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Differentiated Instruction

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Title: Differentiated Instruction


1
Differentiated Instruction
  • Meeting the Needs of All Learners

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Yoga
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Fairness
  • Fairness is not about everybody doing the same
    thing fairness is about everybody getting what
    they need.

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How do you engage the disengaged?
  • Do you think a kid wakes up thinking. How can I
    be a failure today?
  • Everyone wants to be successful-never give up-you
    dont know when a breakthrough will come- Helen
    Keller
  • Teach them where they are
  • If they dont learn the way you teach…teach the
    way they learn
  • Differentiate

6
What is Differentiation?
Differentiation can be defined as a way of
teaching in which teachers proactively modify
curriculum, teaching methods, resources, learning
activities and student products to address the
needs of individual students and/or small groups
of students in order to maximize the learning
opportunity for each student in the classroom.
-Carol Ann Tomlinson
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From the teachers perspective
Beth is a very advanced learner. In several
subjects she is at least three or four years
ahead of grade expectations in knowledge and
skill. Her teacher is generous with praise and
lets Beth and her parents know how proud she is
of the quality of Beths work. Her teacher wants
to be sure to affirm Beths ability and to give
her a sense of the power she has as a learner.
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From the students perspective
Beth has a sense that she is not important in the
classroom. If she were, the teacher would know
she is only repeating things she has long since
learned rather than challenging herself. The work
in the classroom does not seem purposeful to her
and does not absorb her. And she somehow feels
dishonest because the teacher tells her she is
doing excellent work when she knows she makes
high grades with no effort. Beth routinely leaves
school with needs for affirmation, purpose, and
challenge unmet.
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Student Interest Survey Name
__________________________________________________
______________ Directions Please help me know
you better so I can teach you better. Give as
much information as you can. 1. What are your
favorite things to do outside of school? (Please
tell why you like them.) 2. When have you felt
really proud of yourself? Please explain why you
felt that way. 3. What are you good at in school?
How do you know? 4. Whats hard for you in
school? What makes it hard? 5. What are some ways
of learning that work for you? 6. What are some
ways of learning that dont work well for you?
Why? 7. Whats your favorite? Book
_________________________________________________
____________ TV show _________________________
_________________________________ Movie
__________________________________________________
___________ Kind of music _____________________
__________________________________ Sport
__________________________________________________
____________ 8. What are some things youd
really like to learn about? 9. What are some
things you really care about getting better in?
Why? 10. What else should I know about you as a
person and a student that could help me teach you
better? 11. Describe how you see yourself as an
adult. What will you be doing? Enjoying? Working
toward?
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The MI Pizza Armstrong, Thomas
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Comparing Classrooms
TRADITIONAL
DIFFERENTIATED
  • Assessment is at the end of the learning to see
    who got it
  • A single definition of excellence exists
  • Whole-class instruction dominates
  • A single text prevails
  • A single form of assessment is used
  • Assessment is ongoing and diagnostic to
    understand how to make instruction more
    responsive to learner need
  • Excellence is defined in large measure by
    individual growth from a starting point
  • Many instructional arrangements are used
  • Multiple materials are provided
  • Students are assessed in multiple ways

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  • What do the comics show?
  • What do they imply about education?

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Differentiation Differs in
  • Content-
  • What the student needs to learn or how the
    student will access the information
  • Process
  • Activities in which the student engages in
    order to make sense of the assignment
  • Product
  • Projects or products that ask the student to
    rehearse, apply and extend what has been learned

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Menus Directions You will have class time
and homework time over the next three days to
complete your menu tasks. You may work on these
tasks when you have completed your other class
work.
  • Main Course You must do everything in this
    section
  • Select a chemical problem in the environment
    define/describe the difficulties it presents-
    why, where, and to whom/what
  • Complete a map showing where the problem exists,
    who/what is affected by it, and to what degree
  • Develop a written proposal for solutions and
    recommendations
  • Side Dishes Choose two of the following
  • Determine costs of the problem (economic, health,
    clean-up, etc.) in one affected region
  • Develop a timeline of the evolution of the
    problem
  • Create a poster or cartoon that makes a
    commentary/ increases awareness of the issue
  • Develop a fictional account, based on scientific
    fact, of a person who lives in a badly affected
    area

