People on the Land - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – People on the Land PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3d92ef-MTgzN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

People on the Land

Description:

People on the Land Chapter 2 Part II The Human Matrix AIDS cases per 100,000 AIDS cases per 100,000 Disease diffusion AIDS Most widely accepted theory on where ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:45
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 79
Provided by: utexasEdu3
Learn more at: http://www.utexas.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: People on the Land


1
People on the Land
  • Chapter 2 Part II
  • The Human Matrix

2
AIDS cases per 100,000
3
AIDS cases per 100,000
4
Disease diffusion
  • AIDS
  • Most widely accepted theory on where AIDS began
  • HIV-1 in east-central Africa
  • HIV-2 in the upper Niger River country in the
    Guinea highlands of West Africa
  • Apparently originated in the local monkey
    population
  • Passed on to humans through the local cultural
    practice of injecting monkey blood as an
    aphrodisiac

5
Disease diffusion
  • HIV-2
  • Most similar to the simian type
  • Has had less impact on humans in its source
    region
  • Has not spread as widely beyond Africa as HIV-1

6
Probable diffusion of AIDS
7
Disease diffusion
  • Diffusion after humans became infected
  • Apparently moved throughout central and western
    Africa
  • Followed transport routes and spread through
    growing urban areas
  • Haitians working at civil service posts in Zaire
    (now Democratic Republic of Congo) carried
    disease back to the Caribbean in the early 1960s
  • Europeans visiting central Africa diffused AIDS
    back to Europe

8
Disease diffusion
  • American male homosexuals vacationing in Haiti
    likely contracted the virus and spread it
    throughout the gay communities in the United
    States
  • Americans falsely believed the virus was
    exclusively linked to homosexual behavior
  • Western Europe became a secondary diffusion area

9
Disease diffusion
  • Not all diseases spread by contagious diffusion
  • Relocation diffusion tourism, temporary
    migration
  • Hierarchical diffusion disease spread by
    persons affluent enough to participate in
    international tourism

10
Population ecology
  • Cultural ecology is quite relevant to the study
    of population geography
  • Successful adaptive strategy
  • Permits a people to exist and reproduce in a
    given ecosystem
  • Population size and growth offer an index to
    successful adaptation
  • Maladaptive strategies can lead to dwindling
    number, even extinction

11
Population ecology
  • Preadaption to what extend did a groups ways
    of living precondition them for success in a new
    land?
  • Successful cultural adaptation
  • Can lead to catastrophe if it causes significant
    environmental alteration and destruction so as to
    undermine livelihood
  • The key is sustainability
  • Adaptive strategy must allow many generations to
    use the land in more or less the same manner

12
Population ecology
  • Environmental influence on population densities
  • Greatest in mid-latitudes where terrain is level,
    climate is mild and humid, the soil is fertile,
    mineral resources abundant, and accessible to the
    sea
  • Lower where there is excessive elevation,
    aridity, coldness ruggedness of terrain and a
    distance from the coast

13
Sweden
14
Climatic factors affect where people settle
15
Population ecology
  • Some climates are considered to have a defect
    of some kind and are mostly avoided by humans
  • Human remain creatures of the humid and subhumid
    tropics, subtropics or mid-latitudes
  • Small populations of Inuit (Eskimo), Sami
    (Lapps), and others live in cold or dry areas
  • In avoiding cold places, we may reveal even today
    the tropical origin of our species

16
Population ecology
  • Most mountain ranges in middle and higher
    latitudes have sparse population
  • Inhabitants of the tropics often prefer to live
    at higher elevations
  • For dense clusters in mountain valleys and basins
  • Escape the humid, not climate of tropical
    lowlands
  • More people live in the Andes Mountains than in
    the nearby Amazon lowlands
  • Many tropical and subtropical national capitals
    lie in the mountain areas above 3000 feet

17
Population ecology
  • Human tendency to live on or near seacoasts
  • Eurasia, Australia, and South America resemble
    hollow shells majority of population clustered
    around the rim of each continent
  • Partly stems from trade and fishing opportunities

