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Title: Social Studies GHSGT Review

Social Studies GHSGT Review
World History -Renaissance
  • The Renaissance means rebirth in Europe was
    the rebirth of ideas and culture connected with
    ancient Greece and Rome. Mainly in urban centers.
  • Florence where the Renaissance began spread to
    other areas of Europe over 200 years.
  • Politics Medici family (wealthy merchants)
    ruled Florence
  • Economy based on shipping trade with Byzantine
    Islamic Empires as well as England and the
  • Socially time of recovery from Black Plague
    political instability. Importance of the
    individual. Material comforts, art emphasizing
    positive human qualities, and humanistic ideas.

Renaissance Men
  • Renaissance Man describes a well educated person
    who excels in many fields and has many talents.
  • Machiavelli From Florence Wrote The Prince,
    describing the skills required by a ruling
    prince to maintain power and order.
  • Leonardo da Vinci The original Renaissance Man
    expert in painting, sculpting, engineering,
    physics, anatomy, and other subjects. He is most
    known for the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper.
  • Michelangelo Renaissance artist who is best
    known for idealized paintings and sculptures of
    the human body. Reflected the beauty of God.

Renaissance Humanists
  • Humanists studied history, philosophy, and poetry
    of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
  • Petrarch argued that no conflict existed
    between secular achievements and a persons
    relationship with God. He believed that God gave
    people intelligence and talents that they should
    use to the fullest.
  • Dante Took humanist ideas and incorporated them
    into literature written in the common language of
    his day not in Latin.
  • Erasmus was a Dutch Christian Humanist who
    believed in reforming the Catholic Church from
    within. He believed in free will instead of
    predestination ideas found in the Protestant

Protestant Reformation
  • A movement against certain practices of the
    Catholic Church which had dominated religious
    practice politics in Europe for hundreds of
  • Martin Luther his ideas were considered a
    catalyst of the Protestant Reformation. He
    publicly protested and posted the 95 Theses
    attacking the selling of Indulgences for the
    release from the punishment of sin. He broke
    from the Catholic Church, and the Lutheran Church
    was formed as the first Protestant faith.
  • John Calvin Leader in the Protestant faith
    believed in predestination (God is all powerful
    and has already decided who will receive
    salvation who wont)

Protestant Reformation
  • Henry VIII established the Anglican Church in
    England (Protestant Church) so he could divorce
    his wife. He remained very Catholic in his
  • Elizabeth I Henry VIIIs daughter turned the
    Anglican Church to moderate Protestantism during
    her reign.
  • Johannes Gutenberg printed the first Bible in
    Europe with moveable type. This allowed the
    ideas of the Protestant Reformation to spread
    rapidly. The printing industry encouraged people
    to learn to read, and gave them access to a
    variety of religious texts, literature, and

The Counter Reformation(Catholic Reformation)
  • Jesuits group of Catholics who believed in
    restoring Catholicism to newly Protestant areas
    of Europe. Were recognized as a new religious
    order within the Catholic Church. They turned
    many parts of Europe back to Catholicism through
  • Council of Trent body of Catholic Bishops who
    met for 18 years to work on reforming corrupt
    practices within the Catholic faith. Stopped
    the selling of indulgences.

Age of Exploration
  • Vasco da Gama sailed to Eastern Africa
    Western India helped Portugal establish
    strategic positions along Indian Ocean.
    Portuguese controlled trade routes in this area.
  • Christopher Columbus Italian sailing for Spain
    looked for route from Spain to India helped
    establish a permanent European settlement on
    Hispaniola connected Europe with the Americas.
  • Ferdinand Magellan sailed for Spain 1st
    explorer to successfully sail around the earth.
    Helped prove that the earth was round.

Age of Exploration
  • Samuel de Champlain sailed for France
    established the first French colony in North
    America. His colony in New France was called
    Quebec City. Helped establish trade routes
    between France and New France.
  • Mercantilism idea that countries need a large
    supply of gold and silver to have prosperity.
    They earn the gold and silver by exporting goods.
    Colonies provided European nations the raw
    materials they needed to make finished goods. The
    colonies then were a market for these finished

Age of Exploration
  • Columbian Exchange large scale exchange of
    plants, diseases, animals, and people between the
    eastern and western hemispheres following
    Columbus first voyage to the Americas
  • Astrolabe technology that allowed sailors to
    locate and predict the position of the moon, sun,
    stars making navigation more efficient.

Enlightenment In Europe
  • Copernicus believed in heliocentric solar
    system (the earth revolved around the sun) this
    challenged the Catholic Churchs opposite belief.
  • Galileo Galilei proved Copernicus theory
    through use of the telescope.
  • Johannes Kepler astronomer who believed that
    the planets in the solar system moved in an
    elliptical orbit around the sun.
  • Sir Isaac Newton considered the father of
    calculus famous for his laws of gravity and
    motion proved Keplers theory of elliptical
    orbit through mathematics.

US History Colonial History
European Settlement GPS SSUSH 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d
Jamestown, Virginia
  • Founded by the Virginia Company of London as a
    business venture.
  • First permanent English colony in North America.
  • Settled on a swampy site on the James River in
  • Problems
  • Settled on a swamp
  • Illness
  • Lack of food fresh water
  • Fights with Native Americans
  • Wanted to look for gold instead of work
  • The colony almost did not survive.

Jamestown is saved by Tobacco
  • 1614 Pocahontas married John Rolfe, an English
    tobacco grower.
  • The marriage led to good will between the
    colonists the Powhatans for a while.
  • Conflict began again when colonists expanded onto
    Powhatan lands to grow tobacco.
  • Virginias economy became dependent on tobacco
    for its existence.

