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A Quick Quiz True or False


A Quick Quiz True or False Student learning differences are real. Fair means treating all kids alike. Intelligence is fixed. Students don t learn what the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Quick Quiz True or False

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A Quick QuizTrue or False
  • Student learning differences are real.
  • Fair means treating all kids alike.
  • Intelligence is fixed.
  • Students dont learn what the teacher doesnt
    directly oversee.
  • Before we differentiate, we must diagnose student
    readiness, interest, and learning profile.
  • Every student deserves to make continuous

What do you know about curriculum
differentiation?What concerns or fears do you
have regarding differentiation?What would you
like to learn more about?
List 10-15 words or phrases that, in your mind,
are linked to this term.
Differentiation is synonymous with good teaching.
  • Differentiation is not a curriculum. It is a way
    of thinking about teaching and learning.

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Curriculum Content/Process/Product Student
Readiness/Interest/Learning Style
A differentiated classroom will have a
combination of teacher directed, teacher selected
activities, and learner centered, learner
selected activities whole class instruction,
small group instruction, and individual
A Working Definition of DifferentiationDiffer
entiation has come to mean consistently using a
variety of instructional approaches to modify
content, process, and/or products in response to
learning readiness and interest of academically
diverse students.
Tomlinson, Carol Ann. The Differentiated
When Differentiating Instruction, The Three Most
Important Questions to Continually Ask Yourself...
What do I want may students to know, understand,
and be able to do?
What will I do instructionally to get my students
to learn this?
How will my students show what they know?
Why Differentiate?
  • Most students, even those involved in special
    programming, spend the vast majority of their
    time in regular classrooms.
  • Starko, Alane J. Meeting
    the Needs of the Gifted Throughout the

  • School Day Techniques for Curriculum
  • Students vary in readiness, interest, and
    learning profile. Tomlinson, Carol
    Ann. The Differentiated Classroom

Readiness is a students entry point relative to
a particular understanding or skill. To help a
student to grow, we must begin where the child
is. Some children, particularly those who have
had early learning opportunities, begin school
with well-developed skills and considerable
understanding of various topics other students
arrive as true beginners and need basic
instruction and additional practice.
  • Interest refers to a childs affinity, curiosity,
    or passion for a particular topic or skill. The
    advantage to grouping by interest is that it
    allows students to attach what they have been
    learning in class to things that they already
    find relevant and interesting and appealing in
    their own lives.
  • Learning profile has to do with how students
    learn. Some are visual learners, auditory
    learners, or kinesthetic learners. Students vary
    in the amount of time they need to master a skill
    or learn a concept.
  • How students learn can be shaped by
  • environment social
    organization physical circumstances
  • emotional climate
    psychological factors

Carol Ann Tomlinson/ Diane Heacox
What goals are we trying to achieve through
  • Increased academic learning
  • Increased confidence in learning
  • Enhanced intrinsic motivation for learning
  • Self-directed learning behaviors

Burns and Purcell, 2002
Why does it work?
  • Differentiation increases the match between where
    the student is and what they are to learn.
  • Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky (1962)
  • Varying levels of scaffolding
  • Varying degrees of challenge
  • Varying degrees of autonomy
  • Optimal learning

Burns and Purcell, 2002
Research supports differentiation
  • We think, learn, and create in different ways.
  • Intelligence is fluid, it is not fixed and
    therefore can be amplified.
  • Learning is more natural.

Burns and Purcell, 2002
What Gets Differentiated? The teacher can
modify content, process, or product.
CONTENT is what we want students to
- know (facts and
information) - understand (principles,
generalizations, ideas) - be able to do
(skills)Content is differentiated (a) when you
preassess students skill and knowledge, then
match learners with appropriate activities
according to readiness (b) when you give
students choices about topics to explore in
greater depth (c) when you provide students
with basic and advanced resources that match
their current levels of understanding.
Diane Heacox, Differentiating Instruction in the
Regular Classroom
Differentiating Content- multiple
textbooks and supplementary print materials-
varied videos and computer programs - learning
contracts- interest centers- support
systems audio tapes study partners and reading
buddies mentors - compacting phase 1 -
teacher assessment of student phase 2 - teacher
sets up a plan phase 3 - teacher and student
design a project
PROCESS is the how of teaching. Process refers
to the activities that you design to help
students think about and make sense of the key
principles and information of the content they
are learning. Process also calls on students to
use key skills that are integral to the unit.
When differentiating process, students are
engaged in different activities, but each
activity should be directed to the lessons
common focus on what students should come to
know, understand, and be able to do. All
students are engaged in meaningful and respectful
Carol Ann Tomlinson
Differentiating Process- tiered
assignments- learning centers- interactive
journals and learning logs- graphic organizers
Carol Ann Tomlinson
PRODUCTS are the way students show what they have
learned or extend what they have learned. They
can be differentiated along a continuum -
simple to complex - less independent to more
independent - clearly defined problems to fuzzy
Carol Ann Tomlinson
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As teachers, our goal is to make the curriculum
accessible to all students. Differentiation
makes this possible but before we can begin to
differentiate, we must come to know our students.
Discovering what your students already know
before beginning a unit of study can be
accomplished through the use of preassessments.
The use of interest inventories and multiple
intelligence checklists provides important
information about students learning profile.
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Flexible grouping is at the heart of
differentiated instruction
Flexible grouping A Definition
  • Flexible small groups are within class grouping
    in which membership varies according to ability
    (same ability, mixed ability), interest or
    questions, learning style or processing style,
    product style, group longevity, group size
    (2-10). Groups can be teacher-selected,
    student-selected, purposeful or random.

