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Pharaohs of Egypt

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Pharaohs of Egypt By: Josh Chee, Brandon Lopez, and Brendan Gosse Pharaohs Pharaohs were the kings of Egypt. The word Pharaoh was used by the Greeks and Hebrews. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pharaohs of Egypt


1
Pharaohs of Egypt
  • By Josh Chee, Brandon Lopez, and Brendan Gosse

2
(No Transcript)
3
Pharaohs
  • Pharaohs were the kings of Egypt.
  • The word Pharaoh was used by the Greeks and
    Hebrews.
  • The title Pharaoh originated from the Greek
    language and it is used in the Old Testament.
  • According to Egyptian legend, the first kings of
    Egypt were later some of the most famous gods.
  • All of the Pharaohs we know today existed at the
    end of the Predynastic period.

4
Responsibility Of Pharaohs
  • Pharaohs ruled with absolute power. There were
    few if any challenged against the King.
  • Despite absolute power the Pharaoh was expected
    to rule subject to Maat.
  • Maat was the goddess and symbol of the
    equilibrium of the universe.
  • The Pharaoh was expected to govern according to
    the principles of Maat.
  • Any King that attempted to radically change
    society would be seen as destroying the
    equilibrium that was so important to Egyptian
    tradition.

5
Succession
  • To keep the pure line of succession, a Pharaoh
    passed on the throne to the eldest son born of
    the Principal Queen, or Great Royal Wife.
  • Each king was usually keen to demonstrate to his
    subjects that he was the chosen heir.
  • The Pharaoh owned all of the land, people, and
    possessions in Egypt.
  • Any personal wealth enjoyed by Egyptians people
    was considered a result of the generosity of the
    King.

6
Major Male Pharaohs
  • There were several Pharaohs of Egypt. However, we
    will focus on the main male Pharaohs
  • Menes
  • Tuthmosis III
  • Akenaton
  • Djoser
  • Ramses II
  • Khufu
  • Tutankhamen

7
Menes
  • Founding King of the 1st Dynasty
  • Ruled between 3100-2850 B.C.E
  • First Pharaoh to unify upper and lower Egypt into
    one Kingdom
  • Ancient Egypts form of a civilization began with
    King Menes.
  • He created the city of Memphis because of its
    good location. It would be easy top defend
    against any attacks.
  • During his reign he expanded his kingdom and
    developed commercial trade links.

8
Menes
  • His chief wife was Queen Berenib, although she
    wasnt the mother of his heir Djer.
  • The mother of Djer was Neithotepe, Menes other
    wife.
  • He died at the age of 63.
  • According to legend he was attacked by wild dogs
    or Nile crocodiles at Faiyum.
  • He died leaving behind the legacy of a powerful
    civilization.
  • His tomb lays at Saqqara, the farmed area of
    Memphis.

9
Tuthmosis III
  • The son of Tuthmosis II and Isris
  • When is father died his stepmother, Hatsheput,
    took charge.
  • She was Tuthmosis III co-regent and for 20 years
    he was pushed into the background as she ruled
    Egypt.
  • When she died Tuthmosis III came to the throne.
  • As an act of revenge or retribution, he destroyed
    as many of Hatsheputs statues, monuements and
    buildings.

10
Tuthmosis III
  • He was remembered for is successful military
    capaigns.
  • He had numerous victories against Syria, Libya
    and Nubia.
  • In his lifetime he married several foreign
    princesses, apparently for diplomatic reasons.
  • His chief queen was Hatsheput-Merytre.
  • King Tuthmosis III established Egypt as a
    powerful military strength.
  • King Tuthmosis III died in his 55th year of
    reigning and was buried in the Valley of the
    Kings.

11
Akenaton
  • Original name was Amonhotep IV.
  • Reigned 1350-1334 B.C.E
  • He wanted to change the Egyptian supreme god from
    Amon-Re to Aton.
  • Therefore he changed his name to Akenaton which
    means he who serves Aton
  • He also built a new city called Akhetaton.
  • This was the first attempt at radically changing
    the Egyptian religion.