Jamestown becomes self -governing
  • 1619 VA Company let Jamestown establish its own
    government with the right to create colonial
  • Residents elected representatives, called
    burgesses to the House of Burgesses.
  • The VA House of Burgesses was the first
    representative government in America.
  • The governor was appointed by the VA Company.
  • This elected body acted on behalf of the

Bacons Rebellion
  • Poor English and slave colonists staged an
    uprising against the governor and his landowning
    supporters. The landless rebels wanted harsher
    action against the Native Americans so more land
    would be available to the colonists. The
    rebellion was put down, and the VA House of
    Burgesses passed laws to regulate slavery so poor
    white colonists would no longer side with slaves
    against rich white colonists.

  • New England colonies
  • Established by Puritans in present day
  • Strict religious beliefs.
  • Not tolerant of differing religious beliefs.

New England Settlement
  • Rhode Island was founded by religious dissenters
    from Massachusetts who were more tolerant of
    different religious beliefs.
  • Many New England communities were run through
    town meetings.
  • In colonies run by the King, a royal governor was
  • Church membership was required for men to have
    voting rights.
  • Church membership was tightly controlled by the
    minister and congregation. As more children were
    born in America, many grew up to be adults who
    lacked a personal covenant (relationship) with

Events in Massachusetts
  • Mid-1600s the Puritan ideal was under pressure
    to change.
  • 1662- church ministers agreed to the Half - Way
  • Children of church members were admitted as half
    way members who could be baptized into the
    church, but did not have the right to vote or
    take communion. Hope was to increase church
    membership with these 2nd and 3rd generation
  • Late 1600s a fear of witchcraft was prevalent
    in New England.
  • 1692- in Salem, MA dozens of women, men
    children were accused of witchcraft jailed.
  • During the 10 months of the Salem Witch Trials,
    nineteen people were found guilty of practicing
    witchcraft and were hanged.

Mid Atlantic Colonies
  • 1681 William Penn got a large piece of land
    from King Charles II and founded Pennsylvania.
  • Quakers settled Pennsylvania
  • Practiced religious tolerance
  • Were pacifists
  • Religious equality for women
  • No established church ministry
  • Quakers were often persecuted for they way of
  • 1683 Pennsylvania established a legislative

Mid Atlantic Colonies
  • 1626 Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam was
    founded after buying Manhattan Island from the
    Manhattan people (Native Americans) for some
    beads and other goods.
  • It became a major trading port.
  • Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant turned the colony
    over to England in 1664.
  • It was renamed New York after the Duke of York,
    who was the brother of King Charles II.
  • Tolerant of different religions.

Trans-Atlantic Trade
  • Mercantilism inspired Parliament to control the
    trans-Atlantic trade with its American colonies.
  • All goods shipped to or from British North
    America had to travel in British ships, and goods
    exported to Europe were subject to British taxes.
  • These restrictions were designed to keep the
    colonies from competing with Britain.

  • Tobacco other cash crops required a large labor
  • African slaves were used for this work.
  • In 1607, there were no African slaves in North
    America, but by 1700, there were thousands.
  • Most of them were found in the Southeast, where
    the economy was agriculturally based.
  • The Middle Passage was the part of the triangular
    trade through which the slaves came to North

African American Culture
  • African American culture grew in America.
  • Slave communities were rich with music, dance,
    basket weaving, and pottery making.
  • Slaves brought these skills with them from their
    various cultures.

The enlightenment Influences in America
  • The Enlightenment was a new way of thinking that
    came about during the scientific revolution in
    Europe. It was based on reason.
  • John Locke and others talked about the natural
    rights of individuals.
  • Rousseau- argued in favor of the social
    contract, allowing governments to exist and rule
    only with the consent of the people.

3A, 3B, 3C
  • French Indian War 1754 1763 Fought
    between Great Britain, the French their Native
    American allies. It was fought over territory in
    the Ohio Valley. Native Americans supported the
    French because they built forts for trade instead
    of permanent settlements. Great Britain won the
    war, but would need money to help pay war debts.
    Was called the 7 Years War in Europe.

  • Treaty of Paris 1763 - Ended the French and
    Indian War. France lost Canada to Great Britain.
    France also gave up all land east of the
    Mississippi River except New Orleans. The British
    kept control of all American colonies, which
    colonists resented.
  • RESULT Redrew the entire political map of
    North America brought Great Britain into
    conflict with both France and the colonies.

  • Proclamation of 1763 Parliament told the
    colonists they could not purchase land west of
    the Appalachian Mountains. Britain sent 10,000
    troops to the colonies. Western settlers were
    ordered to vacate Indian land, and only those
    British settlers with licenses could trade.

  • Stamp Act (1765) was passed to raise money for
    defending the colonies. Taxed legal documents,
    newspapers, pamphlets, etc. It was the first
    direct tax ever placed on the colonies a
    violation of the principle that only the
    colonies legislative assemblies could impose
  • Colonists opposed taxation without representation
    boycotted the stamps. No taxes were ever paid
    and the tax was finally repealed.

  • Sons of Liberty secret organization formed to
    show colonists dislike for British policies.
    They were led by Sam Adams. They damaged British
    property and promoted civil disobedience.
  • Daughters of Liberty - protest group of females.
    Helped make homemade items so that colonists
    could continue to boycott British goods.

  • Committees of Correspondence formed because
    American patriots could not communicate publicly.
    They would exchange written communication with
    each other. They were the first organization
    linking the colonies in their opposition to
    British rule. They played an important role in
    planning for the First Continental Congress.
  • Intolerable Acts passed by Britain to punish
    Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. Closed
    Boston Harbor, and required colonists to house
    British soldiers in their homes. Reduce
    colonists rights to self government.

