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spread Chinese high culture untouched, uncensored

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... spread Chinese high culture untouched, uncensored Theater/opera: traveling drama troupes In vernacular Chinese Few props: ... keep order Bigger harvests: tea, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: spread Chinese high culture untouched, uncensored


1
Imperial Dynastic ChinaAn Overview, Part Two
2
The Sui Dynasty 580-618
  • Birth
  • 580s Gen. Sui Wen-ti reunifies China
  • Return to Han-style centralized bureaucratic
    empire
  • Capital in Chang-an (todays Xian City)

3
The Sui Dynasty 580-618
  • Public Works
  • Build big palaces, rebuilds/fortifies Great Wall
  • Build granaries to avoid famine

4
The Sui Dynasty 580-618
  • Bureaucracy efficient, centralized, standardized
  • Three Departments admin, policies, imperial
    orders
  • Check one another
  • Six Ministries rites, military affairs,
    punishments, finance, public works, civil affairs
  • Meritocracy cures corruption
  • Civil-service exams used for next 1300 years

5
The Sui Dynasty 580-618
  • Economic Reform Land Equalization System
  • Restores tax base
  • Land distributed to all families on basis of in
    household
  • Families can farm land but cant sell it
  • Lower taxes on farmers and merchants
  • Bigger harvests, more prosperity

6
The Sui Dynasty 580-618
  • International trade Silk Road
  • Resume trade with W Asia
  • Lay foundation for Tang prosperity

7
The Sui Dynasty 580-618
  • Religion Buddhism spreads
  • Officially encouraged
  • Unifies diverse population
  • More tem ples, more monks
  • China becomes center of Buddhist learning
  • Confucianism also regains popularity

8
The Sui Dynasty 580-618
  • Collapse
  • 604 Wen-ti dies unexpectedly
  • son Yang takes throne
  • Abuses power
  • Excessive construction projects
  • Lavish pleasure trips
  • Costly, failed wars vs. Korea
  • Rebellions ? civil war ? Yang murdered
  • 618 Gen. Liyuan conquers Chang-an, names
    himself emperor
  • Est. Tang Dynasty

9
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Birth
  • 618 Gen. Liyuan conquers Chang-an
  • names himself emperor
  • Relative of Sui empress
  • Liyuan establishes order
  • Good tax revenues
  • Strong military
  • Healthy Confucian scholarship
  • Buddhist temples and monasteries
  • Formal govt bureaucracy core of central govt
    until 20th cent.
  • Council of State policies
  • Military Affairs
  • Censorate
  • Six Ministries revenues, justice, public works,
    rites, etc.

10
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
11
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Tang Legal Code
  • Earliest complete Chinese legal code that still
    exists
  • Penalties scaled, based on crime and relationship
    b/t criminal, victim
  • Degree of crime based on amount of time spent
    mourning victim
  • 500 articles
  • Influences future dynasties, codes of Japan,
    Korea, Vietnam

12
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Equal Field System
  • All land is emperors property but is
    redistributed to farmers
  • All able-bodied adult males get equal life
    plots (women get less)
  • Farmers work land to support selves, pay taxes in
    labor, grain
  • Taxes based on number of family members, not on
    acreage
  • Aristocrats get special exemptions, extra acreage
  • Result better rice yields
  • Better tools harrow, rice plough, chain with
    paddles transfers water among levels

13
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Tang army Asias 1 power
  • North aristocratic cavalry fight vs. nomads on
    horseback
  • South peasant infantry man forts
  • Huge border expansion W to Iran, NE to
    Manchuria, SE to Korea

14
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • 660 emperor suffers stroke, Wu begins to
    dominate court
  • 683 emperor dies, Wu rules as regent for
    emperor-son
  • 690 Wu deposes son, murders rivals, seizes full
    power
  • 690-705 establishes Chou Dynasty, moves court
    to Loyang
  • Powerful, aided by exam bureaucrats, powerful
    relatives
  • Expands empire
  • Buddhist clerics call her reincarnated savior
  • Gets rich by taxing peasants, shares w/
    friends, monasteries
  • 705 deposed

