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Asian Values

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Title: Asian Values


1
Asian Values
2009
2
VALUES
  • I should go to school because
  • 1. My parents want me to be in school
  • 2. I want to be with my friends
  • 3. I want to learn about many things in this
    world
  • 4. I like to prepare for serious work later in my
    life
  • 5. I need education to help my family
  • 6. I want to become an engineer, doctor, teacher,
    etc. some day
  •  

3
EAST vs WEST
  • Different concept between the East and the West
    Goodness vs Rights -- Fred Dallmayr
  • Ours (The West) is largely a rights-based
    morality --Henry Rosemont
  • Individuals have rights, and there are things no
    person or group may do to them (without violating
    their rights)." -- Robert Nozick
  • Classical Confucian -- "qualities of persons and
    with "persons who have or do not have these
    qualities" where western morality invokes
    "abstract principles.

4
Asia the Worlds bright economic spot
  • Asia-Pacific region will be the fastest growing
    regional economic block from 2003 to 2007,
    estimated growth rate at 5.9
  • In Nov 1993 on national TV, facing the horizon,
    the ex-President Eduardo Frei depicted the
    economic importance of the Pacific Ocean.

Economic Intelligence Unit the Asian
Development Bank
5
Asia the Worlds bright economic spot
  • Chile hopes to strengthen its relations with Asia
    to advance global free trade.
  • Chile was the first South American country to
    establish relations with Beijing in Dec 1970.
  • Chile has Free Trade Agreement with South Korea
    and China. In June 2005, Pacific Four (P4)
    Chile, Singapore, Brunei and New Zealand
  • Chile signed with Japan in Sept 2007.

6
2. Inventing Asia
  • Asia the East and OrientEuropean invention from
    ancient Greeks. It refers to the vast land and
    people east of Europe borders.
  • The Near (Middle) East, the Far East
  • Southeast Asia
  • Regionalism in East Asia --- historical patterns
    of cooperation, common challenge of the West, the
    quest for an Asian identity, growing economic
    interdependence

7
3. Region-building in Asia Asia
Consciousness
  • Post-second World War, numerous region-building
    --The Inter-Asian Relations Conference in New
    Delhi, South East Asia Command (SEAC), Southeast
    Asia Treaty Organization (Seato), Maphilindo (for
    Malaya, the Philippines Indonesia uniting the
    Malay peoples) and ASEAN (Association of
    Southeast Asian States)
  • The ASEAN 3 regionalism
  • East Asia Community
  • Many Asias religious /civilization divisions

8
4. Challenges on Region-Building
  • IR divisions -- The China/Japan division,
    antagonism between Japan and Korea, Thailand and
    Burma, Indian and Pakistan over Kashmir
  • Different impact of colonialism between British,
    Dutch, French, American and Japanese colonialism
  • North-South divide within the region
  • What type of regionalism prevails - an exclusive
    regionalism or an inclusive regionalism embracing
    the United States, Australia and other Western
    countries? - It will be determined partly by the
    success of the promotion of 'Asia' consciousness.

9
5. The East and the West Key questions to ask
about Asian Values
  • What are these Asian Values? Are they different
    from western values?
  • What are the contexts and the origin of the
    Asian Values debate?
  • Are Asian values the culprit for Asian
    Financial Crisis?
  • How do Asian Values relate to globalization and
    development?

10
6. Overview of the Presentation
  • Part One
  • Historical Roots
  • European Advance
  • Background, Context
  • The Concept of Occident and Oriental
  • Development of Asian Values Debate
  • Proponents of Asian Values
  • Part Two
  • The Essence of Asian Values
  • The Assumptions of Asian Values
  • Empirical Studies on Asian Values
  • Why did they clash with the West?
  • Asian Values and Democracy Divergent views
  • Asian Values and Human Rights Divergent views

11
7. Overview of the Presentation
  • Part Three
  • Asian values and Economic Development
  • The myth of Asian Economic Miracle
  • The Asian Financial Crisis Were Asian Values
    the culprit?
  • The Asian Financial Crisis Going beyond culture
    and values
  • Part Four
  • Are these values particularly Asian in nature?
    The illusion of Asia exceptionalism?
  • Criticisms on Asian Values
  • Asian Values the model of the future or the
    model in decline?
  • Asian Values Local VS Global
  • Conclusion