Common Sense
  • Common Sense Thomas Paine published this
    pamphlet encouraging Americans to support
    independence from Great Britain.

  • Declaration of Independence 1776- written by
    Thomas Jefferson using the ideas of John Locke
    and Charles de Montesquieu. The language of it
    was very direct and simple for everyone to
    understand. It explained the reasons for the
    colonies seeking independence from Great Britain.
    It listed examples of how King George III had
    violated colonists rights. It discussed the
    colonists many unsuccessful attempts to get
    relief from Great Britain, and ended by stating
    that the only way for the colonists to restore
    their rights was to do it themselves by declaring

  • Important People
  • Benjamin Franklin American ambassador to
    France. The French began to secretly support the
    Americans in early 1776.
  • Marquis de Lafayette French soldier who joined
    the war against the British. He helped train
    American forces and was a key strategist in the
    Yorktown campaign that led to the British
  • Lord Cornwallis was the commander of the
    British forces during the American Revolution.
    He surrendered at Yorktown and returned to
  • e had a good chance of being badly hurt or dying
    in battle.

George Washington
  • Named commander in Chief of the Continental Army.
  • Extraordinary leadership abilities
  • Reorganized the army
  • Got additional equipment and supplies
  • Started a training program for a professional

Important Events
  • Crossing the Delaware River 1776- Christmas Eve
    Was the turning point of the Revolutionary War.
    Washington his men crossed the river during a
    snowstorm for a surprise attack on a fort held by
    Hessian mercenaries working for the British. The
    American victory there proved that American
    troops were a serious opponent. THIS VICTORY
  • Valley Forge -Washingtons troops spent a harsh
    winter in 1777-1778 there. Problems for the army
    were at their worst during that time. Disease
    spread through the camp. 4,000 men were too weak
    or ill to fight. Even though, Washington ordered
    an intense training program that made the
    Continental Army much more confident and capable.

  • Important Events
  • Yorktown , VA British General Cornwallis planned
    to move the battles to the south in an attempt
    to separate the southern northern states. He
    followed American troops into VA, where he was
    defeated by the American-French alliance. He
    surrendered, and the Revolutionary War ended.
  • 1783 Treaty of Paris Ended the Revolutionary
  • America now had independence without

Ideas of Liberty Begin to Spread
  • France
  • Haiti
  • Latin America
  • Other areas that experienced revolution

France (1789)
  • French Revolution
  • Moderate Phase constitutional monarchy
  • Radical Phase Reign of Terror
  • Final Moderate Phase Republic
  • Caused by a lack of central leadership.
  • Extreme margin between rich and poor.
  • Estates General met promised to double the vote
    of the common people against the votes of the
    clergy and nobility.
  • This failed, and the Third Estate (commoners)
    rebelled and took the Tennis Court Oath that
    they would be the national assembly would not
    separate until a constitution was established.

France (1798)
  • France got a constitution in 1791
  • Reign of Terror began when Louis XVI tried to
    flee. Tens of thousands were executed (mostly
    nobility and clergy)
  • A new constitution was written in 1795.
  • The government was unstable, and people wanted a
    strong political figure.
  • Napoleon entered the scene and established the
    French Empire.

Haiti (1791)
  • Haitian Revolution (1791) was similar to US
    Revolution in its causes.
  • Haiti was controlled by France
  • Strict mercantilist policies
  • Denied them a voice in government
  • Slavery
  • Division in Haiti over issues.
  • Declaration of the Rights of man issued by the
    Estates General in 1789.
  • Raised issue of slavery for France and her
  • Slave rebellions started in 1791
  • 1794 all free people in colonies were
    considered equal
  • Slavery did not end there
  • Inspired slave rebellions around the world
  • Loss of Haiti as a colony led to France giving up
    much territory in Western Hemisphere.

Latin America (1808 1825)
  • Early 19th century was dominated by revolutions
    throughout Latin America.
  • These revolutions led to the establishments of
    the independent territories of Mexico, Venezuela,
    Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Brazil
    and Bolivia.
  • Many began after the success of the American and
    French Revolutions.
  • The revolutions revolved around issues of
    mercantilism, slavery and self-government.
  • Many were influenced or inspired by the efforts
    of Simon Bolivar, who believed in self government
    of the Spanish colonies.
  • He established the Gran-Colombia, (a federal
    republic) it was his dream of a Latin-American
    state, and lasted until 1830,when it dissolved
    after his resignation.

US History Creating a New Government GPS
SSUSH 5a, 5b, 5c, 5d, 5e
Articles of Confederation
  • Written by the 2nd Continental Congress to
    establish a new central government for America.
  • Was the first constitution (written plan for
    government) for our nation.
  • Made sure that the central government was WEAK,
    and state governments were STRONG.
  • No federal power to tax, regulate commerce, or
    establish a national currency.
  • Led to conflicts among the states that threatened
    the existence of the nation.

Shays Rebellion
  • An attempt by a group of indebted farmers to
    secure weapons from a Federal Armory.
  • Became the catalyst for the US to recognize the
    need for a new constitution.
  • With no power to tax, the federal government
    could not repair the national economy.

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
  • Federalists (pro Constitution) focused on
    weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, and
    the benefits of a national government as formed
    by the Constitution.
  • They believed a strong central government would
    foster the commercial growth of the new country.
  • Anti-Federalists (against Constitution) feared
    too much power in the new central government.
  • They worried that the rights of common people
    would be suppressed by those in power.

Alexander Hamilton James Madison
  • Authors of the Federalist Papers
  • These papers communicate the central ideas of the
  • The benefits of a union between the states
  • The problems with the confederation as it stood
    at the time
  • The importance of an effective federal government
  • Defense of republicanism
  • The need for a federal government to preserve
    order and secure liberty.