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Novel Think Tac Toe
Character
Setting
Theme
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Tiered Approach
Tiering assumes that within a particular lesson
or product, a wide range of students should work
toward the same knowledge, understanding and
skills. However it acknowledges the varied
readiness levels of students in approaching the
task and thus presents the work at different
levels of difficulty. Example Struggling
Write a report on either Lincoln or
Jefferson Average Write a report on both
Lincoln and Jefferson Advanced Compare and
contrast Lincoln and Jefferson (Can use task
cards)
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Pick a way to explain
Create One
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Task Cards
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RAFT EXAMPLE 2 This RAFT is designed for students
as they are learning about endangered and extinct
animals in science and about natural resources in
social studies. Students should know The
basic needs of plants and animals. The role of
natural resources in the lives of people and
animals. Students should understand Our
actions affect the balance of life on Earth.
Animals become endangered or extinct when the
natural resources they need are damaged or
limited. Natural resources are not unlimited
and must be used wisely. Student should be able
to Identify causes of problems because of
misuse of natural resources. Propose a useful
solution to the problems.
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Raft Activities
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  • Covering content only widens the gap- when faced
    with teaching curriculum or teaching kids….always
    teach kids.

1
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The willingness to base instructional decision on
actual student needs starting where the student
is rather than simply covering content.
2
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The willingness to teach (or work with kids) in
present time (according to a students current
needs rather than the anticipated demands of
future teachers or grade levels).
3
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The willingness to differentiate instruction,
adjusting placement, quantity of work required
and other curricular expectations to accommodate
student readiness, experience and acquisition of
prerequisite skills.
4
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The willingness to present information more than
once, explain something in a variety of ways or
offer additional practice when necessary.
5
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The willingness to encourage progress and raise
the bar as achievement warrants. Alternative to
unrealistic expectations, misunderstandings,
instruction or environments poorly matched to
students needs, and set ups for failure or
passivity.
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Yes, but…………….
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While I work with a small group of students, what
do I do with the rest of the class?
  • Develop Independent Learners

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Teaching Independence (Autonomy)
  • Type I Activities- used a vehicle to teaching the
    skills needed for students to be productive
    without direct supervision- feedback is on
    process
  • Type 2 Activities-Stage 2- now they are ready to
    practice previously learned academic skills-
    feedback is balanced between the quality of
    academic work and the skills of working
    independently
  • Type 3 Activities- these activities require
    students to extend previously learning or pursue
    new learning on their own

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Sample Grouping for Differentiation
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Things to Consider
  • A teacher working with a small group is off
    limits unless there is a loss of blood or lack of
    breathing
  • Spend time practicing with students what to do
    when they encounter various problems- stuck on a
    problem, need a pencil, disagree with a partner,
    need to leave the room, finish an assignment

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What Do I Do If I Finish Early? When you think
you are faced with nothing to do (OH NONOT
POSSIBLE) FIRST, ask yourself Is there anything
else I need to finish? If the answer is no,
THEN choose something from this list that we
brainstormed. Practice keyboarding Illustrate
a story youve written Play a quiet math or
language game Write a morning message for a
class Practice your cursive or calligraphy
Readcomics, letters, books, poetry,
encyclopedias, etc. Help someone else (this is
NOT an opportunity to chat) Work on an
independent study of your choice Find out how
to say your spelling words in Spanish Writea
letter, poetry in your Writers Notebook, a
story, a comic, etc.
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Testimony
I couldnt go back to the old way I taught any
more. I feel much more creative as a teacher
now, more energized, and I know my students are
learning better. I cant exactly remember a day
when I decided to stop covering curriculum and
start helping kids learn. I guess it was
evolutionary in my teaching instead of
revolutionary. I just know its better teaching.
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Reflection
  • Based on what you have heard, what are some
    things that might differ in the way that you
    teach? Your students learn?
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