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Differentiation Instruction & Strategies to Support it!


Presenter: Melanie Bailey-Bird Program Specialist- LVJUSD December 2008 Part I Accommodation Highlights What s the Difference? Choosing Accommodations Accommodation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Differentiation Instruction & Strategies to Support it!

Differentiation Instruction Strategies to
Support it!
  • Presenter Melanie Bailey-Bird
  • Program Specialist- LVJUSD
  • December 2008
  • Part I

Differentiation Instruction (DI)
What is Differentiated Instruction?
  • To differentiate instruction is to RECOGNIZE
    students varying background knowledge, readiness,
    language, preferences in learning, interests, and
    to react responsively.
  • It is a PROCESS to approach teaching and learning
    for students of differing abilities in the same
  • The intent of differentiating instruction is to
    MAXIMIZE each students growth and
    individual success by meeting each
    student where he or she is, and assisting
    in the learning process.

Differentiation Instruction (DI)
  • IS
  • NOT
  • Student Centered
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Learning Styles
  • Blend of Whole-Class, Group and Individual
  • Flexible and Responsive
  • Learners of Multiple Abilities CAN BE Educated
  • Individualized Instruction
  • Different Reading Assignments
  • Taught Skill Practice
  • Tailoring the Same Suit of Clothes
  • One-Size-Fits-All Instruction Does NOT Reach All

Differentiation Instruction (DI)
Universal Design to DIBased on Student
Readiness, Interest Learning Profile
  • 1. Content
  • 2. Process
  • 3. Products
  • 4. Learning Environment

Learning Cycle Decision Factors Used in
Planning and Implementing Differentiated

Content How can he/she access the
information?How do we Plan?
  • How to?
  • Examples
  • Determine the Ability Level of Your Students
  • Survey Past Records, Look at Their Cums
  • Align Tasks and Objectives to Learning Goals
  • Survey Student Interests
  • Interest Inventories, Interview/Conference,
    Respond to Open-Ended Questionnaire with
  • What are Your Students Multiple Intelligences
    Learning Styles?
  • What are Your Students Preferences and
  • Instruction is Concept-Focused and
  • Brain-Based Research
  • Know YOUR Students
  • Use Reading Materials at Varying Readability
  • Put Text Materials on Tape
  • Use Spelling/Vocab. Tests at Readiness Levels of
  • Use Reading Buddies
  • Meet with Small Groups to Re-Teach an Idea or
    Skill for Struggling Learners, or Extend the

How Do We Plan?
  • Determine a Focus Area
  • Based on Research
  • Four Ts
  • Teaching Objective
  • Target
  • Blooms Taxonomy
  • Text/Materials
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Learner Engagement
  • Effective Presentations
  • Learning Environment
  • All GOOD Instruction Must Have
  • Active Engagement
  • Reading Writing Strategies
  • Address the Auditory, Kinesthetic, Visual
    Tactile Learners
  • Address Multiple Intelligences
  • Be Developmentally Appropriate

Do YOU Wing It? teaching.mrbelshaw.co.uk
(Or) Do YOU Plan it!
Planning PyramidFramework for Planning for
Diverse Student Needs a Tool for Planning for
  • The Five Points, or axes, of the Pyramid,
    Represent the Factors Teachers Consider When
    Planning Any Lesson
  • Topic
  • Students
  • Classroom Context
  • Teacher
  • Appropriate Instructional Practices
  • See Handout, or Online at Teachervision.fen.com
  • After You Reflected About the Points of
  • Teachers Determine What Will Be Taught? How?
  • 1. At the Base of the Pyramid
  • What all students will learn?
  • - Indentify Instructional
  • Practices Adaptations
  • 2. Middle of the Pyramid
  • What Most, But Not All, Students Will Learn?
  • 3. Top of Pyramid
  • What Some Students Will Learn?

