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Differentiation Instruction & Strategies to Support it!

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Title: Differentiation Instruction & Strategies to Support it!


1
Differentiation Instruction Strategies to
Support it!
  • Presenter Melanie Bailey-Bird
  • Program Specialist- LVJUSD
  • December 2008
  • Part I

2
Differentiation Instruction (DI)
1
3
What is Differentiated Instruction?
  • To differentiate instruction is to RECOGNIZE
    students varying background knowledge, readiness,
    language, preferences in learning, interests, and
    to react responsively.
  • It is a PROCESS to approach teaching and learning
    for students of differing abilities in the same
    class.
  • The intent of differentiating instruction is to
    MAXIMIZE each students growth and
    individual success by meeting each
    student where he or she is, and assisting
    in the learning process.

Yeah!
4
Differentiation Instruction (DI)
  • IS
  • NOT
  • Student Centered
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Learning Styles
  • Blend of Whole-Class, Group and Individual
    Instruction
  • Flexible and Responsive
  • Learners of Multiple Abilities CAN BE Educated
    Together
  • PROACTIVE
  • Individualized Instruction
  • Different Reading Assignments
  • Taught Skill Practice
  • Tailoring the Same Suit of Clothes
  • One-Size-Fits-All Instruction Does NOT Reach All
    Learners

5
Differentiation Instruction (DI)
2
6
Universal Design to DIBased on Student
Readiness, Interest Learning Profile
  • 1. Content
  • 2. Process
  • 3. Products
  • 4. Learning Environment

7
Learning Cycle Decision Factors Used in
Planning and Implementing Differentiated
Instruction

8
Content How can he/she access the
information?How do we Plan?
  • How to?
  • Examples
  • Determine the Ability Level of Your Students
  • Survey Past Records, Look at Their Cums
  • Align Tasks and Objectives to Learning Goals
  • Survey Student Interests
  • Interest Inventories, Interview/Conference,
    Respond to Open-Ended Questionnaire with
    Questions
  • What are Your Students Multiple Intelligences
    Learning Styles?
  • What are Your Students Preferences and
    Motivators?
  • Instruction is Concept-Focused and
    Principle-Driven
  • Brain-Based Research
  • Know YOUR Students
  • Use Reading Materials at Varying Readability
    Levels
  • Put Text Materials on Tape
  • Use Spelling/Vocab. Tests at Readiness Levels of
    Students
  • Use Reading Buddies
  • Meet with Small Groups to Re-Teach an Idea or
    Skill for Struggling Learners, or Extend the
    Learning

9
How Do We Plan?
  • Determine a Focus Area
  • Based on Research
  • Four Ts
  • Teaching Objective
  • Target
  • Blooms Taxonomy
  • Text/Materials
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Learner Engagement
  • Effective Presentations
  • Learning Environment
  • All GOOD Instruction Must Have
  • Active Engagement
  • Reading Writing Strategies
  • Address the Auditory, Kinesthetic, Visual
    Tactile Learners
  • Address Multiple Intelligences
  • Be Developmentally Appropriate

10
Do YOU Wing It? teaching.mrbelshaw.co.uk
(Or) Do YOU Plan it!
11
Planning PyramidFramework for Planning for
Diverse Student Needs a Tool for Planning for
DI
  • The Five Points, or axes, of the Pyramid,
    Represent the Factors Teachers Consider When
    Planning Any Lesson
  • Topic
  • Students
  • Classroom Context
  • Teacher
  • Appropriate Instructional Practices
  • See Handout, or Online at Teachervision.fen.com
  • After You Reflected About the Points of
    Entry
  • Teachers Determine What Will Be Taught? How?
  • 1. At the Base of the Pyramid
  • What all students will learn?
  • - Indentify Instructional
  • Practices Adaptations
  • 2. Middle of the Pyramid
  • What Most, But Not All, Students Will Learn?
  • 3. Top of Pyramid
  • What Some Students Will Learn?