18
Hollow shell
19
Population ecology
  • Continental interiors tend to be regions of
    climatic extremes
  • Australias interior is a land of excessive
    dryness and heat
  • Desert regions lack water and people cluster
    together where it is available from rivers
    (Nile), or oases

20
Water in the desert
21
Population ecology
  • The factor of disease in population location
  • Malaria depopulated Italys coastal regions after
    Romantimes
  • Diseases attack domestic animals, depriving
    people of food and clothing
  • Sleeping sickness in parts of East Africa
  • Particularly fatal to cattle, but not humans
  • Cattle represent wealth and provide food
  • Serve a religious function in some tribes
  • Its spread caused entire tribes to migrate from
    infested areas

22
Disease can influence settlement
23
Population ecology
  • Environmental perception and population
    distribution
  • Different cultural groups often see the same
    physical environment differently
  • European Alps shared by German and Italian
    speaking people
  • Cultural groups can change its perception of an
    environment over time

24
Population ecology
  • Main reasons for American interregional migration
  • Mild winter climate and mountainous terrain
  • Diverse vegetation including forests, and mild
    summers with low humidity
  • Presence of lakes and rivers
  • Nearness to seacoasts
  • Where?

25
Population ecology
  • Immigrants to Arizona reveal a preference for its
    sunny, warm climate
  • Immigrants to Florida cite attractive environment
    as the dominant factor
  • Different age and cultural groups often express
    different preferences as reasons for migrating
    interregionally in the United States
  • All are influenced by their perception of the
    environment
  • Misinformation is at least as important as
    accurate impressions
  • People often form strong images of an area
    without ever visiting it

26
Quartzsite, Arizona
27
Aging and Environmental Preference
  • Landscapes of the elderly become especially
    noticeable in societies with aging populations
    those with low birth rates and long life
    expectancy.
  • Many North American retirees become part of a
    migratory population known as snowbirds.
  • Traveling northward in summer and southward in
    winter, they frequently follow specific circuits
    of places and events.

28
Aging and Environmental Preference
  • Here in the desert, a giant swap meet and
    lapidary festival is held in February.
  • Close to a million individuals, mainly retirees
    attend.
  • More than 50,000 winter in Quartzsite but in
    summer as temperatures rise, the resident
    population drops to about 3000 and snowbirds head
    for more comfortable climes

29
Population ecology
  • Population density and environmental alteration
  • Through adaptive strategies people, especially
    where population density is high, can radically
    modify their habitats
  • Can happen even in low density areas where the
    environment is fragile
  • The carrying capacity of Earth varies greatly
    from one place to another

30
Population ecology
  • We are facing a worldwide ecological crisis
  • Partly because at present densities many adaptive
    strategies are not sustainable
  • Close relationship between population explosion
    and ecological crisis
  • Haiti
  • Rural population pressure particularly severe
  • Most available biomass (humus) now being used in
    small intensively cultivated kitchen gardens
  • Surrounding fields and pastures becoming
    increasingly denuded

31
Population ecology
  • Overpopulation can precipitate environmental
    destruction
  • Yields a downward cycle of worsening poverty
  • Many cultural ecologists believe attempts to
    restore balance of nature will not succeed until
    we halt or reverse population growth
  • Adaptive strategy is as crucial as density
  • Population pressure can lead to more
    conservational land use
  • Rural China offers supportive evidence

32
Population ecology
  • Vegetation changes in western and central Europe
  • Farmers cleared vast forests during the Middle
    Ages
  • These fertile agricultural districts became
    densely populated
  • During population declines the forests expanded
    again

33
Population ecology
  • Worldwide ecological crisis is not just a
    function of overpopulation
  • Relatively small percentage of Earths population
    controls much of the industrial technology
  • Absorbs a gargantuan percentage of the worlds
    resources each year
  • Americans (US), who make up less than 5 of the
    worlds population, account for about 40 of the
    resources consumed each year

34
Cultural integration and population patterns
  • Cultural factors
  • Basic characteristics of a groups culture
    influence the distribution of people
  • Rice domestication influenced high population
    growth in Southeast Asia
  • In environments similar to Southeast Asia where
    rice was not grown, populations did not reach
    such densities

35
Cultural factors
  • In the 1700s, the introduction of the potato to
    Ireland allowed a great increase in rural
    population
  • It yielded much more food per acre than
    traditional Irish crops
  • In the 140s, failure of the potato harvests
    reduced Irish population through starvation and
    emigration.

