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World Geography

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World Geography Essential Skills Climate and Vegetation Pattern Activity Using your textbook (pages 51-57), the atlas, and your mind powers , find climate and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World Geography


1
World Geography
Essential Skills
2
Chapter 1 Sect.1
  • Geography is..

Geography is the study of everything on earth.
Geography is divided into two branches.
Human Geography
Physical Geography
The interaction of humans and the environment
links the two together.
3
Regions
  • A REGION is an area with one or more common
    features that make it different from surrounding
    areas
  • Geographers like to organize big parts of the
    world into smaller parts (REGIONS) to gain a
    better understanding of this complex planet we
    live on

4
Regions
Formal Region Has one or more common features
that separates it from surrounding areas
Example The Sahel in Africa lies between the
Sahara desert in the North and forested areas to
the South.
5
Regions
Functional Region Different places that are
linked together and function as a unit.
Example The Iron Range in Northern Minnesota
6
Chapter 1 Sect.1
Perceptual Region Regions that reflect human
feelings.
Example The U.S. Midwest.
7
The Six Elements
  • 1.LOCATION the world in spatial terms
  • ie latitude and longitude/maps

2. PLACES REGIONS The physical and human
features ie China
8
The Six elements
3. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS weather, mountains, rivers,
plants and animals. ie a delta 4.
HUMAN SYSTEMS How people effect the earth and
each other. ie slash and burn
agriculture
9
The Six elements
  • 5. ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY How the physical
    environment shapes cultures and how cultures
    change the environment.
  • ie Nomads
  • 6. The Uses of Geography Geography helps us
    understand the relationships of people, places,
    and the environment over time.

10
What do all maps have in common? DOGSTAILS D
(date) O (orientation) G (grid) S (scale) T
(title) A (author) I (index) L (legend) S
(sources)
11
Chapter 1 Sect. 2
  • Organizing the Globe

12
Chapter 1 Sect. 2
Geographers use many different kinds of maps.
Many maps, for example, focus on certain themes
(ie Population Density, Land Use, or Average
Precipitation) Political maps show the world's
borders, cities, countries, states, and other
political features. Physical maps show natural
features like mountains, rivers, and other bodies
of water.
13
Map Projections
14
Mercator Projection- distorts the size and shape
of large objects, as the scale increases from the
Equator to the poles
15
Peters Projection
16
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20
A little different look at the World . .which
countries might prefer this map?
21
Chapter 1 Sect. 2
Great-Circle Route Drawing a straight line on a
flat map will not show the shortest route between
two places. Remember that maps represent a round
world on a flat plane. The shortest route between
any two places on the planet is called a
great-circle route. (See the illustrations on
this page.) Airline pilots and ship captains use
great-circle routes to help them navigate.
22
Climate Weather
  • Weather The condition of the atmosphere at a
    given time and place
  • Climate Weather conditions in a geographic
    region over a long period of time

23
Climate Weather
  • Weather is influenced by these factors
  • Atmospheric Pressure
  • Global Wind Belts
  • Oceans and Currents
  • Mountains and Elevation

24
Climate Weather
  • Weather is influenced by these 4 factors
  • 1. Atmospheric Pressure (weight of the air around
    us)
  • 2. Global Wind Belts (the horizontal flow of air)

25
Climate Weather
  • Weather is influenced by these factors
  • 3. Oceans and Currents (oceans moderate
    temperatures/ currents push the water around)

26
Climate Weather
  • Weather is influenced by these factors
  • 4. Mountains and Elevation (orographic
    effect/rain shadows)

27
Orographic effect
  • Mountains influence climate! But how?
  • moist air pushes up against mountains
  • the barrier forces the air to rise
  • the rising air cools and condensed forming
    clouds and causes precipitation
  • therefore, the side of the mountain facing the
    wind gets moisture (windward side) and the side
    of the mountain way from the wind (leeward side)
    is dry and often is a desert.
  • How do you think the orographic effect influences
    human settlements? Vegetation?

28
STORMS!
  • STORMS are sudden and violent weather events
    caused by quick changes in air temperature,
    pressure and direction
  • Types of storms
  • Tornados twisting spirals of air often
    accompanied by thunderstorms- (middle latitudes-
    the United States experiences the more tornados
    than any other country) Lightening strikes and
    downpours
  • Hurricanes rotating storms that bring heavy rain
    and strong winds-(tropics- most powerful of the
    tropical cyclones)- produces in warmer waters-
    primarily the Atlantic (Katrina)
  • Typhoons can produce huge waves, thunderstorms
    and tornados found in the western Pacific

29
STORMS!
  • Write your response to the following
  • questions, then share your answers with a
  • partner.
  • How does weather and climate affect human
    populations?
  • Which factor weather OR climate has more affect
    on people when deciding where to live? Why?
  • Describe the worst storm youve experienced.

30
Global Warming
  • The increase in the earths temperature due an
    increase in the greenhouse effect, which is how
    the earths atmosphere traps heat. (the
    atmosphere allows much sunlight to pass through
    but slows the rate at which the heat escapes)
  • Most scientist believe global warming is cause by
    human activities (burning coal, natural gas, oil,
    ect..) Some scientist believe it is a part of a
    natural cycle.
  • What are some effects of global warming that you
    are aware of?
  • SEE READING AND QUESTIONS

31
Climographs
  • -visual comparison of two elements of climate
    (precipitation and temperature) plotted at
    monthly intervals throughout the year
  • (See Climographs of Las Vegas and Montreal,
    Canada)

32
Climograph Questions
  • 1. Which city has the greatest change in
    temperature and precipitation over a years time?
  • 2. Which has the least?
  • 3. Which city has the most rain? Why do you
    think that is?
  • 4. Which city has the least rain? Why?
  • 5. What could climographs be used for?

33
Chapter 3 Sect. 3
All of the world's climates support a variety of
ecosystems. An ecosystem is the community of
plants and animals in an area. It also includes
the nonliving parts of their environment, such as
soil and climate.
34
Climate and Vegetation Pattern Activity
  • Using your textbook (pages 51-57), the atlas, and
    your mind powers, find climate and vegetation
    information for the locations listed on your
    worksheet. Work quickly- you have the hour to
    complete it.
  • You may work in pairs.
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