12
Learning Cycle Decision Factors Used in
Planning and Implementing Differentiated
Instruction

13
ProcessHow to process information, organize,
storeretrieve apply information?
  • How to?
  • Examples
  • Flexible Grouping is Consistently Used
  • Groupings are Not Fixed, and Should Be Dynamic in
    Process
  • Teach Whole Class Introductory Discussions ,then
    Follow with Small Group (or) Pair Work.
  • Direct Instruction
  • Inquiry-Based Learning
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Classroom Management Benefits Students and
    Teachers
  • Organization Routines
  • Use Tiered Activities
  • Provide Interest Centers
  • Develop Personal Agendas for Completion of Work
  • Manipulatives (or) Hands on Supports
  • Varying the Length of Time
  • Memorization
  • KWL
  • Reciprocal teaching
  • Graphic organizing
  • Scaffolding
  • Webbing
  • Self Talk
  • WebQuests
  • Guided Notes

14
Learning Cycle Decision Factors Used in
Planning and Implementing Differentiated
Instruction

15
ProductsCulminating projects that ask the
student to rehearse, apply, and extend what
he/she has learned in a unit
  • How to?
  • Examples
  • Initial On-Going Assessment of Student
    Readiness Growth are Essential
  • Authentic Assessment
  • Students are Active Responsible Explorers
  • Vary Expectations Requirements for Student
    Responses
  • Consider each Students Multiple Intelligences
    Learning Styles Based on Outcomes
  • Give Students Options of How to Express Required
    Learning
  • Create a Puppet Show, Write a Letter, Develop
    Mural with Labels
  • Use Rubrics that Match Students Varied Skill
    Level
  • RubiStar.com
  • Allow Students to Work Alone (or) in Small Groups
  • Performance -Based Assessment
  • Student Portfolios
  • Knowledge Mapping

16
Learning Cycle Decision Factors Used in
Planning and Implementing Differentiated
Instruction

17
Learning EnvironmentsThe way the classroom works
and feels
  • How to?
  • Examples
  • How the Classroom is Organized?
  • Classroom Behavior Management System is in Place
  • Procedures
  • Consequences
  • Positive Interventions
  • Places in Room Free of Distractions, and Places
    that Invite Student Collaboration
  • Materials that Reflect a Variety of Cultures
    Home Settings
  • Clear Guidelines for Independent Work
  • Develop Routines
  • Students Understand Differences of Learners

18
Possibilities for DI, What do YOU Consider?
Possibilities for Differentiation
Decisions About Student Characteristics

Pre-Assessment
The 4 Key Areas
1. 2. 3. 4.
Why?
19
Differentiation Instruction Strategies to
Support it!
  • Presenter Melanie Bailey-Bird
  • Program Specialist- LVJUSD
  • December 2008
  • Part II

20
Differentiation Instruction (DI)
3
21
10 Tips for Differentiation
  • Eduscapes.com
  • Meaningfulness
  • Currency
  • Practice
  • Reading Level
  • Authenticity
  • Active Participation
  • Experiences
  • Motivation
  • Realism
  • Challenge

22
Meaningfulness
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Students Need Work to Be Meaningful
  • Real Life
  • Interests
  • Learning Styles
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Without Meaning, Some Students Become Distracted
    and Others Mediocre Work.
  • This is Where Behavior Problems Begin to Arise.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Utilize WebQuests
  • Create it by Using Microsoft Word/ Powerpoint
    Through Your Website Online, or on a Disk
  • A lot of Created WebQuests Online, Find One that
    Will Teach Your Content
  • Use PowerPoint as a Tool to Present Lessons
  • Use Pictures and Sounds to Make It More
    Interesting
  • Have Students Create Their Own Stories on
    PowerPoint
  • Have students use Microsoft Publisher and Create
    Their Own Brochures (or) Create Newsletters on a
    Specific Topic