12
Part One
  • Historical Roots
  • European advance
  • Origin, Background Context
  • The Concept of Occident and Oriental
  • Development of Asian Values Debate
  • Proponents of Asian Values

13
8. Ideology of Asia consciousness Historical
Roots
  • In China, nationalist regime of the 1920s spoke
    of an Asian spiritual unity, Sun Yat-Sen as the
    father of a Sino-centric movement
  • Japanese victory over Russia in1905 an impetus
    to an Asian unity
  • Japanese Co-Prosperity Sphere of World War II --
    'ancient glory of the spiritual life of Asian
    peoples'.
  • The Bengali religious leader, Vivekananda
    (1863-1902) --'on the material plane, Europe has
    mainly been the basis during modern times' on
    the 'spiritual plane, Asia has been the basis
    throughout the history of the world
  • The Nobel Prize-winning Indian poet, Rabindranath
    Tagore renaissance Asian civilization

14
9. European Advance
  • India, Burma, Malay Peninsula Northern Borneo
    _____ colonies
  • Philippines __________ and _________ colonies
  • Indonesia __________ colony
  • East Timor __________ colony
  • Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia-_________ colonies
  • Central Asia __________
  • European colonialism spurred nationalist
    movements and awareness as a region
  • The Cold War divided the area into __________and
    ___________ alliance systems centered on the
    Soviet Union and United States.

15
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16
Singapur
  • Uno del los puertos con mas trafico en el mundo
    segundo puerto con más trafico
  • El Tercer Refinador de petróleo más grande del
    mundo
  • Uno de los primeros centros financieros de Asia
  • Una de las ciudades más cosmopolitas en el mundo
  • El primero en el ranking mundial de Calidad del
    Trabajadores en 49 Países MEJORES TRABAJADORES
    DEL MUNDO
  • El segundo en el alinea mundial (segundo después
    de Estados Unidos) en el informe Global de
    Competitividad 2000
  • La puerta entre el Este y el Oeste

17
10. Background Context
  • Asian values a long campaign against western
    colonialism
  • The idea of Asian Way' existed in late 1970s,
    originated in Singapore, moved to international
    academic debate in the 80s
  • Asian Values key factor of Asia miracle in
    80s
  • In the early 1990s, the concept of Asian Values
    was used by Asian political leaders to ensure
    social stability

18
11. The Concept of the Occident the Oriental
  • The Asian Values advocates stress the existence
    of a "shared identity" in Asia, and the
    understanding of "Asia" (Oriental) as a concept
    opposite to that of "West" or "Occident"
  • Started in the 19th and early 20th century by
    European orientalists Max Weber
  • In the 1950s, Western social scientists saw
    Confucianism as a serious obstacle to economic
    development
  • Protestant ethics as providing a unique source
    of value motivation in the development of
    capitalist society in the West. (Max Weber)
  • West rationalism, individualism, tolerance,
    scientific
  • East subservience and intolerance of different
    views, superstitious

19
12. Proponents of Asian Values
  • The rise of studies of Asian values in the West
    after the end of colonization and the fast
    economic growth of the region
  • The most articulate proponents Singapore
    School-- Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew, a retired
    senior diplomat, Tommy Koh, Kishore Mahbubani
  • Other prominent advocates are Malaysia ex-Prime
    Minister Mahathir Mohamed and his then deputy
    Anwar Ibrahim

20
12. Proponents of Asian Values
  • East Asia Confucianism emphasis of hard work,
    thrift, filial piety and national pride have
    fuelled regional economic growth. -- China
    government official Li Xianglu
  • Asian elements which have supported Japan's
    economic development have come to serve as a
    model for the world' Senior diplomat Ogura
    Kazuo
  • Asia can present itself as an alternative to the
    West' and that more people are questioning the
    Western model of development'- Thai academic
    Chaiwat Satha-Anand
  • 'The Asianisation of Asia' -- Japanese
    intellectual, Yoichi Funabashi