Learning Cycle Decision Factors Used in
Planning and Implementing Differentiated

ProcessHow to process information, organize,
storeretrieve apply information?
  • How to?
  • Examples
  • Flexible Grouping is Consistently Used
  • Groupings are Not Fixed, and Should Be Dynamic in
  • Teach Whole Class Introductory Discussions ,then
    Follow with Small Group (or) Pair Work.
  • Direct Instruction
  • Inquiry-Based Learning
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Classroom Management Benefits Students and
  • Organization Routines
  • Use Tiered Activities
  • Provide Interest Centers
  • Develop Personal Agendas for Completion of Work
  • Manipulatives (or) Hands on Supports
  • Varying the Length of Time
  • Memorization
  • KWL
  • Reciprocal teaching
  • Graphic organizing
  • Scaffolding
  • Webbing
  • Self Talk
  • WebQuests
  • Guided Notes

Learning Cycle Decision Factors Used in
Planning and Implementing Differentiated

ProductsCulminating projects that ask the
student to rehearse, apply, and extend what
he/she has learned in a unit
  • How to?
  • Examples
  • Initial On-Going Assessment of Student
    Readiness Growth are Essential
  • Authentic Assessment
  • Students are Active Responsible Explorers
  • Vary Expectations Requirements for Student
  • Consider each Students Multiple Intelligences
    Learning Styles Based on Outcomes
  • Give Students Options of How to Express Required
  • Create a Puppet Show, Write a Letter, Develop
    Mural with Labels
  • Use Rubrics that Match Students Varied Skill
  • RubiStar.com
  • Allow Students to Work Alone (or) in Small Groups
  • Performance -Based Assessment
  • Student Portfolios
  • Knowledge Mapping

Learning Cycle Decision Factors Used in
Planning and Implementing Differentiated

Learning EnvironmentsThe way the classroom works
and feels
  • How to?
  • Examples
  • How the Classroom is Organized?
  • Classroom Behavior Management System is in Place
  • Procedures
  • Consequences
  • Positive Interventions
  • Places in Room Free of Distractions, and Places
    that Invite Student Collaboration
  • Materials that Reflect a Variety of Cultures
    Home Settings
  • Clear Guidelines for Independent Work
  • Develop Routines
  • Students Understand Differences of Learners

Possibilities for DI, What do YOU Consider?
Possibilities for Differentiation
Decisions About Student Characteristics

The 4 Key Areas
1. 2. 3. 4.
Differentiation Instruction Strategies to
Support it!
  • Presenter Melanie Bailey-Bird
  • Program Specialist- LVJUSD
  • December 2008
  • Part II

Differentiation Instruction (DI)
10 Tips for Differentiation
  • Eduscapes.com
  • Meaningfulness
  • Currency
  • Practice
  • Reading Level
  • Authenticity
  • Active Participation
  • Experiences
  • Motivation
  • Realism
  • Challenge

  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Students Need Work to Be Meaningful
  • Real Life
  • Interests
  • Learning Styles
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Without Meaning, Some Students Become Distracted
    and Others Mediocre Work.
  • This is Where Behavior Problems Begin to Arise.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Utilize WebQuests
  • Create it by Using Microsoft Word/ Powerpoint
    Through Your Website Online, or on a Disk
  • A lot of Created WebQuests Online, Find One that
    Will Teach Your Content
  • Use PowerPoint as a Tool to Present Lessons
  • Use Pictures and Sounds to Make It More
  • Have Students Create Their Own Stories on
  • Have students use Microsoft Publisher and Create
    Their Own Brochures (or) Create Newsletters on a
    Specific Topic

  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Some Students are Drawn to Activities that
    Connect to Local (or) World Events
  • Students will Excel When Working with Real,
    Current Events, and Activities
  • Provide Students with Choices That Relate to
    Individual Interests, while Still Connecting to
    Current Information and Ideas.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Design Activities from Certain Sections of News
  • Focus on Visuals, for Writing Prompts.
  • Good Sources
  • News2you.com
  • Discover
  • Kidsnewsroom.org
  • National Geographic Kids
  • News Hour Extra from PBS
  • Time for Kids
  • Weekly Reader (grade prK-6)
  • Washington Post for Kids
  • Consider Different Reading Levels

  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Some Students Do Well With a Brief Overview of a
    Topic, and a Single Example.
  • Other Students Need Lots of Practice.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Create a List of Interactive Activities Students
    Can Use to Practice (or) Review Specific Skills
  • FunBrain
  • National Geographic Games
  • Yahooligans Games
  • Discovery School Brain Booster
  • Use Resources Online for Practice
  • bbctype
  • Starfall.com
  • Raz-kids.com
  • Softschools.com
  • Factdash.com
  • News2you.com
  • Design a Word Document that Uses the
    High-Interest Content
  • Yahooligans Music, Movies, Book Club
  • Scholastic News Entertainment
  • Sports Illustrated for Kids
  • How Stuff Works