36
Cultural factors
  • France first place in the world where sustained
    fertility decline took root
  • Did not keep pace with nearby lands of Germany,
    Italy, and the United Kingdom
  • Was the most populous of these four countries in
    1800
  • Became the least populous after 1930 and still is
  • During the years between 1800 and 1930 millions
    of Germans, British, and Italians emigrated
    overseas

37
Cultural integration
  • Few French left their homeland
  • French Canadians in Quebec continued to favor
    large families
  • About 10,000 people left France between 1608 and
    1750
  • Today, Quebecs population of about 7 million
    does not include those that migrated to New
    England and other areas
  • Some unknown cultural factor worked to produce
    demographic decline in France

38
Cultural integration
  • Why some cultural groups differ in their tendency
    to migrate
  • Religious ties bind some to traditional homelands
  • Travel outside sanctified bounds of the
    motherland considered immoral
  • Responsibilities to tend ancestral graves and
    perform rite at parental death kept many Chinese
    in China
  • Navajo Indians bury the umbilical cord in the
    floor of the hogan at birth, which seems to
    strengthen attachment to the house
  • Some groups consider migration a way of life
  • Poverty stricken Ireland proved so prone to
    migration that today Irelands population is
    about half the total of 1840

39
Political factors
  • Governments can restrict voluntary migration
  • Haiti and Dominican Republic share island of
    Hispanola
  • Haiti supports 620 people per square mile
  • The Dominican Republic has only 440 people per
    square mile
  • Government restrictions on migration into the
    Dominican Repluc make migration form Haiti
    difficult
  • If Hispanola were one country its population
    would be more evenly distributed

40
Haiti-Dominican Republic
41
Political factors
  • All cultures have laws based in the political
    system to maintain order within society
  • Laws, especially those concerning inheritance,
    can affect population density
  • In Europe, the code derived from Roman law
    requires that all heirs divide the land and other
    property equally. Farms fragment as generations
    pass. Rural population density increases
  • In Germany, primogeniture is favored
    inheritance of all land passes to the firstborn
    son. But in south Roman law was practiced and
    severe rural overpopulation occurred in
    mid-nineteenth century

42
Economic factors
  • In the past 200 years, industrialization has
    caused the greatest voluntary migration in world
    history as people have clustered in manufacturing
    regions
  • Agricultural changes can have a similar effect
    with less impact on population distribution

43
Economic factor
  • Mechanization of cotton and wheat cultivation in
    20th century America
  • Allowed crops to be raised by a much smaller
    labor force
  • Resulted in profound depopulation
  • Many small towns ceased to exist

44
Cultural integration
  • Research often produces negative results that are
    enlightening
  • Experts long assumed vegetarianism in India,
    based on Hindu belief, led to protein deficiency,
    malnutrition, and resultant health problems
  • Study revealed no spatial correlation between
    vegetarians and consumption of animal protein
  • Nonvegetarians also eat little or no meat
  • Greatest protein deficiency occurs in areas where
    rice, rather than wheat bread accounts for the
    greater part of cereal consumption

45
Malnutrition in India
46
Gender and geodemography
  • Gender frequently interacts with other factors to
    influence geodemographic patterns and migrations
  • Women from specific countries are viewed as
    desirable immigrants
  • 19th century Irish females often found work as
    domestic servants

47
Gender and geodemography
  • James Tyner studied Philippine migration
  • Female entertainers made up 95 of migrants to
    Japan
  • In part poverty provided the push factor
  • Pull factor Japanese males see Filipinas as
    highly desirable, exotic sex objects
  • Japenese males also see Filipinas as culturally
    inferior and willing victims

