Comments
  • These statements from the Surgeon Generals
    report illustrate the lack of physical activity
    and physical education provided for our children.
  • When physical activity interventions are used in
    the schools, they work. We just do not have
    enough quality physical education programs.

15a
16
Notes for Good Physical Education Programs
Emphasize
  • People do things they like to do. Children need
    to have fun while they are physically active.
  • Children need to learn to be active in their
    leisure time.
  • Children need to learn that physical activity is
    an essential part of a healthy lifestyle.

16a
17
Notes for Physically Active Children and
Adolescents
  • Childhood attitudes and behaviors do relate to
    adult attitudes and behaviors.
  • Physically active and fit children tend to be
    physically active and fit adults.
  • Obese adolescents tend to be obese adults.

17a
18
Notes for Regular Physical Activity in Childhood
and Adolescence
  • Physically active children receive fitness and
    heath benefits for both the mind and the body.

18a
19
Minority Issues Related to Physical Activity and
Health
19
20
Notes for Minority Issues Related to Physical
Activity and Health
  • The health status of minority groups in the U.S.
    is negatively impacted by poor nutritional habits
    and low levels of physical activity.
  • National studies have found that members of
    underrepresented groups are less likely than the
    general population to engage in leisure time
    physical activity.
  • For a number of reasons women are less likely
    than men to engage in physical activity.

20a
21
Notes for Physical Activity Among Minorities
  • Studies have found different activity levels
    between different ethnic groups (Pate, 1996
    Zakarian et al., 1994).
  • There also appear to be differences in the types
    of activities chosen by ethnic groups.

21a
22
Notes for Market Physical Activity Programs as
Recreational Activities
  • Studies have shown that members of
    under-represented groups might not respond well
    to traditional exercise methods.
  • Alternative forms (e.g., recreation) have been
    found to be effective means to reach
    underrepresented groups (Lewis et al., 1993).

22a
23
Notes for Promote Team and Individual Activities
  • Cultural values promoting group status and
    wellbeing necessitate the inclusion of team as
    well as individual activities in promoting
    physical fitness among members of
    underrepresented groups.
  • The community plays a key role among minority
    groups, therefore, it is recommended that team
    sports and activities be promoted.

23a
24
Notes for Promote Outdoor Activities
  • The community plays a key role among minority
    groups, therefore, it is recommended that outdoor
    activities be promoted.
  • This will not only increase physical activity
    levels, but it is expected to increase group
    cohesiveness.

24a
25
Notes for Provide a Safe Environment
  • Unfortunately, low-SES individuals might reside
    in unsafe environments making it difficult to
    engage in outdoor activities.
  • Community environments must be made safer so that
    people can engage in leisure time physical
    activities.
  • Myers (1995) found that after school programs are
    effective.

25a
26
Teaching Physical Education to Promote Physical
Activity
26
27
Notes for Teaching Physical Education to Promote
Physical Activity
  • Developmentally Appropriate
  • National Standards
  • Foundations of Physical Education

Elementary school children should accumulate at
least 30 - 60 minutes of age and developmentally
appropriate physical activity on all or most days
of the week. Some activity should be in periods
of 10 - 15 minutes or more and include moderate
to vigorous activity with brief rest
periods. Extended inactivity is
discouraged.(Corbin Pangrazzi, 1997).
26a
28
Notes for Developmentally Appropriate Physical
Education
  • COPEC - nations largest professional association
    for childrens physical education
  • Quality, daily physical education should be
    available to all children
  • Outcome of developmentally appropriate program -
    individuals who are physically educated

27a
29
Notes for Purpose of COPEC Document
  • Describe in a straightforward manner practices
    that are appropriate for children in physical
    education programs.
  • Extend awareness that childhood is the time to
    begin development of active and healthy
    lifestyles.
  • Responsibility primarily within physical
    education programs in schools.

28a
30
Notes for What is a Physically Educated Person?
  • HAS learned skills necessary to perform variety
    of physical activities
  • DOES participate regularly in physical activities
  • IS physically fit
  • KNOWS implications of and benefits from
    involvement in physical activities
  • VALUES physical activities and its contributions
    to a healthful lifestyle (NASPE, 1990)

29a
31
Notes for Appropriate Practices
  • Programs that are age appropriate and
    individually appropriate
  • Programs that are designed for age group to be
    served
  • Programs which recognize that children are not
    miniature adults

30a
32
Notes for Appropriate Fitness Development
  • Children understand important concepts of
    physical fitness.
  • Children understand the contribution fitness
    makes to a healthy lifestyle.
  • Children are not required to participate in
    fitness activities, but helped to understand why
    they participate.