Reading Level
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • In Most Classrooms, Students Read at a Wide
    Range of Reading Levels.
  • Be Sure That Youre Selecting Resources for a
    Variety of Levels.
  • Look for Websites that Provide Leveled Reading
  • eduscapes.com
  • Create an Activity and Provide Online Readings at
    3 Different Reading Levels
  • News2you.com
  • Starfall.com
  • Readinga-z.com
  • Raz-kids.com
  • Enchantedlearning.com
  • Edhelper.com
  • Rosetta Stone

  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Students Enjoy Working with Real Facts, Numbers,
    and Documents.
  • Rather than Watered Down Resources Found in
    Workbooks, Look for the Real Thing Online.
  • Use Real World Data
  • eduscapes.com
  • Locate a Photograph, Document, (or) Piece of Data
    that Would Bring a Classroom Topic to Life.
  • Some Good Sites
  • American Memories Learning Page
  • National Archives Classroom
  • Stevens Institute
  • Teacher Tap

Active Participation
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Students Need to Be Active
  • Many Students are Motivated by Interactive
    Resources that Ask Them to Create, Build, Design
    or Make Decisions.
  • They Also Like to Make Decisions and Participate
    in Polls and Surveys.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Online and Offline Tools
  • Inspiration
  • Timeliner
  • Timeline builder
  • KidPix
  • Powerpoint
  • Microsoft Publisher
  • Create a Graph
  • Teacher Tap Interactive Websites
  • Teacher made WebQuests

  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Use Virtual Field Trips, When You Cant Take
    Them to Far Off Places.
  • Remember Some Students Lack Basic Experiences
    such as Visiting a City (or) a Farm.
  • Use the Internet to Help Students Make a
    Connection and Develop Prior Knowledge.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Streaming.discoveryeducation.com
  • Homework Spot Field Trip
  • JASON Project
  • Journey North
  • Museum Spot
  • Teacher Tap Field Trips and Museums
  • Google Earth

  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Some Students Need Motivation to Write, Draw, or
    Express themselves in Other Ways.
  • Sometimes Technology Can Provide Motivating Tools
  • eduscapes.com
  • Ecards
  • Jan Brett
  • Enature cards
  • Teacher Tap Electronic Postcard
  • Starfall.com
  • Microsoft Publisher
  • Newsletter
  • Brochure
  • Flyer
  • Microsoft PowerPoint
  • Create stories using animation and sounds

  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Students Enjoy Sharing Their Ideas With a
    Real-World Audience.
  • Explore Ways to Provide Connections for
  • eduscapes.com
  • Locate a Class and Write Emails to the Class (or)
    Assign for Homework
  • Online Projects
  • KidsLearn
  • ePals
  • Kids Space Connection
  • Tiggly Wigglys Pen Pal List

  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Some Students Need a Challenge.
  • Ask Students to Think!
  • Such as
  • Evaluating
  • Critiquing
  • Creating.
  • Design an Activity that Involves Students in
    Critiquing Books Reviews (or) Websites created by
    Other Students.
  • Book Review Sites
  • Think Quest Projects

DI Tips I Will Apply in my Teaching
Differentiation Instruction (DI)
Accommodation Highlights
  • Whats the Difference?
  • Choosing Accommodations
  • Accommodation to Modification
  • Instructional Tools
  • Presentation Instructional Accommodation
  • Response Instructional Accommodation
  • Time Scheduling
  • Setting Instructional Accommodations

Whats the Difference?Accommodation Vs.
  • Makes the Work Accessible, but Doesnt
    Substantially Change the Work
  • Graded on Work Assigned Using Grade Level
  • Example
  • Testing in a Quiet Room
  • Reading Directions Aloud
  • Reduce Amount of Work
  • Not Counting Spelling Errors
  • Subject Matter is Substantially Changed by Being
    Significantly Below Grade Level (or) for
    Testing-Changing What the Test Measures
  • Grades Based on Students Progress Towards IEP
  • Pass/Fail Grades
  • Modified Program
  • Examples
  • Have Text Read to Student
  • Allow Oral Responses to a Writing Test

Choosing Accommodations
  • Start with standards
  • Examine Students Strengths and Challenges
  • What Kind of Instructional Strategies Work Best
    (e.g., visual, tactile, auditory)
  • What Learning Strategies will Help Student
    Overcome Challenges?
  • Increase Access to Instruction Assessment
  • What Has Been Tried in the Past?
  • What Works in What Situations?
  • What Does Student Prefer?
  • Practice Tests
  • What are the Challenges of Providing
  • Is it Allowed on State District Assessments?
  • What Arrangements Need to be Made to Make Sure
    Students Preferred Accommodation can be
    Accommodated on Assessment Situations?
  • Student Self-Advocate Needs?