48
Gender and geodemography
  • Migration for purposes of marriage India
  • Parts of rural north and west India there is a
    tradition of marriage taking place between
    persons from different villages. Women move to
    their husbands village. 1/5th or fewer live in
    the village of their birth
  • South, west, and far north Kashmir females are
    far less likely to marry outside their village.
    Some parts of India have matrilineal societies.
    Even in patrilineal south communitie.s marriage
    within villages prevails. Marriage migration is
    uncommon

49
Marriage migration India
50
The settlement landscape
  • Farm villages
  • Where many farming people group themselves
    together in clustered villages
  • Nucleated settlements fro a few dozen to several
    thousand inhabitants
  • In the village, farmstead are the house, barn,
    sheds, pens, and garden
  • Fields, pastures and meadows lie out in the
    country

51
The settlement landscape
  • Farm villages
  • Farmers journey out from villages each day to
    work the land
  • Most common form of settlement in
  • Much of Europe
  • Many parts of Latin America
  • Densely settled farming regions in India, China,
    Japan, Africa and Middle East
  • Most are irregular clusterings developed
    spontaneously over the centuries

52
Clustered farm village
53
Val Tavetsch, Switzerland
  • This is a clustered or nucleated settlement in a
    glaciated region of the Swiss Alps.
  • The importance of religion is suggested by the
    central position of the Protestant church, the
    tallest structure.
  • Farmers live in the village and journey to and
    from their fields as needed.

54
Val Tavetsch, Switzerland
  • The main crops are hay and other feeds for dairy
    herds thar are grazing in alpine pastures for the
    summer.
  • Feed crops are mowed and stored for winter in
    barns beneath peoples living quarters or in
    outlying storage buildings high on the slopes.

55
Semiclustered row village
56
Inner Mongolia, China
  • This Chinese-Mongol linear settlement is situated
    in the context of feng-shui considerations.
  • Proper orientation dictates back to the north
    and face to the south.
  • The dryer slope is facing south.
  • Correct placement also calls for mountains behind
    and a stream in the front.
  • The straw pile is from wheat which is threshed by
    human and animal power.
  • Horses, sheep and pigs are also raise here.
  • Coal for fuel is delivered by truckload.

57
Farm villages
58
The settlement landscape
  • Other types are very regular in their layout and
    reveal a planned design
  • The street village is the simplest of the planned
    types
  • Farmsteads grouped along both sides of a single
    central street
  • Produce an elongated settlement
  • Particularly common in Eastern Europe including
    much of Russia

59
Street village
60
The settlement landscape
  • Green villages farmsteads grouped around a
    central open place, or green, which forms a
    common
  • Occur on the plains areas of northern and
    northwestern Europe
  • English immigrant laid out some in colonial New
    England

61
The settlement landscape
  • Checkerboard village based on a gridiron
    pattern of streets meeting at right angles
  • Found in the layout of Utahs Mormon villages
  • Dominate most of rural Latin America and
    northeastern China

62
The settlement landscape
  • Why farm people huddle together in villages
  • Defense countryside was threatened by roving
    bands of outlaws and raiders
  • Villages grew larger in times of insecurity then
    shrunk during peaceful times
  • In deserts and limestone areas ground absorbs
    moisture quickly, so farmsteads huddled at good
    water sources
  • In marshes, swamps, and areas subject to floods
    people settle on available high ground

63
The settlement landscape
  • Various communal ties bind villagers together
  • Blood relationships
  • Religious customs like Mormon clustered villages
    in Utah
  • Communal or state ownership of land China and
    Israel
  • Closely knit villagers usually depend on crops
    for their livelihood
  • Tillage requires less land than stock raising
  • Villagers do not have to travel far distances
    from farmstead to field

64
The settlement landscape
  • Isolated farmsteads
  • Found mainly in Anglo-America, Australia, New
    Zealand, and South Africa
  • Most are in lands colonized by emigrating
    Europeans
  • Some appear in Japan, Europe, and parts of India