12
Akenaton
  • His wife was Nefertiti who was known for her
    beauty.
  • Today, Akenaton is remembered for trying to
    introduce monotheism to Egypt.
  • Monotheism means only one godAton.
  • It is not sure how Akenaton died but the text two
    kings, Smenkhkara and Tutankhamun were apparently
    sons-in-law to Akenaton.
  • After his reign Egypt returned back to their old
    Gods.

13
Djoser
  • Djoser reigned for about 19 years.
  • His right hand man, Imhotep, was famous for his
    genius.
  • Imhotep came up with the idea of the step
    pyramid.
  • The pyramids design consisted of six giant steps
    and contained many chambers and secret tunnels.
  • It is believed that during Djosers reign, he
    extended the Egyptian Southern Border all the way
    to the Niles First Cataract.
  • He left behind the legacy of the step pyramid,
    which was the basis of all other pyramids to come.

14
Rames II
  • Went to the throne at the age of 20 and reigned
    for 67 years.
  • This was the second longest reign for any
    Egyptian King.
  • Ramses is remembered for constructing many
    architectural marvels.
  • Constructed more colossal statues than any other
    Egyptian King.
  • Two of his greatest monuments are the two huge
    temples at Abu Simbel.

15
Ramses II
  • Ramses also had many military victories.
  • Not long after the reign of Ramses II, Egypt was
    invaded and eventually fell to the rule of
    foreigners.
  • Ramses not only excelled in architecture but he
    also had a great number of wives.
  • By the end of his life Ramses had over 100
    children!
  • After his death Ramses son, Menataph, became the
    heir to the throne.

16
Khufu
  • Khufu lived from 2589-2566 B.C.E
  • He reigned for around 24 years.
  • Khufu is most remembered for building Great
    Pyramid of Giza.
  • The pyramid originally stood 481 feet tall.
  • Khufu had many sons but the one chosen to be his
    successor was Djedefre.
  • Khufu left behind the legacy of the Great Pyramid
    and even today its still a mystery to how it was
    built.

17
Tutankhamen
  • King Tutankhamen came to the throne at a very
    young age.
  • When his father died, believed to be Akhenaton,
    he became King at age 10.
  • King Tutankhamen helped restore Egypt's old
    beliefs from when his father tried to make Egypt
    a monotheism society.
  • He died suddenly at the young age of 18 by a blow
    to the back of his head.
  • Since his tomb had not yet been made, he was laid
    in a tomb of a member of the nobility.
  • He is famous today because of his tomb found by
    archaeologists. Some say it was the most
    important archaeological find.

18
Bibliography
  • Brier, Bob. PhD. History of ancient Egypt. The
    First Nation in History. The Learning Company.
    2001.
  • Dowling, Mike. The Pharaoh. West Palm Beach
    Florida, 23 Oct. 2004. 18 Oct. 2006
    http//www.mrdowling.com/604-pharaoh.html.
  • Dunn, Jimmy. Egypt Feature Story The Kings
    (Pharaohs) of Ancient Egypt. 1996. 18 Oct. 2006
    http//www.touregypt.net/featurestories/pharaohs.h
    tm.
  • Newman, Garfield. Echoes from the Past. Whitby,
    Ontario McGraw - Hill Ryerson Limited, 2001.
  • Pharaoh." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006.
    Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 18 t. 2006 .
    lthttp//www.britannica.com/eb/article-9059581gt.
  • THE ASTRA CORPORATION LIMITED . Egyptology
    Online Discovering Ancient Egypt. 2001. 18 Oct.
    2006 http//www.egyptologyonline.com/pharaohs.htm.
     

19
Discussion Questions
  • In your opinion, was it right for the Pharaohs to
    rule with absolute power? Explain.
  • Do you think Egypt would be so well known today
    if Pharaohs did not exist?
  • In ancient Egypt all property belonged to the
    Pharaohs, would our society be successful if this
    was true today about the Prime Minister.

20
THE END!!!
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