Empress Wu (626-ca. 706) young concubine of 2nd
emperor
15
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Tang Restoration Golden Age 713-756
  • Worlds strongest empire wealth, prosperity
  • Govt monopolies bring tea, salt, alcohol
  • Profits from exports of paper, silk, spices
  • Buddhism flourishes, is Sinicized
  • Block printing invented written word more widely
    available
  • Silk Road grows more contact w/ India, Middle
    East
  • Nobles replace exam bureaucrats in high govt
    posts

16
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Chang-an imperial center, administrative city
  • Restored as capital
  • 30 square miles, 1 million residents worlds
    largest city
  • Powerful, majestic
  • Confucian layout palace in North, faces South
  • Huge avenue, many govt offices, NSEW city grid,
    walls
  • Huge trade center links w/ Silk Road

17
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Meritocracy!
  • Civil-service exams based on Confucianism last
    until 1911
  • Career officials lack territorial power base
    dynasty more secure
  • prestige
  • Exams in 2 sections
  • Changju Confucian classics, literature
  • Zhiju no fixed subjects (emperor presides), more
    rigorous and selective
  • Anyone can take, pass exams more commoners enter
    govt

18
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Meritocracy?
  • Pass prestigious exams to get govt job, BUT
  • Only nobles, sons of officials can afford years
    of study to master the classics and pass exams
  • Nobles, sons of officials end up getting high
    posts via family, friends, connections
  • Only nobles, sons of officials can enroll in
    govt schools

19
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Tang poetry Li Bai (right), Tu Fu, Li Bai, Du
    Fu, Bai Juyi
  • Poems sung, strung together in series, accompany
    theater productions early form of opera
  • Poems often heard in tea houses
  • Li Bai (aka Li Po, 701-762) big, muscular
    swordsman/carouser
  • Unusual for poet not a civil servant
  • 2000 poems Bring on the Wine, Drinking Alone
    in the Moonlight
  • Powerful, passionate poetry life is short, enjoy
    it
  • Ill wrap this Mighty Mudball of a world all up
    in a bag/And be wild and free like Chaos itself!
  • Drowns while drunk, embracing moons reflection
    in lake

20
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Great Wall border defenses controlled by
    provincial commanders
  • Diplomacy enlist neighbors as tributaries incl.
    Japan, Korea, Vietnam
  • Conquests military successes costly, short-lived
  • Nomads quickly regroup, reinvade
  • Divide, conquer nomads allied w/ Uighur Turks
  • Imperial Expansion
  • Threats Tibetans (W), Turks (NW, N), Khitan
    Mongols (Manchuria)

21
The Tang Dynasty 618-907
  • Decline Fall
  • Mid-8th cent. borders shrink, neighbors threaten
  • 751 Arabs take Samarkand, end Chinese trade w/
    West for 500 yrs
  • 755 troop rebellion in North
  • Military commanders resist emperors
  • Peasant uprisings fixed taxes replaced Equal
    Field System

22
Post-Tang The Five Dynasties
880s warlords carve China into independent
kingdoms The Five Dynasties
23
The Sung Dynasty 960-1279
  • Absolute Monarchy and Agricultural Revolution
  • 960 Sung reunifies China after chaos
  • Capital at Kaifeng, on Yellow River
  • Autocracy emperors rule with scholar-bureaucrats
    (meritocracy)
  • Nobles lose influence estates divided among
    heirs
  • Nobles move to capital rural ? urban
  • District magistrates gain local power
  • Collect taxes, keep order
  • Bigger harvests tea, cotton, rice
  • New strain of early-ripening rice ? double crops
  • Big water-control projects, new fertilizers
  • More taxes paid in , not crops
  • Right Kao-Tsung, founder of the S. Song