65
Isolated farmstead
66
The settlement landscape
  • Isolated farmsteads
  • Reasons for isolated farmstead development
  • Removal of the need for defense
  • Colonization by individual pioneer families
    rather than socially cohesive groups
  • Agricultural private enterprise as opposed to a
    form of communalism
  • Rural economies dominated by livestock raising
  • Well drained land where water is readily
    available
  • Most date from colonization of new farmland in
    the last two or three centuries

67
The settlement landscape
  • Semiclustered rural settlement
  • Share characteristics of both clustered and
    dispersed types
  • Hamlet the most common kind, consists of a
    small number of farmsteads grouped loosely
    together
  • Farmsteads lie in a settlement nucleus separate
    from the cropland
  • Smaller and less compact, containing as few as 3
    or 4 houses
  • Occur most often in poorer hill districts
  • Common in parts of western Europe, China, India,
    the Philippines, and Vietnam

68
Irregular clustered village
69
Irregular clustered village
70
The settlement landscape
  • Irregular village several hamlets lying close
    to one another share a common name
  • Often linked to various clans or religious groups
  • Most comon in southeastern Europe, Malaya,
    Bangladesh, southern Japan, India
  • A deliberate segregation of inhabitants, either
    voluntary or involuntary
  • Indias farmers of the untouchable cast are
    occasionally segregated

71
The settlement landscape
  • Row village a loose chain of farmsteads spaced
    at intervals along a road, river or canal, often
    extending for many miles
  • Appear in the hills and marshlands of central and
    northwestern Europe
  • Also found in French-settled portions of North
    America Quebec and Louisiana
  • Cajun row villages are found along Bayou
    Lafourche in Louisiana
  • Dwellings are so close to one another that a
    baseball could be thrown from house to house for
    more than a hundred miles

72
Reading the cultural landscape
  • Rural settlement forms provide a chance to read
    the cultural landscape, but we must look for the
    subtle too, and not jump to conclusions
  • Maya Indians of Yucatan peninsula in Mexico

73
Reading the cultural landscape
  • Reside in checkerboard villages
  • Before Spanish conquest, Mayas lived in templed
    wet-point villages of irregular clustered type
  • Villages located along cenotes natural
    sinkholes providing water in a land with no
    surface streams

74
Reading the cultural landscape
  • Spanish destroyed original settlements replacing
    them with checkerboard villages to accommodate
    wheeled vehicles
  • A close look reveals the prevalence of Mayan ways
    with a casual distribution of dwellings

75
Reading the cultural landscape
  • Spanish influenced architecture remains confined
    to areas near the central plaza
  • Flat-roofed houses of stone
  • Town hall, church, and a hacienda mansion

76
Reading the cultural landscape
  • Indian influence increases markedly with distance
    from the plaza
  • Traditional Maya pole huts with thatched, hipped
    roofs
  • Separate cook houses of the same design
  • Doorway gardens surrounding each hut contain
    traditional Indian plants
  • Yards are ringed with traditionally dry rock
    walls where pigs share the ground with turkeys
  • Many still speak the Mayan language
  • Though Catholicism prevails, the absence of huts
    around the cenote suggest a lingering pagan
    sanctity

77
Conclusions
  • Humankind unevenly distributed across the Earth
  • Spatial variations in demographics depicted as
    cultural regions
  • Use of cultural diffusion in analyzing human
    migration, spread of birth-control, and diseases

78
Conclusions
  • Viewpoint of cultural ecology
  • How environment and peoples perception of it
    influence human distribution
  • Population density linked to level of environment
    alteration
  • Overpopulations destructive impact on the
    environment
  • Use of cultural integration to suggest how
    demography and mobility are linked
  • Cultural attitudes can encourage people to be
    mobile or stay in one place
  • Spatial variation in demographic traits are
    enmeshed in the fabric of future
  • The cultural landscape expresses how people
    distribute themselves across Earths surface
About PowerShow.com