Jeanne H. Purcell, Ph. Caroline S. Cohen, Ph.D
Why is flexible instructional grouping a
hallmark of the differentiated classroom?
  • It is a critical management strategy in the
    differentiated classroom.
  • It allows a better instructional match between
    students needs and what you want students to
    know, understand, and be able to do.
  • It lets you tailor learning activities according
    to students needs and learning preferences, and,
    in the process, gives you time to provide
    additional instruction or extend learning
    experiences to particular students or groups.

Diame Heacox
Do I need to use flexible groups?
  • If after analyzing preassessment data, no
    powerful differences exist among students,
    flexible grouping is not necessary.
  • Flexible grouping is necessary if, after
    analyzing preassessment data, significant
    differences exist among students with respect to
  • interests
  • learning style preferences
  • expression style preferences prior
    knowledge/readiness to learn
  • In a flexibly grouped classroom, the teacher is
    trying to ensure that students work in many
    different grouping arrangements even over a
    relatively short period of time. Besides
    creating an optimal learning experience for all
    students, flexible grouping prevents the
    bluebird/buzzards phenomenon.

Carol Ann Tomlinson Jeanne Purcell
Designing Differentiated Learning Activities for
Flexible Groups
  • Open-ended activities and assignments
  • Purposefully designed choices to accommodate
    learning or expression style differences
  • Purposefully designed tiered assignments

Tiered Assignments are designed to maximize each
student's growth by challenging students with
learning experiences that are slightly above
their current level of knowledge and performance.
Designing a Tiered AssignmentA six step process
  • Identify the content
  • Consider your students needs
  • Create an activity
  • Chart the complexity of the activity
  • Create other versions of the activity
  • Match one version of the task to each student

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Where do I begin?
  • Start with material you already have then
  • analyze the degree of challenge and variety in
    your current instructional plans.
  • modify, adapt, or design new approaches to
    instruction in response to your students needs,
    interests, and learning preferences.
  • work with others whenever possible to design
    differentiated instruction
  • share what you have developed with fellow teachers

Instructional Sequence in a Differentiated
  • Lesson introduction
  • Initial teaching
  • Locating or designing a pretest format based on
    observed or anticipated differences
  • Pretesting
  • Analysis of pretest results
  • Decision making and planning
  • Formation of flexible groups
  • Differentiated teaching and learning activities

NRC/CT, University of Connecticut, 1997
Recall a familiar learning task, lesson, or
unit. Identify the ways that students differed
during the course of this task, lesson. or unit.
Which student difference was most powerful?
How did you differentiate to accommodate the
difference?How did this accommodation impact
their learning?
An Example
Burns and Purcell, 2002
Some Student Differences Think Back
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • _________________

Burns and Purcell, 2002
Burns and Purcell, 2002
Our Learning CommunityWe will teach, guide, and
support each other
  • I see in theseendeavors the concept of the
    school as a community of learners a place where
    all participantsteachers, principals, parents,
    and studentsengage in learning and teaching.
    School is not a place for big people who are
    learned and for little people who are learners,
    for important people who do not need to learn and
    unimportant people who do. Instead, school is a
    place where students discover and adults
    rediscover the joys, the difficulties, and the
    satisfaction of learning (Barth, 1990, p. 43).

Barth, R. (1990). Improving schools from within.
San Francisco CA Jossey-Bass.
needs assessment
  • What do you already know about differentiation?
  • What do you already do with regard to
  • What additional changes would be called for in
    your classroom to provide broader or
    richer differentiation?
  • What do you want to learn about?
  • What do you want to learn how to do?
  • What will you do with what you learn?
  • What are some benefits of differentiation to you
    (personally and professionally) and to your
    students that might encourage you to invest time
    and effort in providing differentiated
  • What are some factors that might discourage your
    investment of time and effort in providing
    differentiated instruction?
  • What changes do you expect to see in instruction?

Burns and Purcell, 2002
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