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Topic 11 Culture and Translation

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Title: Topic 11 Culture and Translation


1
Topic 11 Culture and Translation

R
2
  • Main Language points
  • 1. Definition of Culture
  • 2. Transplanting and transformation
  • Teaching references
  • 1. ???. C-E Contrastive Studies and the
    transformation in Translation M. ?????????,2003
  • Teaching methods Analysis and Practice
  • Time arrangement 2 periods

R
3
Contents
  • ????
  • I. ????????
  • II. ??????
  • III. ??????
  • IV. ???????????
  • V.  ????????
  • VI. ????
  • Exercises

4
Culture
  • The New World Encyclopedia
  • It is the totality of the spiritual,intellectual,
    and artistic attitudes shared by a
    group,including its tradition, habits, social
    customs,morals,laws,and social relations.
    Sociologically,every society,on every level, has
    its culturethe term has no implications of high
    development.
  • (??????????????????????,??????????????????,??????
    ??????????????????????????)

5
  • "??????????????????????????????,??????,???????
    ?????,???????????"
  • ??? ????????, 1984.1.????

"???????????,????????????????????????,????????????
??????,??????????????,????????????????????????
?,???????????,???????????????????"
???
6
  • ??????????????????,??????????????????????
    "Learning a language is a kind of learning the
    culture and habit of the country where the
    language is spoken."

7
I.????????
??????,??????
  • ???? be as lean as a rake
  • ???? cast pearls before swine
  • ????? a rolling stone gathers no mass
  • ??????? many hands make light work.
  • ??????? drawing water in a bamboo basket means
    drawing nothing.

8
  • ???????,????????????
  • Hoist your sail when the wind is fair.
  • ?????
  • Still waters run deep.
  • ????
  • In a calm sea, every man is a pilot.
  • ????,????????
  • A small leak will sink a great ship.
  • ?????????

9
II.      ??????
  • ????
  • ???????????
  • ??????????????(born with a silver spoon in
    ones mouth)
  • ???????????
  • ????? ????
  • ?????????
  • ????????(to kill two birds with one stone)
  • ??????????
  • ???????????

10
  • You are a lucky dog.

????????
Every dog has his day.
????????
Old dog will not learn new tricks.
?????????
sick as a dog
dog-tired
11
III.    ??????
  • Mr White is a very white man.

He was looking rather green the other day.
He has been feeling blue today.
When I saw him, he was in a brown mood.
I hope he'll soon be in the pink again.
12
  • ?????,
  • ?????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????

In the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is
king.
like a duck to water
as plentiful as blackberries
at stones throw
to fish in the air
remain a dead letter
half-baked
as stupid as a goose
13
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ?????
  • ??
  • ????
  • ????
  • ??????

dumb as an oyster
to spend money like water
drunk as a sailor
gild the lily
like a cat on a hot tin roof
as wet as a drowned rat
as thin as a shadow
talk horse
to tread upon eggs
diamond cut diamond
cry up wine and sell vinegar
14
IV.  ???????????
  • ?????????
  • ??????????????????,???????????????????????????????
    ??????????,????red(?), white(?),black(?),green(?),
    yellow(?),blue(?),purple(?),gray(?),brown(?)??????
    ??????????????????????????,??????????????,????????
    ???????????????,???????????????

15
  •          ??
  • 1. ???????,??????????,???????
  • ?? red flag
  • ?? brown sugar
  • ?? black tea
  • ?? honor roll
  • ?? love pea
  • ?? good luck
  • ?? dividend
  • ?? wedding
  • red wine ??
  • red ruin ??
  • red battle ??
  • red sky ??

16
  • 2. ????????????,????????????

???????????,?????David
Hawkes????????????????,??????????,??????????,???
????????????,??????????????????,??????????????????
??????
17
????????,?????????
  • Jiao Baoyu visits the Land of Illusion
  • And the fairy Disenchantment performs the Dream
    of Golden Days.

????????,?????????
Jia Baoyu tastes some superior tea at Green Bower
Hermitage And Grannie Liu samples the sleeping
accommodation at Green Delights.
18
  • ???????????????????????red??,??????Golden
    ?Green?????????,?????????????????????,???????????,
    ????????????????,???????,?????????????????????????
    ?