The Great Compromise
  • Settled dispute between large and small states.
  • Combined Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan
  • Established a national legislature with elected
    representatives based on a states population.
  • Two house legislature
  • House of Representatives representation based on
  • Senate equal representation for all states.

  • Slavery Issue
  • 3/5 Compromise
  • 3/5 of a states slaves would count as part of
    the population
  • Counting formula to be used for calculating
    taxation representation
  • Slave Trade
  • Congress would not interfere with the slave trade
    for 20 years.
  • Congress could limit the slave trade after that
  • Return of runaway slaves by Northern states.

Division of Power
  • Federalism (sharing power between federal and
    state governments) was the basis for the new
  • Constitution would be the supreme law of the
  • Limited government with divided powers.
  • Powers divided between national and state
  • Power of national government was divided between
    the executive, legislative and judicial branches.
  • Checks and balances ensured that none of the 3
    branches became too powerful (example- President
    can veto a bill passed by Congress)

  • The Bill of Rights (1st ten amendments to the
    Constitution) was added in 1791.
  • Guarantees personal freedoms such as freedom of
    speech and religion right to bear arms, etc.
  • The Constitution took effect in 1789

The New Government in Action
  • George Washington became Americas first
  • He set important precedents for other presidents
    to follow.
  • Was a period of booming trade with Great Britain.
  • The US did not get involved in foreign conflicts.
  • He warned against political parties and foreign
  • Tax policies were a major issue taxes were
    passed on liquor this hit the small whiskey
    makers in western settlements hard.

Whiskey Rebellion
  • Farmers in western Pennsylvania rose up to
    protest the government over taxation.
  • They attacked federal tax collectors.
  • Washington showed the power of the federal
    government when he sent troops in to stop the
  • He said if Americans did not like a law, they
    should petition Congress peacefully.

Political Parties Emerge
  • 1796 two political parties had emerged
  • Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists
  • Believed the Constitution granted the federal
    government implied powers (not specifically
    mentioned in the Constitution)
  • Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were
  • Believed in a strict interpretation of the
    Constitution. No powers not specifically
    mentioned in the Constitution.
  • 1796 Election John Adams (Federalist) was
    elected President, and Thomas Jefferson
    (Republican) was elected Vice President.
    Political parties had begun to play an important
    role in the government process.

Presidency of John Adams
  • 1796 Election John Adams (Federalist) was
    elected President
  • Plagued by conflicts with France and Great
    Britain that crippled the nations economy.
  • Received harsh criticism from supporters of Vice
    President Thomas Jefferson.
  • Congress passed a law that increased citizenship
    requirements so that Jefferson would lose support
    from the immigrant community.
  • Congress also tried to stop the criticism with
    limits on speech and press rights of Jeffersons

US History American Expansion GPS SSUSH 6a, 6b,
6c, 6d, 6e
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Positive changes in France
  • Higher education
  • Civil law (Napoleonic Code)
  • Declared himself Emperor and established a
    hereditary monarchy.
  • Established a modern secular state
  • Development of modern warfare
  • His military strength motivated other European
    nations to form alliances lay the foundation
    for many of todays international systems.

Louisiana Purchase
  • 1800 Thomas Jefferson was elected 3rd president
    of the US
  • He was very curious about undiscovered
    treasures of the western lands.
  • Jefferson sent ambassadors James Monroe Robert
    Livingston to France to purchase New Orleans
    West Florida for 10 million.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte sold the Louisiana Territory
    to the US for 3 cents an acre (15 million).
  • The Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size
    of the US (1803)

Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • Meriwether Lewis William Clark were chosen by
    Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase and
    lands west.
  • They led 50 other explorers in the Corps of
  • Started at St. Louis and traveled up the Missouri
  • 28 months
  • 8,000 miles
  • Went to the Pacific Ocean and back.
  • RESULT of the expedition Opened the door to
    western expansion and brought a huge change to
    the lifestyle of Native Americans on both sides
    of the Mississippi River.

Causes of The War of 1812
  • Control of Atlantic Trade continued to create
    conflict between France and England.
  • American merchant ships were caught in the middle
    of the conflict.
  • 1807 Congress imposed an embargo (halt) of
    foreign trade directed against France and Great
  • The embargo stopped trade for American merchants
    and farmers, causing a severe economic depression
    in the United States.
  • American merchant ships were seized at sea by
    both France and Great Britain.
  • The British forced thousands of American sailors
    into service in the British Royal Navy
  • Members of Congress believed that the British
    were arming Native Americans causing their
    aggression toward the US.

Results of the War of 1812
  • June 18, 1812 Congress declared war on Great
  • Two years later, the Treaty of Ghent was signed
    to end the war.
  • Military stalemate
  • White House was burned
  • Brought a new spirit of nationalism that expanded
    trade westward movement

Monroe Doctrine
  • 1823 President James Monroe issued the Monroe
  • Put Europe on notice that the US would not
    tolerate any additional European colonies in
    North America.
  • Became the basis for US foreign policy in the
    Western Hemisphere

Domestic Issues
  • American domestic policy focused mainly on
    movement west
  • 1807- steamboat changed river travel
  • By 1830, the steam locomotive would lead to a
    railroad network stretching from the East Coast
    to the MS River.
  • 1825 - Erie Canal opened and connected Lake Erie
    to the Hudson River
  • Canals and railroads allowed goods to move from
    east to west
  • New York was a central point for Americas trade
    and banking
  • NY had a population of over 200,000 by 1830.
  • As the infrastructure developed, Americas inner
    cities began to grow.