21
Part Two
  • The Essence of Asian Values
  • The Assumptions of Asian Values
  • Empirical Studies on Asian Values
  • Why did they clash with the West?
  • Asian Values and Democracy- Divergent views
  • Asian Values and Human Rights- Divergent views

22
13. The Essence of Asian Values
23
13. The Essence of Asian Values
24
14. The Essence of Asian Values
  • Family is the key social organization
  • Group interests above individual interests
  • Consensus rather than confrontation in political
    decision-making
  • Social cohesion is priority, through moral
    principles and strong government
  • Economic growth is a natural development of
    social cohesion and strong government
  • Organic view of society

25
15. The Assumptions of Asian Values
  • A set of core civilizational values, common to
    both the Confucian and non-Sino traditions of
    East Asia
  • A questioning of the legitimacy and efficacy of
    the Western model development's universal
    application
  • A conviction on the rise of the East and the
    fall of the West
  • Asian values play in a part in shaping the
    Asian miracles.

26
16. Empirical Studies on Asian Values
conceptualization
  • One of the most authoritative empirical works to
    date is a ground-breaking study by David
    Hitchcock (1994)

27
16. Empirical Studies on Asian Values
conceptualization
28
16. Empirical Studies on Asian Values
conceptualization
29
Case Study-BANGKOK DECLARATION
  • The Ministers and representatives of Asian
    States, meeting at Bangkok from 29 March to 2
    April 1993, pursuant to General Assembly
    resolution 46/116 of 17 December 1991 in the
    context of preparations for the World Conference
    on Human rights,
  • Adopt this Declaration, to be known as "The
    Bangkok Declaration", which contains the
    aspirations and commitments of the Asian region

30
Case Study-BANGKOK DECLARATION
  • 4. Discourage any attempt to use human rights as
    a conditionality for extending development
    assistance
  • 5. Emphasize the principles of respect for
    national sovereignty and territorial integrity as
    well as non-interference in the internal affairs
    of States, and the non-use of human rights as an
    instrument of political pressure

31
Case Study-BANGKOK DECLARATION
  • 7. Stress the universality, objectivity and
    non-selectivity of all human rights and the need
    to avoid the application of double standards in
    the implementation of human rights and its
    politicization, and that no violation of human
    rights can be justified

32
Double Standard Argument
  • Nowhere is the double-standard approach to human
    rights more glaring than in the Wests evasion of
    its responsibilities through its inaction in the
    face of the massive and gravest violations of
    human rights in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Surely, their
    apathetic and meek response to genocide, ethnic
    cleansing and rape, in the heart of Europe, makes
    a total mockery of their preaching and posturing
    on the promotion and protection of human rights
    in far corners of the world.
  • We ask ourselves what credentials do they still
    have to preach about human rights when the most
    blatant abuse of those rights before their very
    eyes goes unpunished. -----The Malaysia Minister
    of Foreign Affairs

33
Case Study-BANGKOK DECLARATION
  • 18. Recognize that the main obstacles to the
    realization of the right to development lie at
    the international macroeconomic level, as
    reflected in the widening gap between the North
    and the South, the rich and the poor19. Affirm
    that poverty is one of the major obstacles
    hindering the full enjoyment of human rights

34
Priorities Argument
  • The right to development should be given priority
    over civil and political rights.
  • Poverty and lack of development are directly
    attributable to macroeconomic policies that
    increase the widening gap between the North and
    the South, the rich and the poor.

35
Priorities Argument
  • The Chinese government, which argued during the
    Vienna Conference that when poverty and lack
    of adequate food and clothing are commonplace and
    peoples basic needs are not guaranteed, priority
    should be given to economic development.
    Otherwise, human rights are completely out of the
    question.

36
Case Study-BANGKOK DECLARATION
  • 8. Recognize that while human rights are
    universal in nature, they must be considered in
    the context of a dynamic and evolving process of
    international norm-setting, bearing in mind the
    significance of national and regional
    particularities and various historical, cultural
    and religious backgrounds

37
Case Study-BANGKOK DECLARATION
  • 9. Recognize further that States have the primary
    responsibility for the promotion and protection
    of human rights through appropriate
    infrastructure and mechanisms, and also recognize
    that remedies must be sought and provided
    primarily through such mechanisms and procedures

38
Case Study-BANGKOK DECLARATION
  • calls for greater recognition of the immense
    complexity of the issue of
  • human rights due to the wide diversity in
    history, culture, value systems, geography and
    phases of development among the nations of the
    world.