When to consider Accommodation to Modification
  • What Grade Level Standards?
  • With Accommodations, What Standards will the
    Student NOT be able to Meet?
  • Will Changes in Expectation Affect a Students
    Performance on State Assessments?
  • How will it Affect Your Students Ability to
    Participate in the General Ed. Curriculum in the
  • Will Your Student Fall Further Behind because of
    Missed Opportunities to Learn Grade Level
  • What Other Strategies/ Accommodations Could be
    Used on Grade Level Content/Assessments?

Accommodation Categories
  • Instructional Tools
  • Presentation Instructional Accommodation
  • Response Instructional Accommodation
  • Time Scheduling
  • Setting Instructional Accommodations

Presentation Instructional Accommodation
  • What is It?
  • Who Benefits?
  • Allow Students to Access Instruction in Ways that
    DO NOT Require Them to Visually Read Standard
  • Students with
  • Print Disabilities
  • Inability to Read Standard Print Because of
  • Physical
  • Sensory
  • Cognitive Disability

How to Use It?Presentation Instructional
  • Visual
  • Large Print
  • Magnification Devices
  • Enlarged Computer Monitors
  • Closed Circuit TV
  • Visual Cues
  • Teacher Face
  • Pass Out Printed Material Before Class
  • Repeat Questions Asked by Students
  • Summarize Class Discussion
  • Sign Language
  • Written Notes, Outlines, Instructions
  • Use Another Students Notes
  • Teachers Print Copy
  • Tactile
  • Braille
  • Nemeth Code
  • Tactile Graphics
  • Maps, Diagrams, Illustrations, Charts that are
    Raised Format
  • Auditory
  • Human Reader
  • Audio Tape
  • Books on Tape
  • Compact Disc
  • Audio Amplification Devices
  • Visual Auditory
  • Screen Reader
  • Video Tape Descriptive Video
  • Talking Materials

Response Instructional Accommodation
  • What is it?
  • Who Benefits?
  • Allow Students to Complete Tasks in Different
    Ways , to Solve, or Organize Problems
  • Uses
  • Assistive Device
  • Organizer
  • Students with Physical, Sensory, or Learning
    Disabilities (e.g., Memory, Sequencing,
    Directionality, Alignment, Organization)

How to Use It?Response Instructional
  • Materials /Devices to Solve or Organize Responses
  • Calculation Devices
  • Spelling Grammar Assistive Devices
  • Pocket Spell Checkers
  • Dictionary
  • Visual Organizers
  • Templates
  • Highlighters
  • Graph Paper
  • Place Markers
  • Photocopy Part of Text- Allow Student to
    Highlight and Write in Margin
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Used to Help Organize Information
  • Semantic Mapping Software Inspiration
  • Type on Brailler (similar to typewriter/computer)
  • Portable Note-Taking Devices
  • Speak into Tape Recorder
  • Used to Complete Tasks Orally w/o Written Work
  • Write in Text or Test Booklet Instead of on
    Answer Sheet (e.g. bubble sheet)
  • Monitor Placement of Student Response on Answer
  • Express Response to a Scribe through Speech, Sign
    Language, Pointing, or by Using an Assistive
    Communication Device
  • Type on (or) Speak to Word Processor
  • Speech-to-Text Conversion
  • Voice Recognition
  • Touch Screen
  • Sticky Keys
  • Mouth or Headstick (Pointing Devices)

Time Scheduling
  • What is it?
  • Who Benefits?
  • It Changes the Allowable Length of Time to
    Complete Assignments, Tests, Activities the Way
    Time is Organized
  • Students Who Needs More Time to Complete a Task
  • Extra Time to Process Written Text
  • To Write (Student with Limited Dexterity)
  • Use Other Accommodations or Equipment (Audio
    tape, Scribe, or Assistive Technology)

How to Use it?Time Scheduling
  • Extended Time
  • Keep in Mind Disability, Type of Assignment,
  • Unlimited Time is not Appropriate or Feasible
  • Used to Reduce Anxiety
  • Too Much Time Lose Interest Motivation
  • Multiple (or) Frequent Breaks
  • Be Given at Predetermined Intervals (or) After
    Completion of Task
  • Use Timers to Signal End of Break
  • Change Schedule (or) Order of Activities
  • Schedule Work at Students Peak Performance
    During the Day
  • Divide Long Term Assignments
  • Create BIG Task Assignments into Smaller Chunks
  • Reduces Anxiety Fatigue
  • Helps Student Organize Work
  • Provide 2 Sets of Books for Home School