US History
  • Economic Growth Reform
  • GPS SSUSH 7a, 7b, 7c, 7d, 7e

Industrial Revolution Brings Changes
  • Began in England in 1700s eventually spread to
    the United States.
  • Advances in science technology
  • Had far reaching socioeconomic effects
  • Industrialization involved a transition from
    manual to power driven factory labor.
  • Factories began producing goods such as cloth
    furniture previously made by hand in small shops
    or at home.
  • As industries grew, people began to leave rural
    farms villages to move to the cities for
    factory work.

The Cotton Gin US Industrialization
  • 1794 Eli Whitney makes cotton production easier
    with the invention of the cotton gin, which
    separated seeds from cotton.
  • This invention resulted in increased cotton
    production, which led to more fields being
    planted with cotton, and an increased need for
    slaves to pick the cotton.
  • By 1840, cotton represented 52 of goods exported
    from the United States.
  • US industrialization began in 1800 in New
    England, where coal and iron were plentiful.

Interchangeable Parts
  • Parts that can be used for more than one product,
    instead of parts made one at a time for
    individual machines.
  • Eli Whitney used interchangeable musket parts,
    which resulted in a large musket contract for
  • These parts became a key component of
    industrialization in both the United States and

Reasons for Westward Growth
  • Most Americans desired to own their own land.
  • Gold and other valuable resources were discovered
    in the West.
  • Manifest Destiny belief of
  • Americans that it was our
  • obvious fate to expand from
  • coast to coast.

Jacksonian Democracy
  • Term refers to the presidency of Andrew Jackson
  • He believed in Manifest Destiny
  • Jackson expanded the power of the presidency
  • Encouraged people from all social classes to be
    involved in government vote
  • He used the spoils system, where he gave friends
    and political supporters jobs in the government
    (even if they werent qualified)
  • Responsible for Indian Relocation

Popular Political Culture
  • Expanded during Jacksons presidential campaigns.
  • Accusations against each side
  • Mud slinging
  • These were publicized in songs, pamphlets,
    posters, lapel buttons and posters.
  • Campaign rallies and barbecues.

American Nationalism
  • As a people, Americans in Andrew Jacksons day
    believed in Manifest Destiny.
  • They believed their nation was different than,
    and superior to, other nations because most
    Americans of that time shared the Protestant
    religion, English ancestry, and culture.
  • They believed it was their duty to expand the
    hold of their religion, language, ancestry and
    culture all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Together, these beliefs comprise American

Reform Movements
  • Temperance
  • Abolition
  • Public School
  • Womens Suffrage

Temperance Movement
  • Temperance is the belief that people should limit
    or eliminate the use of alcoholic beverages.
  • Impact increased the size of Protestant
    religious organizations their influence in
    western rural sections of the country. Also
    laid the foundation for the womens movement
    because women played such an important role in
    this movement.

Abolition Movement
  • Issue Slavery should be abolished and not
    allowed in new states.
  • Impact made slavery and its expansion an
    important political issue. Women played an
    important role, which laid the foundation for the
    womens movement.

  • Abolition movement was an effort to end slavery.
    It took place mainly in the North.
  • William Lloyd Garrison writer and editor white
    radical abolitionist published anti-slavery
  • Frederick Douglass former slave worked for
    Garrison traveled and made speeches against
    slavery later published his own newspaper.

Womens Suffrage Movement
  • Until 1920, most women in the US did not have
  • (right to vote).
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a large assembly
    in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848.
  • More than 2,000 people attended the Seneca Falls
  • It was the first womens rights convention in the
  • They wrote voted on the Declaration of
    Sentiments, which called for equal rights for
    women in education, property ownership, and
  • This convention kicked off the womens suffrage
    movement, and conventions were held every year.
  • Eventually (1920), 72 years of persistence would
    lead to the
  • 19th Amendment, which gave women the right to

Public School Movement
  • Issue all children should be required to attend
    free schools supported by taxpayers and staffed
    by trained teachers.
  • Impact Established education as a right for all
    children and as a state and local issue.
    Improved the quality of schools by requiring
    trained teachers.

Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Missouri wanted to enter the Union as a state.
  • Their constitution allowed slavery. One half of
    the states in the Union were free and one half
    allowed slaves. Missouri would upset the
  • So, the Missouri Compromise was enacted.
  • Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state
  • Maine entered the Union as a free state
  • No slavery would be allowed in the northern part
    of the Louisiana Purchase except Missouri.

Nullification Crisis
  • Vice President, John C. Calhoun disagreed with
    President Andrew Jackson over rights of states to
    nullify (cancel) federal laws that they opposed.
  • Trouble started when southern states tried to
    nullify a high tax (tariff) placed on goods from
  • The tax helped northern manufacturers, but hurt
    plantation owners.
  • John C. Calhoun, who resigned from the VP, was
    from South Carolina, so that state led the fight
    for states rights against the federal

Mexican American War
  • In 1845, Texas became part of the United States
  • (it had formerly been part of Mexico).
  • The US then wanted the Mexican territories
  • of California and New Mexico.
  • War broke out between the US and Mexico in 1846.
  • The US occupied much of northern Mexico during
    the war. The US eventually won the war, and this
    region was ceded (given) to the US in the Treaty
    of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.

Wilmot Proviso
  • During the Mexican American War, Congress
    debated whether slavery would be allowed in New
    Mexico and California if these territories were
    gained from Mexico.
  • The anti-slavery provision was outlined in a
    proposal called the Wilmot Proviso.
  • The House of Representatives failed to approve
    it, and the question of slavery in those areas
    remained unanswered.