24
The Sung Dynasty 960-1279
Northern Sung 960-1127
25
The Sung Dynasty 960-1279
Southern Sung 1127-1279
26
The Sung Dynasty 960-1279
  • Commercial Revolution
  • Cities, commerce grow
  • Imports horses (from Tibetans, Mongols), raw
    materials
  • Exports silks, tea, finished goods, porcelains
  • Industry coal, iron-smelting ? carbonized-steel
    tools, weapons
  • Govt profits from salt, wine, tea monopolies
  • Currency silk ? copper coins, silver coins,
    paper money, credit
  • Tech movable type, abacus, gunpowder, porcelain,
    compass, better ships (rudders, watertight
    compartments)

27
The Sung Dynasty 960-1279
  • Peak of Traditional Chinese Culture
  • Education, literacy, printing
  • Pottery, porcelains via kilns, high-firing
    techniques, glazes
  • Su Tung-po (1037-1101) poet/painter/calligrapher
    /engineer
  • Chu Hsi (1130-1200) philosopher blends
    Confucianism, Buddhism
  • Con Bu ? standard interpretation used in civil
    service exams until 20th cent. This is Chu Hsi?
  • Ssu-ma Kuang historian uses primary documents
  • A Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government
  • Calligraphy
  • Depict nature, important people, landscapes
  • Diffuse light no single light source or shadow
  • Mistakes cant be corrected

28
The Sung Dynasty 960-1279
Calligraphy
29
The Sung Dynasty 960-1279
  • Decline Fall
  • 1227 Genghis Khan, Mongols conquer Beijing
  • Also begin conquest of Russia, Persia, Mongolia,
    Central Asia
  • Heirs begin conquering rest of Sung China
  • 1279 last Sung holdouts overthrown

30
The Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368
The Overall Mongol Conquest
31
The Yuan Dynasty Mongols Rule China 1279-1368
32
The Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368
  • The Mongols Take Over China Ruled by Foreigners!
  • Mongols rule from Black Sea to Pacific
  • Nomads from grasslands North of China horses,
    sheep, yurts
  • Strong, mobile army
  • sophisticated organization/tactics
  • powerful/accurate compound bow
  • siege weaponry
  • terrorize enemies
  • 1227 Genghis Khan (top) conquers Beijing, dies
    kingdom divided in 4
  • 1260 Grandson Kublai Khan (bottom) takes over as
    Great Khan

33
Mongols Compound Bow For Hunting, Warfare
?
?
1
3
2
  • Range 350 yards (English longbow 250)
  • Frame birchwood layered with horn and bone, deer
    sinew
  • Fish glue (from freshwater fish bladders)
    attaches bow layers
  • String horsehide (stretched and twisted, with
    all fat removed)
  • Arrow(head) types armor-piercing steel,
    incendiary, normal min. 60
  • Birchwood body, crane feathers
  • Whistling arrowheads (channels in bone) make game
    stop, listen
  • Horseback archers fire when all hooves off ground
  • Draw weight 100-160 lbs. (usu. 60-70 for big,
    muscular adult male)

34
Time Lapse of Mongol Conquest
35
The Empire Fragments after Genghis Khans Death
36
The Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368
  • Mongol Rule under Kublai Khan and His Successors
  • Absolutism hereditary succession
  • Centralized civil administration
  • Moves capital from Karakorum (Mongolia) to
    Beijing
  • Rebuilds Beijing as Chinese-style walled city
  • Extends Grand Canal to link Beijing to
    population/econ centers
  • Military control garrisons throughout China

37
The Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368
  • Mongol-Chinese Gap
  • 400,000 Mongols control millions of Chinese
  • Ethnic Chinese cant serve in govt or military
  • Ethnic Turks, Arabs, Europeans, Persians get
    jobs, but
  • Mongols get top civil, military posts
  • Different dress, customs, languages
  • Chinese see Mongols as smelly barbarians w/ bad
    table manners
  • Chinese are better-educated
  • Refuse to teach in govt schools
  • Establish private academies

38
The Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368
  • Economics China Becomes Impoverished
  • Invasion pillage ? heavy taxation
  • Excessive spending on failed invasions (e.g.,
    Japan)
  • Trade hampered Chinese forbidden to travel,
    learn other languages
  • Foreign merchants get privileges, get rich money
    flows abroad

39
The Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368
  • Religious, Cultural Tolerance
  • Chinese Buddhist priests, monks get tax
    exemptions
  • Christianity, Islam tolerated, spread
  • Chinese high culture untouched, uncensored
  • Theater/opera traveling drama troupes
  • In vernacular Chinese
  • Few props rely on makeup, costumes, pantomime
  • Typical plot hero passes civil-service exams to
    get the girl!