39
Context Argument
  • Western over-reaction to Paragraph 8s simple
    description of realitythat moreover explicitly
    recognized the ideal of universality led to much
    of the acrimony that characterized the debate
    between the West and Asia at the Vienna
    Conference.
  • What seemed to be controversial about the
    position is that it suggests a contradiction the
    rights cannot be both viewed as universal and
    interpreted differently according to ones
    culture??

40
17. Why did Asian Values clash with the West?
  • The fallacy of the universality of the western
    model of development
  • Mahbubani criticized the Westerners for
    their inability of to see that non-Europeans may
    have reached a stage of development where they
    can progress without having to repeat Europe's
    mistakes

41
17. Why did Asian Values clash with the West?
  • Convergence with the West yet divergence from the
    West, modernization but not westernization
  • From former President Deng Xiaoping to Jiang
    Zemin till Hu Jintao, they have revived the
    spiritual civilization to promote the
    socialist ethical and cultural progress of the
    Chinese people
  • For decades Western commentators considered
    Asian values as the cause of backward
    development in Asian societies.
  • Asian values freed Asians from their low
    self-esteem, the legacy of years of western
    colonization

42
17. Why did Asian Values clash with the West?
  • The different interpretation of democracy and
    human rights
  • The West perceives the Asian regimes employ
    Asian values to defend an illiberal form of
    government.
  • Asians question why Western countries impose
    their cultural values and ethnocentric
    definitions of human rights on Asia

43
17. Why did Asian Values clash with the West?
  • What is clear is that there is a general
    discontent throughout the region with a purely
    Western interpretation of human rights. -
    Bilahari Kausikan
  • There is suspicion arising from Malaysia to
    Korea to Japan, that the Western media's agenda
    of human rights and environmental
    protection......are means to keep Asia from
    developing further economically. -- The Seoul
    Bureau Chief for the Far Eastern Economic Review
    commented in 1994

44
18. Asian Values and Democracy Divergent
Views
  • Ref Yi-Huah Jiang, 2003
  • Type I -- Asian values as distinct from the West
    and Asian countries need not embrace the model of
    liberal democracy.
  • ?? " If Singapore became a Western-style,
    individualistic society, he says, "we'd go down
    the drain we would have more drugs, more crime,
    more single mothers with delinquent children, and
    a poor economy"Former Prime Minister of
    Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew (Bell, 1997 7)

45
18. Asian Values and Democracy Divergent
Views
  • Type II - Asian values as distinct from the West
    but liberal democracy is the universal model for
    all.
  • ?? The future of Asian countries depends not
    only on continuing economic growth but, more
    importantly, on a strong commitment both to human
    rights and democracy and to the revitalization of
    Asian traditional values and cultures. The two
    sets of values complement each other and are
    equally important (Chan, 1997 46).

46
18. Asian Values and Democracy Divergent
Views
  • Type III Asian values are more rhetoric than
    actual, and democracy is a universal value which
    is not culture-bound.
  • ?? Therefore, the distinction between East Asian
    and Western values is false" (Alatas, 1998 11).
  • "It makes little sense to ask whether 'Asia'
    needs democracy, for it is the same as asking
    whether America or Europe needs democracy" (Ng,
    1997 12).

47
18. Asian Values and Democracy Divergent
Views
  • Type IV -- Asian values are more rhetoric than
    actual and liberal democracy is not the only
    choice available to mankind.
  • "Yet even if there are no essentially Asian
    values, it challenges us to think what we mean by
    democracy.
  • Different democratic societies may have different
    view of the relative importance of social order
    versus individual rights, it follows that
    alongside liberal democracies there could be
    non-liberal --or at any rate less liberal --
    variants of democracy" (Emmerson, 1995 96).

48
Part Three
  • Asian Values and Economic Development
  • The myth of Asian Economic Miracle
  • The Asian Financial Crisis Were Asian values
    the culprit?
  • The Asian Financial Crisis Going beyond culture
    and values

49
19. Asian Values and Economic Development
  • FREE MARKET DEMOCRACY
  • ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT?