Compromise of 1850
  • Five laws written to deal with issue of slavery
    in new states.
  • The state of New Mexico would be established by
    carving its borders from Texas.
  • New Mexico voters would determine whether slavery
    would be permitted or prohibited.
  • California would enter the Union as a free state
  • All citizens would be required to catch runaway
    slaves return them to their owners or face
    fines or imprisonment.
  • The slave trade would be abolished in the
    District of Columbia, but the practice of slavery
    would be allowed to continue there.

Kansas Nebraska Act
  • 1854 Congress had to deal with the question of
    slavery in the new territories of Kansas and
  • The idea was suggested by Senator Stephen Douglas
    for two reasons
  • 1) He wanted Chicago to benefit from western
    development (railroads could be built on Kansas
    Nebraska land crops could be sent to Chicago)
  • 2) He wanted support of Southern Democrats when
    he ran for President. Allowing the people to
    decide on slavery would make North South happy.

  • Kansas Nebraska Act
  • Established POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY (rule by the
    people) in all new territories for people to
    decide if the state would be free or slave.
  • Pro slavery anti-slavery groups rushed to
    Kansas to try to create a voting majority there.
  • Pro slavery voters elected a legislature.
  • Abolitionists elected a rival Kansas government
    with an anti-slavery constitution, established a
    different capital city, and raised an army.
  • Pro-slavery Kansans raised their own army.
  • Violence broke out between the two factions
    Kansas was called Bleeding Kansas.

Dred Scott Decision
  • 1857 US Supreme Court issued the Dred Scott
    decision. A slave named Dred Scott had sued his
    owner for his freedom when his owner moved him to
    a free state. The Supreme Courts ruling stated
    that a slave could not be a citizen, so he could
    not sue.
  • The Court also said that Congress could not
    prohibit slavery in federal territories.
  • The Court found that popular sovereignty and the
    Missouri Compromise were unconstitutional.
  • SIGNIFICANCE The US Constitution
  • protected slavery..

John Browns Raid
  • John Brown was a famous abolitionist who decided
    to fight slavery with violence and killing.
  • He thought he was chosen by God to end slavery.
  • He led family members and other abolitionists in
    an attack on pro-slavery settlers in Kansas.
  • In 1859, he led a group of black and white men in
    an attack on the federal armory at Harpers
    Ferry, Virginia.
  • He planned to deliver the weapons to slaves to
    use in an uprising against slaveholders federal
  • The raid failed and Brown was captured.
  • He was convicted of treason against VA
  • In the North he was a martyr in the South he was
    a traitor.

Lincolns Efforts to Preserve the Union
  • Lincoln was elected in 1860.
  • South Carolina seceded from the Union
    (separated), followed by MS, FL, AL, GA, LA TX.
  • These states formed a new country called the
    Confederacy (Confederate States of America)
  • They attacked the US Army base
  • at Fort Sumter, SC in 1861 and
  • the Civil War began.

Lincolns Efforts to Preserve the Union
  • Lincoln believed that preserving the Union was
    his most important job.
  • He saw the southern states as merely rebelling
    against the government.
  • Lincoln called for a volunteer army to preserve
    the Union, and more states joined the
    Confederacy VA, AR, NC, TN.
  • At first, Lincoln only wanted to restrict the
    spread of slavery, but later decided to end it in
    the US.

Lincolns Second Inaugural Address
  • Lincoln was re-elected in 1864.
  • The Union had a certain victory.
  • Lincoln expressed sorrow that the states had not
    been able to resolve their differences
  • He stated that slavery was evil.
  • He urged Americans not to seek revenge on
    slaveholders and Confederate supporters.
  • He urged Reconstruction of the South with malice
    toward none.
  • Said the war was fought to preserve the Union and
    end slavery.

Habeas Corpus
  • The legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be
    taken before a judge to determine if they were
    being held in custody legally.
  • Lincoln suspended this constitutional right in
    some states during the Civil War.
  • He had the right to do this in times of national
  • This enabled over 13,000 Confederate sympathizers
    to be arrested and held in the North.

Emancipation Proclamation
  • Lincoln used his emergency powers to issue it.
  • Freed (emancipated) all the slaves in the
    Confederate States.
  • He hoped the news would reach the slaves in the
    South they would flee to the North.
  • He thought this would lessen the number of men
    able to join the Confederate Army.
  • It did not free slaves living in the North.
  • New goal for Union troops abolishing slavery.

  • Maryland 1862
  • First major battle on Union soil.
  • Bloodiest one day battle of the Civil War
  • Robert E. Lees Confederate forces retreated, and
    the Union claimed victory.
  • Significance of this battle - Lincoln issued the
    Emancipation Proclamation afterwards.

Battle of Gettysburg
  • Pennsylvania 1863 Three day battle
  • that was the turning point of the war
  • More than 50,000 men killed or wounded.
  • Lee failed to show Britain France they should
    help the Confederacy.
  • Devastating losses for the Confederates
  • Lee withdrew his forces back to Virginia
  • Lee gave up attempts to invade the Union.

Battle of Vicksburg
  • 1862 Vicksburg was important to the Confederacy
    because it guarded the Mississippi River access
    to New Orleans.
  • In 1863, Union forces sneaked past the
    Confederates during the night, and set up south
    of Vicksburg, where they gained control of the
    Mississippi River.
  • This basically cut the Confederacy in half.
  • Vicksburg was lost on July 4, 1863.

