Cognitive Development in Early Childhood - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Cognitive Development in Early Childhood PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3d9390-MDJhM


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Cognitive Development in Early Childhood


Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chapter 8 Early Childhood Education Kindergarten Readiness DAIL-3 Motor Gross Motor jumping, catching; Fine Motor block ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:143
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: uwfEdusma
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
  • Chapter 8

Cognitive Development based on Multiple Factors
  • Parallels the growth of the brain
  • Increased levels of myelinization
  • Continued pruning
  • Elaboration based on experience
  • Enhanced by the broader range of experience
  • Expanding peer networks
  • Greater diversity in interactions with adults
  • The childs own increased mobility

Three Theoretical Perspectives
  • Piaget
  • Vygotsky
  • Information Processing

Piagets Perspectives
  • Transition from Sensorimotor into Preoperational
  • Capable of using symbolic thought to perform
    mental tasks
  • According to Piagets work, lacks the ability to
    operate on those mental tasks
  • Mental operations may not be available for
    reflective consideration

Piagets Perspectives
  • Progression of mental capabilities
  • Use of language to represent symbols
  • Recognizes when stories are told out of order
  • Explanations are more complex
  • Use of art to represent symbols
  • Drawings tend to be more realistic as the child
    progresses across the early childhood years
  • Use of play to model roles and objects
  • Can use one object to represent other objects

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Piagets Perspectives Preoperational Thought
  • Intuitive thought
  • Based on personal experiences
  • Logic based on unanalyzed personal experiences
    (e.g. flag theory of wind and air conditioner
    theory of summer)

Piagets Perspectives
  • Egocentrism
  • Failure to take others perspectives
  • Sees others as having ones own perspective
  • Animistic thought
  • Attributes animate qualities to inanimate objects
  • Artificialism
  • Attributes natural phenomena (sunsets, tides) to
    direct human action

Piagets Perspectives
  • Conservation
  • Ability to recognize the constancy of invariants
    (e.g. number, mass) in spite of transformations
    of variable attributes
  • Discontinuous fluids
  • Continuous fluids
  • Number
  • Mass

Piagets Perspectives
  • Centration
  • Tendency to isolate one attribute as a focus of
    attention and ignore other relevant aspects (e.g.
    height and diameter of a cylinder in the liquid
    conservation task)
  • Reversibility
  • Failure to mentally reverse the operations that
    led to the change in attribute or end point.
  • Static endpoints
  • Tendency to focus on beginning and end states
    regardless of the nature of the transformation

Vygotskys Perspective
  • Theoretical orientation reflected a Marxist
    dialectical view
  • Social speechinteraction with othersprecedes
    private speech monologue by the child
  • Private speech precedes the internalization of
    the concept to a mental representation

Vygotskys Perspective
  • Development (for Vygotsky)
  • occurred in a social or intermental plane first
    and then on an internal or intramental plane
  • required the presence of a more competent other
  • required the more competent other to mediate the
    process of learning and development

Vygotskys Perspective
  • Concepts for Application
  • Zone of Proximal Development more competent
    other assists the child in moving from what the
    child can do independently to that which the
    child can do only with support
  • Scaffolding the process of supporting the child
    across the zone of proximal development
  • Impacts on educational practices
  • Teacher as a coach or facilitator
  • Emphasis on cooperative learning with mixed
    ability groups

Information Processing Theory
  • Encodinginitial input of information from
    environment (sense organs perception attention)
  • Transformationprocesses operating on that
    information (strategiesdepth of processing)
  • Storageretention of the information (network
    modelsschema structures)

Information Processing Theory
  • Retrievalrecall or recognition of the
    information from memory (strategiessearch of
  • Executive functionmanagement, monitoring, and
    control of cognitive domain (metacognition
    cognitive monitoring selection and use of

Developmental Considerations
  • Capacity increasesamount of information one can
  • Maturation of the CNS (central nervous system)
  • Increased practice at particular tasks (e.g.
    naming, answering questions)
  • Rehearsal strategies (e.g. rote vs. meaningful)

Developmental Considerations
  • Efficiency increasesamount and /or complexity of
    processing by unit time
  • Maturation of the CNS
  • Acquisition of more efficient strategies
  • Transition from controlled to automatic

Developmental Considerations
  • Controlled Processes
  • Conscious (child is aware of the steps)
  • Each step is monitored (child knows outcomes)
  • Requires additional processing resources (limited
    capability for parallel tasksmultitasking)
  • Examples
  • Early reading behavior
  • Early mathematics computation
  • Learning to drive a manual transmission

Developmental Considerations
  • Automatic Processes
  • Steps largely outside of awareness (Child is not
    aware of discrete processes)
  • Overall progress is monitored (outcomes of each
    step likely not monitored but overall task
    success is monitored)
  • Requires fewer conscious processing resources
    (multi-tasking is possible)
  • Examples
  • Reading familiar texts
  • Simple arithmetic computations
  • Driving a manual transmission car after practice