50
19. Asian Values and Economic Development
  • To most Asian leaders, economic and social rights
    precede over civil and political rights. Economic
    growth and development are prioritized over
    individual freedom.
  • The manifestation of Asian values have produced
    divergent social and economic outcome
  • China
  • Japan
  • Indonesia
  • India
  • Burma and North Korea
  • Singapore and Malaysia

51
19. Asian Values and Economic Development
  • 1.China has great economic growth but without
    political freedom
  • 2. Japan is the richest has most freedom.
  • 3. Indonesia practices democracy but with
    poor economy
  • 4. India has more freedom in politics than
    economics
  • 5. Burma and North Korea are the poorest and
    have the least freedom among the Asian countries
  • 6. Singapore and Malaysia are rich and half free

52
19. Asian Values and Economic Development
  • Common characteristics of the East Asian Tigers
    are-
  • Focused on exports to richer industrialized
    nations
  • Trade surplus with aforementioned countries
  • Sustained rate of double-digit growth for decades
  • Non-democratic and relatively authoritarian
    political systems during the early years
  • Undervalued currencies
  • High level of U.S. treasury bond holdings
  • High savings rate

53
20. The Myth of Asian economic miracle?
  • Paul Krugman compared East Asia spectacular
    growth to Communist economies in the 1960s.
  • Input-driven growth (growth in education,
    employment, stock of physical capital) vs
    Output-driven growth (better management and
    efficient use of resources)
  • Input-driven growth runs into diminishing
    returns, inevitably limited

54
20. The Myth of Asian economic miracle?
  • A nation can only continue to growh economically
    if there is a rise in output not just input
  • Rapid Soviet economic growth was due to the
    willingness to save, to sacrifice current
    consumption for the sake of future production
  • Soviet economy grew by its ability to mobilize
    resources, not its ability to use them
    efficiently.
  • Asian growth, similar to the Soviet Union, seems
    to be caused by growth in labor and capital
    rather than by gains in efficiency

55
20. The Myth of Asian economic miracle?
  • The Asian miracle seems to have been based on
    perspiration rather than inspiration
  • If there is a secret to Asian growth, it is
    simply deferred gratification, the willingness to
    sacrifice current satisfaction for future gain.
    (Paul Krugman, 1994)
  • Simple economic principles openness to foreign
    investment with state-managed market
  • A balanced perspective cultural and economic
    factors to shape the success of the Asian
    miracles

56
21. The Asian Financial Crisis Were Asian
Values the culprit?
  • The current crisis punctures the idea of Asian
    exceptionalism. The laws of economics have not
    been suspended in Asia.' (Francis Fukuyama)
  • 'Asian values have become Asian liabilities.'
    (US News and World Report)
  • Yesterday, we admired Asian values and almost
    despised our own. Today, deregulated America is
    in fashion' (The New Statesman)
  • Some 'conservative' Americans ponder 'whether
    Asian values might teach Americans something'.
    In fact, however, America now has the
    opportunity, especially through the IMF, to
    'spread its worldview at almost no cost to
    itself.' (Sebastian Mallaby in The
    National Interest)

57
21. The Asian Financial Crisis Were Asian
Values the culprit?
  • Asian government were accused of fostering crony
    capitalism that led to overinvestment in bad
    projects
  • Asian values did not cause the crisis. Corruption
    and nepotism are a debasement of Confucianist
    values. If Asian values were at fault, why arent
    Hong Kong and Singapore affected? (Lee
    Kuan Yew, 1998)
  • Poor system was the primary cause weak banks,
    inadequate supervision and weak exchange-rate
    policies and excessive borrowing in the past
    three to four years. (Linda Lim, 1998)
  • Both domestic and international banks gave loans
    indiscriminately during the euphoria. Thai baht
    was the most vulnerable and was attacked in early
    1996

