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The Juvenile Justice System


Chapter 15 The Juvenile Justice System Learning Outcomes LO1: Describe the child-saving movement and its relationship to the doctrine of parens patriae. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Juvenile Justice System

  • Chapter 15
  • The Juvenile Justice System

Learning Outcomes
  • LO1 Describe the child-saving movement and its
    relationship to the doctrine of parens patriae.
  • LO2 List the four major differences between
    juvenile courts and adult courts.
  • LO3 Describe the four primary stages of the
    pretrial juvenile justice procedure.
  • LO4 Explain the distinction between an
    adjudicatory hearing and a disposition hearing.
  • LO5 Describe the one variable that always
    correlates with highly juvenile crime rates.

Describe the child- saving movement and its
relationship to the doctrine of parens patriae.
Learning Outcome 1
  • parens patriae
  • The state not only has a right but also a duty to
    care for children who are neglected, delinquent,
    or in some other way disadvantaged.

Learning Outcome 1
  • Child Savers
  • Illinois Juvenile Court Act (1899)
  • First court created specifically for juveniles
    guided by parens patriae.

List the four major differences between juvenile
courts and adult courts.
Learning Outcome 2
  • No juries
  • Different terminology
  • No adversarial relationship
  • Confidentiality

Learning Outcome 2
  • Status Offenses
  • An act that is considered grounds for
    apprehension and state custody.
  • Smoking, drinking, truancy, disobeying teachers,
    running away from home, violating curfew, sexual
    activity, profane language.

Learning Outcome 2
  • Juvenile delinquency
  • Conduct that would be criminal if conducted by an

Learning Outcome 2
  • Constitutional Protections and the Juvenile
  • Kent v. United States (1966)
  • In re Gault (1967)
  • In re Winship (1970)
  • Breed v. Jones (1975)
  • McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971)

Learning Outcome 2
  • The Supreme Court decisions from 1966-1975 move
    the juvenile justice system away from parens
    patriae and towards a more formalized system.

Learning Outcome 2
  • Determining Delinquency
  • Age
  • Culpability

(No Transcript)
Describe the four primary stages of pretrial
juvenile justice procedure.
Learning Outcome 3
  • The four primary pretrial stages are
  • Intake
  • Pretrial diversion
  • Waiver to adult court
  • Detention

Learning Outcome 3
  • The intake officer has a number of options
  • Dismiss the case
  • Divert the offender
  • File a petition
  • Transfer the case to adult court

Learning Outcome 3
  • Categories of pretrial diversion
  • Probation
  • Treatment and aid
  • Diversion

Learning Outcome 3
  • Methods of transfer to adult court
  • Judicial waiver
  • Automatic transfer
  • Prosecutorial waiver

  • Juvenile Detention Officer
  • Job Description
  • Oversee the detention of juvenile offenders being
    held in temporary custody before the adjudicatory
    process begins. Observe the behavior of and, when
    necessary, counsel the juvenile offenders to
    ensure their safety during the detention period.
  • Maintain personal relationships with the juvenile
    offenders so as to supervise their progress in
    educational, recreational, and therapeutic
    activities while housed at the detention center.
  • What Kind of Training Is Required?
  • A high school diploma plus at least three years
    of work experience involving children of school
    age (seven to seventeen years) or one year of
    college education for each year of experience
  • Physical agility and strength, as well as a firm
    manner in dealing with juveniles who may present
    severe disciplinary problems.
  • Annual Salary Range?
  • 23,30033,700
  • For additional information, visit

Learning Outcome 3
  • Detention
  • Justifications for detention
  • The child poses a danger to the community
  • The child return for adjudication process
  • Detention will provide protection for the child
  • Schall v. Martin (1985)
  • Supreme Court upheld preventive detention

Explain the distinction between an adjudicatory
hearing and a disposition hearing.
Learning Outcome 4
  • Adjudicatory hearing
  • Goal providing the respondent with the
    essentials of due process and fair treatment.
  • Respondent has right to notice of charges,
    counsel, confrontation, cross-examination, and
    protection from self-incrimination.

Learning Outcome 4
  • Disposition hearing
  • Follows the adjudicatory hearing
  • Judge decides what steps will be taken toward
    treatment or punishment

Learning Outcome 4
  • Sentencing Juveniles
  • The needs of the child
  • Predisposition report
  • Judicial discretion

Learning Outcome 4
  • Juvenile corrections is based on the concept of
    graduated sanctions
  • Probation (the most common sanction)
  • Non-secure confinement
  • Secure confinement
  • Aftercare

Learning Outcome 4
  • Non-secure confinement
  • Foster care
  • Group homes
  • Family group homes
  • Rural programs

Learning Outcome 4
  • Secure Confinement
  • Boot camps
  • Training schools
  • Aftercare
  • Focused on reentry

  • Youth Worker
  • Job Description
  • Provide safety, security, custodial care,
    discipline, and guidance for youths held in
    juvenile correctional facilities.
  • Play a critical role in the rehabilitation of
    youthful offenders and, as a result, have a
    potentially great impact on their success during
    and after incarceration.
  • What Kind of Training Is Required?
  • A bachelors degree in human services, behavioral
    science, or a related field.
  • Professional and respectful communication skills
    and a commitment and dedication to the needs of
    adolescent offenders and their families.
  • Annual Salary Range?
  • 33,00052,000
  • For additional information, visit

Mastering Concepts
The Juvenile Justice System versus the Criminal
Justice System
Learning Outcome 4
  • Juveniles are responsible for
  • 10 percent of all murders
  • 13 percent of all aggravated assaults
  • 15 percent of all forcible rapes
  • 23 percent of all weapons arrests
  • 27 percent of all robberies
  • 26 percent of all property crimes
  • 11 percent of all drug offenses

Source Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention, Statistical Briefing
Book, at
Learning Outcome 4
  • Reasons for the decline in juvenile arrest rates
  • Decline of crack cocaine
  • The increase of police action against
    quality-of-life crimes
  • zero-tolerance policies

Learning Outcome 4
  • School Violence
  • Juveniles are 50x more likely to be murdered away
    from school
  • Schools are safer today than they have been in
    the past
  • 85 of schools control access during the school

Describe the one variable that always correlates
highly with juvenile crime rates.
Learning Outcome 5
  • Risk factors for juvenile offending
  • Age
  • Substance abuse
  • Child abuse and neglect
  • Gangs
  • Guns