19
??
  • 1.   green?????????????,?

green with envy,green as jealousy,green-eyed
monster?????????????????,?????green-eyed??????
red-eyed?
20
2.  green??????????????????,?
In American political elections the candidates
that win are usually the ones who have green
power backing them. ????????????????????????????
3. ??????????????????????,?
The new typist is green at her job. ???????????
21
??
  • 1. ????????????????????????,yellow????????????
    ???,??

a yellow dog ????,???? a yellow livered ??? He is
too yellow to stand up and fight.????,???????
22
2. ?????????????????
  • ??,?????????????yellow(???taxi)???,?????,?????
    ?????????
  • Yellow Pages ?? (?????,?????)
  • Yellow Book ??? (??????????,??????)
  • yellow boy (?)??

23
  • 3. ????????????????????????????

pornographic(???)?vulgar(?????)?obscene(???)????,?
????????blue?????????????,?blue jokes(?????),
blue films(????)??
24
??
  • 1. ??(blue)???????????,?????blue?????????????,????
    ?????????????????,?

They felt rather blue after the failure in the
football match.
?????,?????????
She looks blue today. Whats the matter with
her? She is in holiday blue.
?????????,??????? ?????????
25
  • ??holiday blue ???winter holiday
    depression,??????,?????,??????????????????????????
    ???a blue Monday(??????),?????????,??????????,???
    ????

2.  blue??????????????,?
blue talk ????? blue video ????
3.  ??blue???????????????,?
blue blood(????)
26
  • 4. ??,blue???????????,???????,?

out of blue ???? once in a blue ???? drink till
alls blue ????
27
??
  • ??(white)??????????????????????,??????????????,
    ??????,???????????,???????????(funeral),??????
    ??????,white???????,????????????,??????????????

28
  • 1.????white???????,?????????????,?

????? ???? ????,????? ??? ???????
a white lie the white coffee white man
white-livered white elephant
29
  • 2. ?????????????,???white??????,?????????

plain boiled water Chinese cabbage wrongly
written or mispronounced character no use all in
vain
??? ?? ?? ?? ???
30
??
  • ??(black)?????????????????????????,????????,???
    ?????????,???????????????Black Friday
    ??????????????,???????

31
1. black????????????
? black in the face ???? to look black
at someone ????
2. ???????????????? ???,???????????
black ???,??
  • ?? evil mind
  • backstage manipulator??
  • ?? a sinister line
  • black sheep ????
  • black day ??
  • black future ?????

32
  • ??????????????,???????????????????,??????????,??
  • ????
  • to raise to the purple
  • ??????
  • to be born in the purple
  • ??????
  • to marry into the purple
  • ????????

33
  • ????
  • blue-collar workers ????,
  • ????????
  • grey-collar workers ????,
  • ????????
  • white-collar workers ????,
  • ????????????????
  • pink-collar workers ????,
  • ???????
  • golden-collar personnel ????,
  • ?????????????????

34
  • ????
  • red ink
  • ??
  • in the black
  • ??
  • white goods
  • ????,??????????????????
  • brown goods
  • ????,?????????????????????

35
V.     ????????
  • ????
  • You must have had a tiring journey. You must be
    tired from a long trip???????
  • Well done! That was a hard job. Youve got a
    hard job.???????????

36
  •   ??????
  • ????????????????,????????,?Lovely weather, isnt
    it????,??????!?????,????????,??????????????????
    ??
  • ?????"?????''???????????,?????????????????????????
    ????"?????""?????",?????????????????????"???""???"
    ???????????,??????????????????????,???????????????
    ??????????"??"?"??,??",???????,??????????????