58
21. The Asian Financial Crisis Going beyond
culture and values
  • The core of the problem Volatility of global
    financial markets sudden huge inflow of capital
    starting from 1993 and 1994 and then the sudden
    outflow in 1997. (Eisuke Sakakibara)
  • The West has pushed us to open our markets, but
    what are we getting in return? Through
    globalization we have created a monster. Park
    Yung Chul, President of Korea Institute of
    Finance
  • Implications Too much freedom too fast in both
    markets and politics can lead to downfall

59
Part Four
  • Are these values particularly Asian in nature?
    The illusion of Asia exceptionalism?
  • Criticisms on Asian Values
  • Asian Values the model of the future or the
    model in decline?
  • Asian Values Local VS Global
  • Conclusion

60
22. Are these values particularly Asian in
nature? The illusion of Asia exceptionalism?
  • Is East-West model exclusive?
  • Western industrialism was built in the 19th
    century upon values of strong government, moral
    propriety, hard work and thrift, similar to
    Asian Values
  • The Asian values are favorable to Asias present
    stage of the economic development, just as
    Victorian values suited 19th century Britain

61
22. Are these values particularly Asian in
nature? The illusion of Asia exceptionalism?
  • I do know that many of these Asian values were
    once also western values. (New Straits Times,
    March 16 1995, 10) Mahatir, Margaret Thatcher.
  • Asian values are similar to the Christian
    principles. - Former British career diplomat Hugh
    Cortazzi.
  • Why did the West move away from these values?
  • A process of moral decline
  • Democracy has its own backlash. Democracies are
    beginning to learn that too much freedom is
    dangerous. -- Mahatir

62
23. Criticisms on Asian Values
  • Cultural Relativism
  • Ignore heterogeneity and diversity
  • Asian values may in fact be Chinese capitalism,
    are in fact typical to a restricted part of the
    region, in particular, the East Asian countries
  • Cultural Stereotype
  • Stereotyping, oversimplification and mutual
    misunderstanding

63
24. Asian Values the model of the future or
the model in decline
  • Is Asian model an alternative to liberalism?
  • Problems in the West society to reconcile
    individual rights with the interests of the
    larger community, a call to restraint excessive
    liberalism
  • Too much democracy blockage to economic growth
  • The Asian values thesis received support in the
    New Right in the 1980s ex-U.S. President Reagan
    and ex-UK Premier of Margaret Thatcher
    Traditional values are conducive to the freedom
    of the market

64
24. Asian Values the model of the future or
the model in decline
  • Current social and economic problems of the West
    are not the causes but the products of social
    change inherent in the development of capitalist
    society
  • The central question of the viability of Asian
    model if this model is confined to only the
    period of early growth of capitalism intensive
    mobilization of labor and capital
  • Individualistic Protestant ethic good for early
    capitalist development, Collectivist ethic of a
    Confucian type good for later global capitalism
    development (Levy, 1992)

65
24. Asian Values the model of the future or
the model in decline
  • International pressures on Asia to reform human
    rights, labor relations, legal system U.S. and
    other Western industrial powers to break into
    Asian markets by imposing liberal market rules
  • Asian leaders see them as destroying the
    competitive advantage of the country.
  • American political leaders hold double standards
    when it is in their interests but are less
    inclined to maintain the same standard when it is
    not in their economic interest, based on human
    rights rhetoric. (Mahbubani 1998 Mauzy, 1997
    212 in Michael Hill, p. 25)

66
25. Asian Values Local VS Global
  • East Asian form of modernity -complexity
    relationship between globalization on the one
    hand and localization on the other.
  • Asian Values a local voice to counteract
    globalization. The biased perception of West is
    the BEST and SUPERIOR and the Mc-culture
    pervades among the young generation in Asia
  • The Globalization of the local and the
    localization of the global
  • Globalization in effect is the universalisation
    of Western particularism
  • The American sociologist Peter Berger claims that
    East Asia has made a second case of capitalist
    modernity after the model of Western Europe

67
26. Conclusion
  • Asian values produced distinct political and
    economic institutions than the West
  • Most social problems in advanced capitalist
    countries in Asia resemble western nations, but
    with differing degree
  • The inherent problems of global capitalist
    development and modernization In search for a
    model
  • East-West Asian values debate reflects
    deeper unresolved political ideological issues
  • A call for a fusion between the best practices of
    the East and the West

68
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