23
Currency
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Some Students are Drawn to Activities that
    Connect to Local (or) World Events
  • Students will Excel When Working with Real,
    Current Events, and Activities
  • Provide Students with Choices That Relate to
    Individual Interests, while Still Connecting to
    Current Information and Ideas.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Design Activities from Certain Sections of News
    Articles.
  • Focus on Visuals, for Writing Prompts.
  • Good Sources
  • News2you.com
  • Discover
  • Kidsnewsroom.org
  • National Geographic Kids
  • News Hour Extra from PBS
  • Time for Kids
  • Weekly Reader (grade prK-6)
  • Washington Post for Kids
  • Consider Different Reading Levels

24
Practice
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Some Students Do Well With a Brief Overview of a
    Topic, and a Single Example.
  • Other Students Need Lots of Practice.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Create a List of Interactive Activities Students
    Can Use to Practice (or) Review Specific Skills
  • FunBrain
  • National Geographic Games
  • Yahooligans Games
  • Discovery School Brain Booster
  • Use Resources Online for Practice
  • bbctype
  • Starfall.com
  • Raz-kids.com
  • Softschools.com
  • Factdash.com
  • News2you.com
  • Design a Word Document that Uses the
    High-Interest Content
  • Yahooligans Music, Movies, Book Club
  • Scholastic News Entertainment
  • Sports Illustrated for Kids
  • How Stuff Works

25
Reading Level
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • In Most Classrooms, Students Read at a Wide
    Range of Reading Levels.
  • Be Sure That Youre Selecting Resources for a
    Variety of Levels.
  • Look for Websites that Provide Leveled Reading
    Resources.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Create an Activity and Provide Online Readings at
    3 Different Reading Levels
  • News2you.com
  • Starfall.com
  • Readinga-z.com
  • Raz-kids.com
  • Enchantedlearning.com
  • Edhelper.com
  • Rosetta Stone

26
Authenticity
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Students Enjoy Working with Real Facts, Numbers,
    and Documents.
  • Rather than Watered Down Resources Found in
    Workbooks, Look for the Real Thing Online.
  • Use Real World Data
  • eduscapes.com
  • Locate a Photograph, Document, (or) Piece of Data
    that Would Bring a Classroom Topic to Life.
  • Some Good Sites
  • American Memories Learning Page
  • National Archives Classroom
  • Stevens Institute
  • Teacher Tap

27
Active Participation
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Students Need to Be Active
  • Many Students are Motivated by Interactive
    Resources that Ask Them to Create, Build, Design
    or Make Decisions.
  • They Also Like to Make Decisions and Participate
    in Polls and Surveys.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Online and Offline Tools
  • Inspiration
  • Timeliner
  • Timeline builder
  • KidPix
  • Powerpoint
  • Microsoft Publisher
  • Create a Graph
  • Teacher Tap Interactive Websites
  • Teacher made WebQuests

28
Experience
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Use Virtual Field Trips, When You Cant Take
    Them to Far Off Places.
  • Remember Some Students Lack Basic Experiences
    such as Visiting a City (or) a Farm.
  • Use the Internet to Help Students Make a
    Connection and Develop Prior Knowledge.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Streaming.discoveryeducation.com
  • Homework Spot Field Trip
  • JASON Project
  • Journey North
  • Museum Spot
  • Teacher Tap Field Trips and Museums
  • Google Earth

29
Motivation
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Some Students Need Motivation to Write, Draw, or
    Express themselves in Other Ways.
  • Sometimes Technology Can Provide Motivating Tools
    Resources.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Ecards
  • Jan Brett
  • Enature cards
  • Teacher Tap Electronic Postcard
  • Starfall.com
  • Microsoft Publisher
  • Newsletter
  • Brochure
  • Flyer
  • Microsoft PowerPoint
  • Create stories using animation and sounds