Battle of Atlanta
  • Shermans plan was to force the Confederate
    forces to stop his advance. If they refused to
    fight, he planned to seize Atlanta.
  • Confederate General James Hood engaged Union
    forces, and lost thousands of soldiers.
  • Shermans forces were able to capture Atlanta, a
    major rail and industrial center of the

Gettysburg Address
  • 1863 Lincolns speech to dedicate a military
    cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield.
  • Lincoln spoke for only two minutes, but his
    speech is considered to be one of the greatest in
    the English language.
  • It shaped popular opinion in favor of preserving
    the Union.
  • It helped raise the spirits of the northerners
    who had grown tired of the war.
  • He was able to convince people that the US was
    one indivisible nation.

Presidential Reconstruction
  • President Johnsons plan
  • Amnesty for Southerners who swore allegiance to
    the Union.
  • Pardon high ranking Confederate soldiers.
  • Voting rights for white men
  • All southern states would ratify the 13th
  • Johnson would appoint new southern governors.
  • Re-admit southern states to the Union as quickly
    as possible.

Radical Republican Reconstruction
  • Republicans in Congress were angry because new
    southern state governments were denying newly
    freed slaves their rights.
  • Congress forced southern states to re-apply for
    admission to the Union.
  • They had to ratify (accept) three new amendments
    to the Constitution.

13th Amendment
  • Ended slavery in the US.
  • Freedmens Bureau to meet the needs of former
    slaves food, land, shelter medical care.
  • It also established schools made labor
    contracts for freedmen.
  • Black colleges (Morehouse in Atlanta)

Fourteenth FifteenthAmendments
  • Granted full citizenship to all people born in
    the US. (14th)
  • Gave all citizens the right to vote. (15th)

Progress for African Americans During
  • Many children could attend school for the first
  • African Americans started newspapers, served in
    public office, and attended new colleges and
  • Morehouse College was founded in Atlanta in 1867.
  • Freedmens Bureau was created by Congress to help
    the newly freed slaves.
  • Provided food, clothing, jobs, medicine and
    medical facilities.
  • Congress did not grant them land or the absolute
    right to own land. Many worked as tenant farmers
    or sharecroppers.

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
  • Johnson ignored laws passed by Congress to limit
    presidential powers.
  • They passed these laws to stop Johnson from
    curbing Radical Republicans hostile treatment of
    former Confederate states and their leaders.
  • Johnson missed conviction by one vote.
  • He was impeached mainly because he had differing
    opinions than those who had the power to impeach

Resistance to Equal Rights
  • Black Codes (1865 1866) Series of laws passed
    by Southern legislatures to restrict the rights
    of newly freed blacks.
  • Vagrancy laws banned from owning farmland
    minors could be indentured until 21 years old.
  • Black Codes would later be overturned.

Ku Klux Klan
  • Formed in 1866 in Tennessee as a social club.
    Then became a white supremist group fighting to
    keep African Americans from receiving their
  • Terrorized African Americans as a way to maintain
    the segregation and disenfranchisement of blacks.
  • Dressed in white robes hoods depicting the
    ghosts of dead Confederate soldiers.

Nathan Bedford Forrest
Expansion after the Civil War
  • Railroads
  • Oil and Steel Industry
  • Immigrant Labor
  • Rise of Big Business
  • Labor Unions
  • Movement West
  • Progressives

  • Why were they important?
  • Could cross long distances
  • More reliable transportation
  • Increased westward expansion
  • Government gave land grants to RRs

Who Worked on the Railroads?
  • Mostly Chinese immigrants
  • The work was harsh and dangerous.
  • The pay was poor.
  • They worked long hours in all kinds of weather.

Carnegie Steel
  • Andrew Carnegie Used vertical integration to
    make his company grow.
  • He bought all the supplies gained control of
    all parts of the steel production process.
  • He created more product more cheaply.
  • He also attracted talent to work in his company.
  • Carnegie gave away 90 of his wealth!!

Standard Oil
  • John D. Rockefeller used horizontal integration
    to make his company grow create a monopoly.
  • He controlled 90 of all the oil refinery
    businesses in the US.
  • He paid low wages kept his
  • profits high.
  • Rockefeller also gave much of his wealth to

  • Immigrants from Europe arrived on the East Coast
    at Ellis Island
  • It was called the Golden Door (New York City)
  • They traveled 2 3 weeks to get here in terrible
    conditions faced thieves and criminals who took
    advantage of them settled together in
    communities made low wages, and faced
    discrimination. Likely to be poor.
  • Immigrants from Asia arrived on the West Coast at
    Angel Island.
  • Chinese Japanese were targets of suspicion,
    hostility discrimination.
  • They worked mostly for the railroads.
  • American labor unions were against them.

American Federation of Labor
  • One of the leading labor unions in the US
  • Was led by Samuel Gompers
  • Used collective bargaining as a method to help
    workers this was a negotiation tactic where
    each side makes compromises.
  • Used strikes all workers walked off the job
    until the company agreed to the Unions requests.

How Did Western Expansion Affect the Native
  • Harmful effect on Native Americans.
  • Settlers railroads took their land.
  • Violence occurred between US troops Native
  • They were relocated to reservations.
  • Their way of life was disrupted.

Muckrakers and Reform
  • Muckrakers were journalists who alerted the
    public to wrongdoing in politics and business.
  • Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle about the
    meatpacking industry.
  • Ida Tarbell exposed unethical business practices
    of Standard Oil.

Progressive Reforms
  • Progress of business and industry inspired
    reformers to make improvements in the political
    and social environment.
  • Strengthened American democracy in ways we carry
    forward into our own time.
  • Supported new ideas and policies they believed
    would improve peoples lives.
  • Supported increase government regulation of
    business and industry, efforts to protect
    consumers and workers, and policies to conserve
    natural resources.