Developmental Considerations
  • Transition from automatic to controlled processes
    occurs through
  • Practice
  • Acquisition of knowledge base
  • Acquisition of more efficient strategies

Developmental Considerations
  • Controlled Attentionability to sustain focus of
    mental resources
  • Early on, young children typically require an
    adult or more competent individual to help
    sustain attention (ala Vygotsky)
  • As CNS matures and more effective strategies are
    acquired, child is able to manage own focus
    (pruning, mylination, elaboration)

Developmental Considerations
  • Metacognition
  • Executive function
  • Monitors ongoing mental processing
  • Controls strategic thinking
  • Can manage attention
  • Becomes able to assess performance on relatively
    simple mental tasks
  • Tends to develop rapidly across early childhood
  • Tend to overestimate their knowledgeunclear
    whether the overestimation is a true
    overestimation or a desire to please an adult

Developmental Considerations
  • Theory of Mind (ToM)Attributing mental states to
    oneself and other
  • Appearancereality distinction (Maynard the cat
    who wore a dog mask)
  • Younger children were sure Maynard became a dog
  • Older children did not succumb to the prank
  • Recognizing the difference between ones own
    feelings and others is key to understanding
    mental states differ
  • Maturation, experience with language,
    opportunities to communicate specifically but
    ones mental states seem to be linked to
    development of ToM.

Language Development across Early Childhood
  • Vocabulary Development occurs through
  • Exposure and reinforcement
  • Repetition
  • Childs own analysis and construction of rules
    and structures

Language Development across Early Childhood
  • Syntactic Development
  • Syntactic structure learned through exposure
  • Telegraphic speech is an early syntactic form
  • Noun (agent) verb (predicate) object implied
  • Verb (predicate) noun (object) agent implied
  • Noun (agent) noun (object) predicate implied

Language Development across Early Childhood
  • Syntactic Development
  • Rules can be overregularized
  • Child recognizes a rule should be applied
  • Application of a rule is syntactically
    appropriate but incorrect (e.g. run?runned
    instead of ran)
  • Indicates the child is constructing rules and
  • Errors typically reflect syntactic rather than
    semantic errors (errors in structure, not

Language Development across Early Childhood
  • Pragmatic Developmentrules of usage
  • What cognitive resource or capability might be
  • Perspective taking
  • Recognizing non-verbal cues and emotional
  • Domains of Pragmatic Development
  • Turn taking
  • Context dependent vs. context independent
  • Answer obvious questions (Do you have to make
    that much noise?)
  • Deference to authority

Language Development across Early Childhood
  • Bilingual Children
  • Three models
  • Simultaneous
  • Both languages learned simultaneously
  • Most effective if each parent consistently uses
    one language
  • Tend to be more fluent in both
  • Additive
  • One language is learned first
  • Second language is learned following some fluency
    in first language
  • Most common in the USA culture

Language Development across Early Childhood
  • Bilingual Children
  • Three models
  • Subtractive
  • First language is learned to some fluency
  • Second language is learned as a preferential
    language or as a replacement for the first
  • Cultural norms and bilingualism
  • Cultures that value bi or multilingualism tend to
    have either simultaneous or additive bilingualism
  • Cultures that devalue one of the two languages
    tend to have subtractive bilingualism
  • True bilingualism (simultaneous or additive)
    tends to be related to more astute language users

Early Childhood Education
Early Childhood Education National Programs
  • Head Start/ Abecedarian/High-Scope
  • Ages of service range from birthfive years
    depending on the program
  • Typically comprehensivehealth, parental
    involvement, educational
  • Typically includes home visits for parental

Early Childhood Education
  • Factors impacting success rate
  • Population served
  • Teacher training (VPK vs. Certified Teachers)
  • Staff turnover
  • Comprehensive nature of the program
  • Staff development
  • Parent training
  • Follow-up beyond exit from program (Project
    Follow Through)

Early Childhood Education
  • Kindergarten Readiness
  • DAIL-3
  • Motor
  • Gross Motorjumping, catching
  • Fine Motorblock building, copying
  • Language
  • Answering personal questions (name, age, sex)
  • Articulation (for referral to speech assessment)
  • Concepts
  • Naming body parts
  • Counting
  • Naming parts of a house

Early Childhood Education
  • Kindergarten Readiness
  • DAIL-3
  • Self-Help
  • Skills at feeding, grooming, hygiene
  • Dressing oneself
  • Social
  • Play with other children
  • Compliance with adult-given instructions
  • Following rules

Early Childhood Education
  • Educational issues around Readiness Levels
  • Many of those who test as not ready for
    kindergarten can be accommodated in regular
    kindergarten classes
  • Old-for-grade tends to be more predictive of
    problems than movement into kindergarten with
    some additional support
  • Schools might be reconstrued as being ready for
    children vs. children as being ready for schools