30
Realism
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Students Enjoy Sharing Their Ideas With a
    Real-World Audience.
  • Explore Ways to Provide Connections for
    Students.
  • eduscapes.com
  • Locate a Class and Write Emails to the Class (or)
    Assign for Homework
  • Online Projects
  • KidsLearn
  • ePals
  • Kids Space Connection
  • Tiggly Wigglys Pen Pal List

31
Challenge
  • Points to Remember
  • Strategies
  • Some Students Need a Challenge.
  • Ask Students to Think!
  • Such as
  • Evaluating
  • Critiquing
  • Creating.
  • Design an Activity that Involves Students in
    Critiquing Books Reviews (or) Websites created by
    Other Students.
  • Book Review Sites
  • Think Quest Projects

32
DI Tips I Will Apply in my Teaching
33
Differentiation Instruction (DI)
4
34
Accommodation Highlights
  • Whats the Difference?
  • Choosing Accommodations
  • Accommodation to Modification
  • Instructional Tools
  • Presentation Instructional Accommodation
  • Response Instructional Accommodation
  • Time Scheduling
  • Setting Instructional Accommodations

35
Whats the Difference?Accommodation Vs.
Modification
  • Makes the Work Accessible, but Doesnt
    Substantially Change the Work
  • Graded on Work Assigned Using Grade Level
    Standards
  • Example
  • Testing in a Quiet Room
  • Reading Directions Aloud
  • Reduce Amount of Work
  • Not Counting Spelling Errors
  • Subject Matter is Substantially Changed by Being
    Significantly Below Grade Level (or) for
    Testing-Changing What the Test Measures
  • Grades Based on Students Progress Towards IEP
  • Pass/Fail Grades
  • Modified Program
  • Examples
  • Have Text Read to Student
  • Allow Oral Responses to a Writing Test

36
Choosing Accommodations
  • Start with standards
  • Examine Students Strengths and Challenges
  • What Kind of Instructional Strategies Work Best
    (e.g., visual, tactile, auditory)
  • What Learning Strategies will Help Student
    Overcome Challenges?
  • Increase Access to Instruction Assessment
  • What Has Been Tried in the Past?
  • What Works in What Situations?
  • What Does Student Prefer?
  • Practice Tests
  • What are the Challenges of Providing
    Accommodations?
  • Is it Allowed on State District Assessments?
  • What Arrangements Need to be Made to Make Sure
    Students Preferred Accommodation can be
    Accommodated on Assessment Situations?
  • Student Self-Advocate Needs?

37
When to consider Accommodation to Modification
  • What Grade Level Standards?
  • With Accommodations, What Standards will the
    Student NOT be able to Meet?
  • Will Changes in Expectation Affect a Students
    Performance on State Assessments?
  • How will it Affect Your Students Ability to
    Participate in the General Ed. Curriculum in the
    Future?
  • Will Your Student Fall Further Behind because of
    Missed Opportunities to Learn Grade Level
    Content?
  • What Other Strategies/ Accommodations Could be
    Used on Grade Level Content/Assessments?

38
Accommodation Categories
  • Instructional Tools
  • Presentation Instructional Accommodation
  • Response Instructional Accommodation
  • Time Scheduling
  • Setting Instructional Accommodations

39
Presentation Instructional Accommodation
  • What is It?
  • Who Benefits?
  • Allow Students to Access Instruction in Ways that
    DO NOT Require Them to Visually Read Standard
    Print.
  • Students with
  • Print Disabilities
  • Inability to Read Standard Print Because of
  • Physical
  • Sensory
  • Cognitive Disability

40
How to Use It?Presentation Instructional
Accommodations
  • Visual
  • Large Print
  • Magnification Devices
  • Enlarged Computer Monitors
  • Closed Circuit TV
  • Visual Cues
  • Teacher Face
  • Pass Out Printed Material Before Class
  • Repeat Questions Asked by Students
  • Summarize Class Discussion
  • Sign Language
  • Written Notes, Outlines, Instructions
  • Use Another Students Notes
  • Teachers Print Copy
  • Tactile
  • Braille
  • Nemeth Code
  • Tactile Graphics
  • Maps, Diagrams, Illustrations, Charts that are
    Raised Format
  • Auditory
  • Human Reader
  • Audio Tape
  • Books on Tape
  • Compact Disc
  • Audio Amplification Devices
  • Visual Auditory
  • Screen Reader
  • Video Tape Descriptive Video
  • Talking Materials