40
The Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368
  • Mongol Rule Collapses
  • Emperors after Kublai Khan lack his talent,
    wisdom
  • Wasteful, corrupt
  • Court infighting, assassinations
  • Khanates separated by religion, geography,
    culture dont cooperate
  • Succession disputes dont help
  • Military gets fat and lazy
  • Mongol soldiers ? farmers, use slaves
  • Failed farmers ? vagrants
  • Fighting skills get rusty
  • Failed, needless invasions of Japan
  • Natural disasters plague, floods
  • Mongol princes, Chinese peasants revolt

41
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Peasant Revolt Ousts Mongols/Yuan
  • Ethnic Chinese resent restrictions, obligations
  • Huge taxes, forced labor
  • Barred from govt jobs
  • Forbidden to learn other languages or travel
  • See foreign merchants enjoy big privileges no
    taxes! Free travel!
  • Peasant General Zhu Yuanzhang leads peasant
    revolt
  • 1387 Zhu liberates all of China
  • Ends 400 years of foreign occupation
  • takes title Hong-wu (Vast Military)
  • Moves capital to Nanjing

42
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
43
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Politics centralized govt, efficient
    bureaucracy
  • Hong-wu consolidates power
  • Eliminates independent offices PM, Secretariat
  • Nobles must live at imperial court
  • Holds court 3X per day busy!
  • Bureaucrats, administrators beaten, executed for
    corruption
  • Relies on eunuchs for administration
  • Wise makes 3 big rules
  • Build strong city walls
  • Store as much grain as possible
  • Be slow to assume titles
  • Readopts local, imperial civil-service exams
  • Important classics, good writing

44
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Legal System
  • Ta-Ming lu Hong-wu writes famous law code from
    scratch
  • Lu unchanging laws
  • Li separate laws
  • supplement lu
  • meet changing conditions
  • Problem future emperors abuse li to advance own
    interests, public loses confidence in laws

45
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Foreign Relations
  • Pre-1433 exploration to Japan, Java, India,
    Africa, P-Gulf, Red Sea
  • Worlds 1 navy 317 huge ships, large crews
  • 1405-33 Zheng He (eunuch) naval diplomacy to
    Africa
  • Post-1433 Neo-Confucian Isolationism
  • Be self-reliant!
  • Merchants parasites
  • Trip records destroyed
  • Ship sizes restricted
  • Pirates threaten
  • Agriculture gt trade

46
Zheng He and the Giraffe(ca. 1414)
47
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Military Flexes Its Muscles
  • Commanders ? new nobility
  • New hereditary caste of soldiers
  • New strategic garrisons built
  • Investments in army to prevent Mongol resurgence

48
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Economic Recovery
  • Agriculture revived after Mongol destruction
  • Crop rotation, irrigation pumps
  • Begin stock rice paddies w/ fish ? fish fertilize
    rice ? more to eat!
  • New cash crops maize, cotton, sweet potatoes,
    indigo
  • Cities, commerce grow
  • More small businesses paper, silk, cotton,
    porcelain
  • More trade w/ Portuguese, Dutch, Japanese, USA
  • Import silver, firearms, sugar, potatoes, tobacco
  • Export silk, porcelain, cotton, textiles
  • Public works rebuild dikes, canals, reservoirs
    reforestation

49
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Collapse Manchus overthrow Ming
  • High taxes ? rebellions ? higher taxes ? more
    rebellions!
  • Manchus attack from North, sack Beijing (1644)
  • Powerful emperors ? corrupt, wasteful,
    self-indulgent
  • Powerful emperors ? too much power for one person
  • Loss of PM position ? no check vs. incompetent
    emperor
  • Eunuchs, officials struggle for power while
    emperors bask in luxury
  • Abuse of li
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