Setting Instructional Accommodations
  • What is it?
  • Who Benefits?
  • It Changes the Location in Which a Student
    Receives Instruction (or) the Conditions of an
    Instructional Setting.
  • Students Who are Easily Distracted in Large Group
  • Students who Need Small Group (or) Individual
  • Change in Location for Students Who Need Frequent
  • Students with Physical Disabilities Who Need a
    More Accessible Location (or) Specific Room

How to Use it?Setting Instructional
  • Change Location to Reduce Distractions
  • Sit near Teacher
  • Sit in front of Classroom
  • Dont sit Near Pencil Sharpeners, Windows, Door
  • Study Carrels
  • Noise Buffers Headphones, Earplugs
  • Change Location so Student Does Not Distract
  • Allows Opportunity to Read and Think out Loud
  • Reader Scribe
  • Involuntary Make Noises
  • Change Location to Increase Physical Access
  • Wheelchair with Specially Designed Tabletop
  • Keep Aisles Cleared
  • Dont Leave Cupboards and Doors Open
  • Guide Dog
  • Home Hospital
  • Change Location to Access Special Equipment
  • Computer Lab
  • Adaptive Equipment or Furniture
  • Standing Work Station

The KEY to DIHigh Quality Curriculum
  • Clarify Key Concepts Generalizations for ALL
  • Ensure Comprehension
  • Tap into Prior Knowledge
  • Use Assessment as a Teaching Tool to Extend vs.
    Merely Measure Instruction
  • Collect Pre Post Baseline Data for Optimal
  • Emphasize Critical Creative Thinking as a GOAL
    in Lesson Design
  • Tasks Should Require Students to Apply Meaning
  • Engage ALL Learners
  • Mix up your Activities throughout a Period
  • Joy Satisfaction
  • Provide a Balance Between Teacher-assigned
    Student-selected Tasks
  • Allow Student Choices

Best Way to Begin
  • Frequently Reflect on the Match Between Your
    Classroom Your Philosophy of Teaching
  • Look for Matches Mismatches to Guide You
  • Create a Mental Image of what You Want Your
    Classroom to Look Like
  • Use the Image to Start Planning Assess Changes
  • Talk Often with Your Students About the Classroom
  • How its working.
  • Think Carefully About Management Routines
  • Monitor Effectiveness
  • Take Time Off from Change to Regain Your Energy
  • Enjoy Your Growth!!

  • Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated Instruction.
    Wakefield, MA National Center on Accessing the
    General Curriculum. Retrieved October 22, 2008,
    from http//www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac.di
  • Heibeck, T. (2008). How to use multiple
    intelligences to reach every child. Retrieved
    November 1, 2008 from http//www.teachervision.fen
  • Kozleski, E. (2003). Guidelines that make
    differentiation possible for teachers to attain.
    Retrieved November 1, 2008 from,
  • Lamb, A. (2003). Ten Tips for Differentiation.
    Eduscapes. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from
  • Nunley, K. (2008). Layered Curriculum. Retrieved
    November 1, 2008, from http//help4teachers.com/
  • Robinson, S. (2005). Instructional Tools Related
    to Universal Design for Learning. KS Special
    Connections. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from

References continue-
Teachervision (2008). Structuring Lessons to
Promote Learning from Materials.
Partnership with Council for Exceptional
Children. Retrieved, November 1, 2008
from, httpwww.teachervision.fen.com/curriculum-
planning/learning-disablilities/6731.html? T
eachnology. (2007). How to Differentiate
Instruction. Retrieved November 1, 2008,
from http//www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/teachin
g/ differentiate/print.htm Thompson, S.
(2005). Instructional Tools Related to
Instructional Accommodations. KS Special
Connections. Retrieved November 1, 2008,
from http//www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/
cgiwrap/ specconn/main.php?catinstruction
Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiation of
Instruction in the Elementary Grades.
Retrieved October 1, 2008, from
elementary.html Tomlinson, C. (2000). Educational
Leadership, 58, 6-11, Retrieved October 1,
2008, from http//www.jamesviledewitt.orgtfiles/
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