37
  • ?????????????"A How do you do? B How do you
    do?"?"A Hi! B Hit"???????A??????"Have you had
    you meal?"?????B???????,??????????"Yes, I
    have."?"No, l haven't"?"Do you mean to invite me
    to dinner?"??????????,???????????"??"????????,????
    ?????????????,

38
  • ??
  • ???
  • ??????
  • ???
  • ???
  • ???
  • ?????
  • ???
  • ??
  • good- for-nothing
  • be unpopular
  • land oneself in serious trouble
  • be unable to stand
  • be unable to bear or support
  • live off one's past gains
  • be open to persuasion but not to coercion
  • lead an idle life
  • be very popular

39
Translation Strategy of Cultural Transposition
VI.  ????
  • In both Chinese and English, especially in
    idioms, proverbs, slang and dialects, there are
    a number of culture-specific terms or
    culture-loaded words with rich cultural
    connotation and meaning. The translation of these
    words should follow the basic principles
  • Try to render the cultural traits of the original
    words as much as possible
  • Try to take the target culture and the target
    readers acceptability into account.

40
  • A. Transplantation (???)
  • On translating the culture-loaded words and
    sentences, wed better to adopt the
    transplantation to retain their figurative
    features if possible.

Teach a pig to play on a flute
??????
??????
Flog a dead horse
??????
??????
41
  • Why not? Beauty lies in the lovers eyes, as
    the say goes, Mr. Taft answered with a gentle
    smile.
  • ??????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????
  • I am glad for my own sake, that he is not as
    black as he is painted.
  • ????????,??????????
  • (The English idiom not so black as one is
    painted/????????)
  • ????????????/?????

42
  • Wine was thicker than blood to the Mondavi
    brothers, who feuded bitterly over control of the
    family business, Charles Krug Winery.
  • (The English idiom Blood is thicker than water)
  • ??1???????????????????
  • ??, ???????????????
  • ??2?????????,????,?????
  • ??????????????,?????
  • ???

43
  • B. Borrowing (???)
  • Borrowing means that the ready idioms in the
    target language are borrowed to render the idioms
    in the source language.
  • (a). Render the idioms in the source language
    with the same or similar idioms in the target
    language.
  • a bolt from the blue / ????
  • castle in the air / ????
  • like father, like son / ???????
  • Walls have ears / ????
  • Habit is second nature / ?????

44
  • (b). Render the idioms in the source language
    with the idioms in the target language which are
    the same in meaning but not the same in form as
    the former.
  • have an axe to grind / ????
  • leave no stone unturned / ????,????
  • Great minds think alike / ??????
  • The spirit is willing, but the flesh is
    weak / ???????
  • The instances of Chinese idioms and English
    idioms with similarity in form but difference in
    meaning
  • pull ones leg / ??? / ????
  • eat ones words / ??/ ????,????
  • Self do, self take /????/ ????,????

45
  • C. Alteration (???)
  • Due to the disparity between English and Chinese
    languages and cultures, some of the
    culture-loaded English expressions can only be
    altered to convey the original message to the
    target reader, mostly through free translation or
    paraphrase.
  • He is a frugal man the furnishings of his home
    are truly Sparian.
  • ?????,????????????????
  • ?????,??????????

46
  • Translation of the words ? and ?
  • Ex.1 ?? / a running dog / a flunky or
  • lackey
  • Ex.2 ????/ long to see ones son
  • succeed in life (i.e.,win success
  • in the world)/ long to see ones son
  • become a dragon

47
  • Ex.3 The dog that will fetch a bone will
  • carry a bone.
  • ??????,????????
  • (????????,???????
  • dog?bone?? ???,??????
  • ?????????,???????)

Ex.4 We still love each other very much ,
but we fight like cat and dog.
???????,??????
48
  • Translation of greeting words
  • Ex.1 English greeting Lovely weather,isnt
  • it?
  • Chinese translation ???!
  • Ex.2 Chinese greetings ????!/ ??
  • ??!/ ? ?????/ ???
  • ??/ ?????!
  • English translation How do you do?! /
  • Hi!

49
Case Study Translation of Advertisement
  • It is also true that advertising plays a
    determining part in spreading and consolidating
    cultural habits.

50
  • (1) Learn about foreign culture and foreigners
  • aesthetic psychology
  • Ex.1 ???? ?? / ?? Fangfang
  • ???????????
  • ??????????????
  • The word fang means
  • a. a long, sharp tooth of a dog
  • b. a snakes poison-tooth
  • Ex.2 ??????/ ??White Elephant
  • The English phrase a white elephant means a
    burdensome possession or something useless

51
  • Ex.3 ??????/?? Bees
  • Most English people are sensitive to the villus
    on the bees body, so they would feel it
    uncomfortable to see the brand of the soap.
  • Ex.4 ???????/??Golden Cock
  • It is easy for Westerners to associate it with
    something sexual. So it is better to translate
    the brand as Rooster.