31a
33
Notes for Fitness Development
  • Children are not required to participate in
    fitness activities just for the sake of
    participating, but helped to understand reasons
    why
  • Using exercise as punishment
  • Drawbacks
  • punishment can arouse fear of failure
  • punishment can hinder the learning of skills
  • punishment can act as negative reinforcement.

32a
34
Notes for Physical Fitness Tests
  • Physical fitness tests are used as part of a
    process through which children understand, enjoy
    and improve physical health.
  • Tests are used as a tool for developing physical
    fitness knowledge, understanding and competence.

33a
35
Notes for Why is This Important to Me?
  • Assist in recognition of practices which are in
    the best interests of children.
  • Assist in selling best programming to all those
    concerned with childrens physical health and
    well-being.
  • Apply interrelated components of document to
    programming.

34a
36
National Standards for Physical Education
  • Identify What A Physically Educated Person Can Do

35
37
Notes for National Standards for Physical
Education
  • The standards are a part of an educational reform
    that identifies what a child should know and be
    able to do by high school graduation.
  • These standards were developed under the
    direction of the National Association for Sport
    and Physical Education with input from
    practitioners at all levels.

35a
38
Notes for Can Do Many Activities and is Expert in
a Few
  • The intent of this standard is the development of
    adequate skill in order to participate in
    activities for a lifetime.
  • This is achieved through emphasis on fundamental
    motor skills at the elementary level, developing
    a wide variety of skills in middle school and
    becoming specialized in a few activities in high
    school.

36a
39
Notes for Knows How to
  • The learner can use cognitive information to
    enhance personal motor skill acquisition and
    performance.
  • The learner develops the ability to independently
    acquire new skills and refine existing ones.

37a
40
Notes for Active Lifestyle
  • The intent of this standard is to establish
    patterns of regular participation in meaningful
    physical activity.
  • Regular participation is more likely to occur
    when students have developed interests and skills
    in a wide variety of activities in order to
    identify those that have meaning for each
    individual.

38a
41
Notes for Healthy Fitness Status
  • Each individual will develop a health enhancing
    level of fitness.
  • The ultimate goal is that students will have the
    skill and willingness to accept responsibility
    for maintaining a healthy fitness level
    throughout life.

39a
42
Notes for Personal and Social Behavior
  • The intent of this standard is achievement of
    self-initiated behaviors that promote personal
    and group success while participating in physical
    activities.

40a
43
Notes for Respects Differences Among All People
  • The intent of this standard is that children from
    different ethnic and racial backgrounds will
    successfully participate together.
  • Individuals with disabilities and varying
    physical characteristics are active participants.
  • There is acceptance and involvement for all
    individuals.

41a
44
Notes for Understands Benefits of Physical
Activity
  • The intent of this standard to develop awareness
    of the values and benefits derived from
    participation in physical activity.
  • Development of awareness of the personal benefits
    contributes to a lifetime of active
    participation.

42a
45
Notes for Contributions of Standards to Local
Schools
  • Benchmarks for specific grade levels are
    identified to assist in implementation of a
    progressive curriculum from kindergarten to high
    school graduation.

43a
46
Notes for Foundations of Physical Education
  • This class is more than just participation in
    various sports and dance activities.
  • There is an integration of classroom activities,
    laboratory experiences and participation in a
    variety of fitness activities.

44a
47
Notes for Stairway to Lifelong Participation
  • Many approaches are used in this class to empower
    students to apply skills, knowledge, and
    attitudes that lead to maintenance of a health
    enhancing level of fitness throughout their adult
    lives.

45a
48
Notes for Content Includes Page 1
  • During the cognitive part of the class students
    acquire knowledge of fitness concepts and
    principles necessary for the development of a
    personal fitness program.
  • They learn the relationship between physical
    inactivity and disease.

46a
49
Notes for Content Includes Page 2
  • Students experience many modalities of activity
    that enhance personal fitness in order to
    identify enjoyable ways of achieving fitness.
  • Enjoyment has been identified as an important
    prerequisite to continued participation.

47a
50
Notes for Content Includes Page 3
  • Through the laboratory experiences students
    develop skills in assessment of their fitness
    level and apply cognitive understanding to the
    development of a personal fitness program.

48a
51
Changing Directions
49
52
Notes for Changing Directions
"Impacting lifestyle behaviors is not easy. It
may involve attempts to modify behaviors that are
well ingrained. Many people need to be involved.
Let's look at who might be involved."
  • Who Can Help Promote Lifelong Physical Activity?
  • Guidelines for Promoting Lifelong Physical
    Activity
  • Action Tips

49a
53
Notes for Who Can Help Promote Lifelong Physical
Activity?
  • "No single group can help promote physical
    activity. It involves the collaborative efforts
    of parents, teachers, school administrators,
    recreation leaders, community services, health
    professionals, and the students themselves."