41
Response Instructional Accommodation
  • What is it?
  • Who Benefits?
  • Allow Students to Complete Tasks in Different
    Ways , to Solve, or Organize Problems
  • Uses
  • Assistive Device
  • Organizer
  • Students with Physical, Sensory, or Learning
    Disabilities (e.g., Memory, Sequencing,
    Directionality, Alignment, Organization)

42
How to Use It?Response Instructional
Accommodation
  • Materials /Devices to Solve or Organize Responses
  • Calculation Devices
  • Spelling Grammar Assistive Devices
  • Pocket Spell Checkers
  • Dictionary
  • Visual Organizers
  • Templates
  • Highlighters
  • Graph Paper
  • Place Markers
  • Photocopy Part of Text- Allow Student to
    Highlight and Write in Margin
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Used to Help Organize Information
  • Semantic Mapping Software Inspiration
  • Type on Brailler (similar to typewriter/computer)
  • Portable Note-Taking Devices
  • Speak into Tape Recorder
  • Used to Complete Tasks Orally w/o Written Work
  • Write in Text or Test Booklet Instead of on
    Answer Sheet (e.g. bubble sheet)
  • Monitor Placement of Student Response on Answer
    Sheet
  • Express Response to a Scribe through Speech, Sign
    Language, Pointing, or by Using an Assistive
    Communication Device
  • Type on (or) Speak to Word Processor
  • Speech-to-Text Conversion
  • Voice Recognition
  • Touch Screen
  • Sticky Keys
  • Mouth or Headstick (Pointing Devices)

43
Time Scheduling
  • What is it?
  • Who Benefits?
  • It Changes the Allowable Length of Time to
    Complete Assignments, Tests, Activities the Way
    Time is Organized
  • Students Who Needs More Time to Complete a Task
  • Extra Time to Process Written Text
  • To Write (Student with Limited Dexterity)
  • Use Other Accommodations or Equipment (Audio
    tape, Scribe, or Assistive Technology)

44
How to Use it?Time Scheduling
  • Extended Time
  • Keep in Mind Disability, Type of Assignment,
    Accommodation
  • Unlimited Time is not Appropriate or Feasible
  • Used to Reduce Anxiety
  • Too Much Time Lose Interest Motivation
  • Multiple (or) Frequent Breaks
  • Be Given at Predetermined Intervals (or) After
    Completion of Task
  • Use Timers to Signal End of Break
  • Change Schedule (or) Order of Activities
  • Schedule Work at Students Peak Performance
    During the Day
  • Divide Long Term Assignments
  • Create BIG Task Assignments into Smaller Chunks
  • Reduces Anxiety Fatigue
  • Helps Student Organize Work
  • Provide 2 Sets of Books for Home School

45
Setting Instructional Accommodations
  • What is it?
  • Who Benefits?
  • It Changes the Location in Which a Student
    Receives Instruction (or) the Conditions of an
    Instructional Setting.
  • Students Who are Easily Distracted in Large Group
    Settings
  • Students who Need Small Group (or) Individual
    Settings
  • Change in Location for Students Who Need Frequent
    Breaks
  • Students with Physical Disabilities Who Need a
    More Accessible Location (or) Specific Room
    Conditions