52
  • (2) It is necessary sometimes to make
    alterations in translation so as to truthfully
    convey the original message to the target reader
  • Ex.1 ?? ??
  • ??Jade Rabbit / Moon Rabbit
  • Ex.2 ????
  • ??Lotus Root Starch / Powder / Pudding
  • Ex.3 ?????
  • ??Obesity(??)-reducing Tablets/ Slimming Pills

53
VI.  ????
  • 1. ??
  •  Easy come, easy go. ????,???.
  • Strike while the iron is hot. ????.
  • Practice makes perfect. ????.
  • All roads lead to Rome. ???????.

54
  • ????
  • to offer fuel in snowy weather
  • ????,????
  • even the dog swaggers when its master win
    favor
  • ????
  • Neither adjust your shoe in a melon patch,nor
    your hat under a plum tree?

55
2.  ??
  •    ?????????????,????????????????????,???????????
    ????????????,?????????????

When in Rome,do as the Romans do.
???? ????,????.
 ????
to expect ones son to become an outstanding
personage
a cat on hot bricks
??????
56
  • ??????
  • Something unexpected may happen any time.
  • (????????????????????????,??????????,??????????
    ????????????,??????????,??????)
    Achillesheel??????????????????????,???????????
    ?????????)

57
  • The dog that will fetch a bone will carry a
    bone.??????,????????
  • (????????,???????dog?bone?????,???????????????,??
    ?????)
  • We still love each other very much ,but we fight
    like cat and dog. ???????,??????

58
Exercises
  • 1. Bright red costumes, with hats, shoes and
    stockings to match, are to be all the craze in
    the Spring. Smart women will have to be careful
    not to yawn in the streets in case some
    short-sighted person is on his way to post a
    letter.
  • ?????,????????????,??????????????????????,????????
    ,?????????????????
  • 2. ??????????????????????
  • A. Parents in China would long to see their sons
    become dragons or their daughters become
    phoenixes.
  • B. Parents in China, almost as a rule, would long
    to see their children succeed in life./ win
    success in the world.

59
  • 3. ?????????????
  • A. Gone are the days when we ate from the same
    big pot.
  • B. Workers and employees can no longer get the
    same pay as they used to----- eating from the
    same big pot ( It is a misguided kind of
    economic equalitarianism. Under this
    equalitarianism, among units or individuals,
    those who work hard and those who loaf are
    treated similarly, as are those who do a good job
    and those who do a poor job.)

60
  • 4. ????,?????
  • A. Do training in three fu in summer and in three
    jiu in winter.
  • B. Carry on training in the hottest and coldest
    parts of the year.
  • C. In summer keep exercising during the hottest
    days in winter do the same during the coldest
    weather.
  • 5. ????????,????????? ?? ?
  • and his shoulder blades stuck out so sharply,
    and an inverted V seemed stamped there.

61
Assignments
  • 1. Bilingual reading ??????,??????(p150)in E-C
    C-E.
  • 2. Read ??????? (p20-24)in C-E.
  • 3. Translate the following passage

62
????
  • ????????,?????,????????????,?????,?????
  • ????????????10????????????????2????????????????
    ??
  • ?????????????????,????????????????????????????,??
    ???????

63
Key
  • The Difference A Decade Makes
  • Ten years ago when we former schoolmates met,
    wed wish each other progress in studies. Now we
    will say, Wish you prosperity or Wish you
    success in making money.
  • A decade ago, I had at least ten different ways
    of living my life. Now I know of only two
    different possibilities---- going back in the
    evening and eating at home, or not doing so.
  • A decade ago one of my very respectable former
    schoolmates, a poet, had a heart-to-heart talk
    with me and told me that literature was a very
    wonderful thing. Now, a boss, he tells me in a
    tete-a-tete that money is a good thing.
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