Election Reform
  • There was corruption in the government several
    reforms were made to end it.
  • Initiative Citizens can put proposal on ballot
    by petition
  • Recall Voters can remove public officials from
  • Referendum Process allowing citizens to approve
    or reject a law.
  • Direct election of Senators 17th Amendment
    (1913) Voters won the right to elect their US
    senators. Previously, each states legislature
    chose the senators.

Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Asian immigrants face discrimination in the
  • Chinese workers accepted low wages for jobs
    whites had held, employers lowered the wages for
    all workers.
  • The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1882 and
    banned all future Chinese immigration.

Debate Over Expansionism(Imperialism)
  • Pro Imperialists
  • Gain new frontier to keep our competitive edge
  • A celebration of American traditions spirit
  • Practicality of gaining foreign markets
  • Good Military strategy

Debate Over Expansionism(Imperialism)
  • Anti Imperialists
  • Rejection of nations foundation of liberty for
  • Laws should follow the flag areas controlled by
    the US should get the rights of its citizens.
  • Threatened our democratic freedom
  • Racism fear that policies would encourage
    people of different racial backgrounds to move to
    the US.
  • Economic reasons too many costs
  • Competition for US jobs

The Spanish-American War
  • Background Causes
  • US vs. Spain in 1898
  • Fighting happened near Cuba the Philippines.
  • Spanish naval squadron was completely destroyed.
  • Spains defeat marked the end of their colonial
    empire established the US as a global military
  • Causes
  • Cuba was trying to gain independence from Spain
    suffered brutality
  • Yellow Journalism American newspapers used
    sensationalism in reporting events increased US
    sympathy for Cubans.
  • US imperialism
  • The US battleship Maine exploded mysteriously in
    Havanna, Cuba

Philippine American War
  • Philippine people wanted total independence from
  • War lasted 2 years
  • Filipino troops used guerilla warfare
  • Teddy Roosevelt declared an end to the war in
  • US controlled the Philippines until after WWII.
    (July 4, 1946)

US action in Latin America
  • Caribbean region and Latin America remained
  • Teddy Roosevelt feared European countries would
    take advantage of the instability to gain power
    and influence in the region.
  • Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine US would
    maintain stability in Latin America even with
  • Panama Canal created a faster route between the
    Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
  • Biggest engineering project of the era.

WWI - Causes
  • Balkan nationalism- people of the Balkans
    believed that Bosnia should be part of a new
    Slavic state. European powers placed Bosnia
    under Austro-Hungarian control. Russia secretly
    helped finance the assassination of Archduke
    Francis Ferdinand, which was a catalyst for WWI.
  • Entangling Alliances late 1800s early
    1900s European nations began to ally with each
    other. This alliance system made some countries
    feel an obligation to aid their allies in the
    event of war.
  • Militarism late 1800s and early 1900s
    countries like France, Germany, and Great Britain
    were engaged in an arms race. France and Germany
    doubled the size of their armies during this
    period. Great Britain and Germany fought for
    naval dominance by introducing battleships to the

  • Western front was characterized by trench warfare
    between German and French armies. They stayed in
    nearly the same positions for four years.
  • On the eastern front, Germany was able to defeat
    Russian and Serbian forces decisively.
  • This allowed the German army to focus more
    attention on the western front.

  • Treaty of Versailles peace treaty signed at the
    Palace of Versailles near Paris ended WWI.
  • One of the most important aspects of the treaty
    was the reparations (payment of war debts)
    required of Germany.
  • Reparations- Germany had to pay for the damages
    they had inflicted on the Allies. This would
    cause Germany much economic stress in the post
    war period. Many Germans felt that they were
    being punished personally for the actions of
    their government.

  • Mandate System To gain Arab support against the
    Ottoman Empire during the war, the Allies
    promised to recognize the independence of Arab
    states. Some western powers changed their minds
    and established the mandate system.
  • France controlled Lebanon and Syria, while Great
    Britain controlled Palestine and Iraq.
  • These nations did not officially own the

  • Fall of the Romanovs Russian Czar Nicholas II
    was the last of the Romanov family to rule
    Russia. His downfall was his poor military
    leadership, his tendency to listen to his wife,
    and Rasputin. He was also unable to handle the
    economic crises facing Russia.
  • He stepped down in 1917 and was assassinated in

  • Fall of the Hapsburgs the Hapsburgs had ruled
    the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time of WWI.
    Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the heir to the
    empire (he was assassinated).
  • Their downfall was due to the inability to create
    an identity among the people of the empire and
    their apathy toward including the growing middle
    class in decision making.

US Involvement in WWI
  • Neutrality at first
  • Immigrants were sympathetic with their native
  • Socialists thought it was a struggle between
    European capitalists over Asian markets
  • Pacifists thought the US should stay neutral to
    set an example of peace
  • US mobilized for war by 1917
  • Germany threatened the US with U-boat attacks
  • The passenger ship, Lusitania, was sunk
    Americans killed
  • Zimmerman Note (Germany tried to get Mexico to
  • attack the US)
  • Russia withdrew from the war

People on the Move
  • Great Migration 1.5 million southern blacks
    moved to the cities
  • Faced residential segregation ordinances
    restrictive covenants, so access to housing was a
  • Created cities within cities during the 1920s.
  • Harlem was the largest

Woodrow Wilsons Peace Plan
  • Allies won the war Wilson devised a 14 Point
    Plan for peace
  • No secret treaties
  • Free seas for all nations
  • Free trade for all
  • Lower arms for domestic safety only
  • Change imperialistic policies
  • 6 13 dealt with boundary changes in Europe
  • 14 Create a League of Nations as a place to
    settle disputes and avoid wars.
  • (Was rejected by other allied nations US
    senators) US never joined.

18th 19th Amendments
  • 1919 the 18th Amendment was passed.
  • Was the Prohibition Amendment that