46
How to Use it?Setting Instructional
Accommodations
  • Change Location to Reduce Distractions
  • Sit near Teacher
  • Sit in front of Classroom
  • Dont sit Near Pencil Sharpeners, Windows, Door
  • Study Carrels
  • Noise Buffers Headphones, Earplugs
  • Change Location so Student Does Not Distract
    Others
  • Allows Opportunity to Read and Think out Loud
  • Reader Scribe
  • Involuntary Make Noises
  • Change Location to Increase Physical Access
  • Wheelchair with Specially Designed Tabletop
  • Keep Aisles Cleared
  • Dont Leave Cupboards and Doors Open
  • Guide Dog
  • Home Hospital
  • Change Location to Access Special Equipment
  • Computer Lab
  • Adaptive Equipment or Furniture
  • Standing Work Station

47
The KEY to DIHigh Quality Curriculum
Instruction
  • Clarify Key Concepts Generalizations for ALL
    Learners
  • Ensure Comprehension
  • Tap into Prior Knowledge
  • Use Assessment as a Teaching Tool to Extend vs.
    Merely Measure Instruction
  • Collect Pre Post Baseline Data for Optimal
    Learning
  • Emphasize Critical Creative Thinking as a GOAL
    in Lesson Design
  • Tasks Should Require Students to Apply Meaning
  • Engage ALL Learners
  • Mix up your Activities throughout a Period
  • Joy Satisfaction
  • Provide a Balance Between Teacher-assigned
    Student-selected Tasks
  • Allow Student Choices

48
Best Way to Begin
  • Frequently Reflect on the Match Between Your
    Classroom Your Philosophy of Teaching
    Learning
  • Look for Matches Mismatches to Guide You
  • Create a Mental Image of what You Want Your
    Classroom to Look Like
  • Use the Image to Start Planning Assess Changes
  • Talk Often with Your Students About the Classroom
  • How its working.
  • Think Carefully About Management Routines
  • Monitor Effectiveness
  • Take Time Off from Change to Regain Your Energy
  • Enjoy Your Growth!!

49
References
  • Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated Instruction.
    Wakefield, MA National Center on Accessing the
    General Curriculum. Retrieved October 22, 2008,
    from http//www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac.di
    ffinstruc.html
  • Heibeck, T. (2008). How to use multiple
    intelligences to reach every child. Retrieved
    November 1, 2008 from http//www.teachervision.fen
    .com/intelligence/teaching-methods-and-management/
    4802.html
  • Kozleski, E. (2003). Guidelines that make
    differentiation possible for teachers to attain.
    Retrieved November 1, 2008 from,
    www.urbanschools.org/events.docs/Penn320062.ppt
  • Lamb, A. (2003). Ten Tips for Differentiation.
    Eduscapes. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from
    http//eduscapes.com/sessions/needs/elementary2.ht
    ml
  • Nunley, K. (2008). Layered Curriculum. Retrieved
    November 1, 2008, from http//help4teachers.com/
  • Robinson, S. (2005). Instructional Tools Related
    to Universal Design for Learning. KS Special
    Connections. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from
    http//www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwr
    ap/speccconn/main.php?catinstrucition...

50
References continue-
Teachervision (2008). Structuring Lessons to
Promote Learning from Materials.
Partnership with Council for Exceptional
Children. Retrieved, November 1, 2008
from, httpwww.teachervision.fen.com/curriculum-
planning/learning-disablilities/6731.html? T
eachnology. (2007). How to Differentiate
Instruction. Retrieved November 1, 2008,
from http//www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/teachin
g/ differentiate/print.htm Thompson, S.
(2005). Instructional Tools Related to
Instructional Accommodations. KS Special
Connections. Retrieved November 1, 2008,
from http//www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/
cgiwrap/ specconn/main.php?catinstruction
Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiation of
Instruction in the Elementary Grades.
Retrieved October 1, 2008, from
http//www.ericdigests.org/2001-2/
elementary.html Tomlinson, C. (2000). Educational
Leadership, 58, 6-11, Retrieved October 1,
2008, from http//www.jamesviledewitt.orgtfiles/
folder257/ReconcileDITomlinson.pdf
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