50a
54
Notes for Guidelines for Promoting Lifelong
Physical Activity Among All People
  • Children and adolescents should accumulate at
    least 30 to 60 minutes of age and developmentally
    appropriate physical activity from a variety of
    physical activities on all, or most days of the
    week.
  • Activities should be based on the characteristics
    for children and adolescents.

(adapted from COPEC)
51a
55
Notes for Action Tips Page 1
  • Most Americans are not physically active.
  • Physical inactivity has been related to a number
    of adverse health reactions.
  • Physical activity not only assists with physical
    health, but it also affects our mental health
    status.
  • All adolescents should be physically active daily
    or nearly every day (e.g., play, games,
    recreation, sports, physical education).
  • In addition to daily lifestyle activities, three
    or more sessions per week of activities lasting
    20 minutes or more at a time, that require
    moderate to vigorous levels of exertion, are
    recommended.

52a
56
Notes for Action Tips Page 2
  • Many reasons have been given for not
    participating in physical activities. Lack of
    time, ability, and desire are often sited.
    Playgrounds, low-cost gyms, and recreational
    sites should be made available for people to
    exercise.
  • It is imperative for the development of our
    children.

53a
57
Notes for Action Tips Page 3
  • The U.S. Surgeon General has determined that
    Americans are not physically active.
  • Role modeling is not only good for getting
    children to exercise, but also assists all of us.
  • Protected and safe environments have been found
    to increase participation in leisure time
    physical activities.

54a
58
Physical Education and Activity for Kids
Sponsored by Human Kinetics The University of
North Texas Developed by The UNT Department of
Kinesiology, Health Promotion, Recreation
1
59
References
55
60
References
  • Corbin, C.B., Pangrazi, R.P. (1997) Guidelines
    for appropriate physical activity for elementary
    school children. Council for Physical Education
    for Children.
  • Fardy, P.S., White, R.E., Clark, L.T., Amodio,
    G., Hurster, M.H., McDermott, K.J., Magel, J.R.
    (1995). Health promotion in minority
    adolescents A Healthy People 2000 pilot study.
    Journal of Caridopulmonary Resuscitation, 15(1),
    65-72.

56
61
References
  • Lewis, C.E., Raczynski, J.M., Heath, G.W.,
    Levinson, R., Hilyer, J.C., Cutter, G.R.
    (1993). Promoting physical activity in
    low-income African-American communities The PARR
    Project. Ethnicity and Disease, 3(2), 106-118.
  • Myers, H.F., Kagawa-Singer, M., Kumanyika, S.K.,
    Lex, B.W., Markides, K.S. (1995). Behavioral
    risk factors related to chronic diseases in
    ethnic minorities. Health Psychology, 14(7),
    613-621.

57
62
References
  • National Association for Sport and Physical
    Education. (1995). Moving Into the Future
    National Physical Education Standards A Guide to
    Content and Assessment. St. Louis Mosby.
  • Rainey, D., Murray, T. (1997). Foundations of
    Personal Fitness. St.Paul West Publishing
    Company.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    (1996). Healthy people 2000 Midcourse review
    and 1995 revisions. Washington, DC Government
    Printing Office.

58
63
References
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    (1996). Physical activity and health A report of
    the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA U.S. Department
    of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease
    Control and Prevention, National Center for
    Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
  • Zakarian, J.M., Hovell, M.F., Hofstetter, C.R.,
    Sallis, J.F., Keating, K.J. (1994). Correlates
    of vigorous exercise in a predominantly low SES
    and minority high school population. Preventive
    Medicine, 23(3), 314-321.

59
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Acknowledgements
  • The authors wish to thank Human Kinetics and the
    College of Education at the University of North
    Texas for their financial support. Also, a
    special thanks is extended to Patrick Baley for
    his technical assistance in the development of
    Project Peak.


60
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Focus Group Assessment
61
66
Focus Group Assessment
The purpose of this project is to develop a
multimedia, motivational package designed to
demonstrate the value of lifetime physical
activity and the role physical education plays in
maintaining healthy and active lifestyles.
  • Please respond to the following questions about
    this multimedia presentation.
  • Does this media presentation meet the stated
    objective? Yes
    No
  • comments
  • What did you like about the media presentation?
  • What did you not like about the media
    presentation?
  • Identify changes/additions which you believe
    would better address the stated project purpose.

62
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