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The Economic Miracle


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Title: The Economic Miracle

The Economic Miracle
  • Economic expansion would continue with only brief
    interruptions for almost 20 years, between
    1945-1960 the gross national product grew by
    almost 250, inflation hovered around 3 or lower
    and was unemployment about 5 or lower

The Economic Miracle
  • Causes of economic growth government spending
    continued to stimulate growth through public
    funding of schools, housing, veterans benefits,
    welfare, military spending, and the 100 billion
    interstate highway system

The Economic Miracle
  • Baby boom nation's population rose almost 20 in
    the decade from 150 million in 1950 to 179
    million by 1960, resulted in increased consumer
    demand, the rapid expansion of suburbs, suburbs
    population grew 47 in the 1950s more then twice
    as fast as the population as a whole, helped
    stimulate growth in several important sectors of
    the economy such as the automobile industry and

The Economic Miracle
  • The average American in 1960 had over 20 more
    purchasing power than in 1945, by 1960 per capita
    income was over 1,800 (which was 500 more than
    1945), Americans achieved highest standard of
    living in the history of the world

The Economic Miracle
  • American West experienced the most dramatic
    changes, population expanded, industrial and
    cultural centers of the nation, rapid growth of
    oil fields, much of the growth in the West was a
    result of federal spending and investment on the
    dams, power stations, highways and military
    contracts that continued to disproportionately to
    factories in California and Texas.

The Economic Miracle
  • The Universitys of Texas and California became
    among the nations largest and best, as centers
    of research, they helped attract
    technology-intensive industries to the regions

The Economic Miracle
  • Keynesian economics made it possible for
    government to regulate and stabilize the economy
    without intruding directly into the private
    sector, Keynesian Theory varying the flow of
    government spending and taxation (fiscal policy)
    and managing the supply of currency (monetary
    policy), the government could stimulate the
    economy to cure recession, many economists now
    believed that it was possible for the government
    to maintain a permanent prosperity

The Economic Miracle
  • When the economy slackened in the late 1953,
    Secretary of the Treasury and the Federal Reserve
    Board worked to ease credit and make money more
    available, but in 1957 a far more serious
    recession began and lasted more then a year, the
    Eisenhower administration ignored the Keynesians
    and adopted such deflationary tactics as cutting
    the budget.

The Economic Miracle
  • The slow recovery, in contrast with the rapid
    revival on 1954, seemed to further support
    Keynesian philosophy, this new economy won
    support when John Kennedy proposed a tax cut in
    1963 to stimulate economic growth, the idea of
    ending poverty through economic growth necessary
    to produce more abundance, raising the quality of
    life to even the poorest citizen

The Economic Miracle
  • 4,000 corporate mergers took place in the 1950's,
    corporations changed from single industry firms
    to diversified conglomerates, the mechanization
    of agriculture endangered the family farm, by the
    1906s relatively few individuals could any longer
    afford to buy and equip a modern farm, and much
    of the nations most productive land had been
    purchased by financial institutions and

The Economic Miracle
  • Walter Reuther President of the United
    Automobile Workers obtained a contract from GM
    that included a built in "escalator clause" - an
    automatic cost of living increase pegged to
    consumer price index, a new relationship
    developed between large labor unions and
    employers (steel, automobile, other large

The Economic Miracle
  • Workers received generous increase in wages and
    benefits, this contract had the support of the
    National Labor Relations Board who believed the
    purpose of labor relations was to maintain
    industrial peace and promote the general health
    of the economy, not to defend or expand the
    rights of workers

The Economic Miracle
  • Even though the labor movement was having
    impressive successes in winning better wages for
    its members, its share of the labor force
    dropped, the American Federation of Labor and the
    Congress of Industrial Organizations merged,
    creating the AFL-CIO, under leadership of George
    Meany, the Teamsters Union president David Beck
    was charged with misappropriation of union funds
    and replaced by Jimmy Hoffa who was convicted for
    tax evasion nearly a decade later.

The Economic Miracle
  • Limited gains' for unorganized workers, total
    union membership remained relatively stable
    throughout the 1950s at about 16 million, this
    was in part due to the shift from blue collar to
    white collar jobs, Operation Dixie CIO launched
    a major organizing drive in the South, targeted
    the poorly paid works in textile mills in
    particular, failed due to powerful antiunion
    sentiments in the south, almost all organizing
    drives encountered crushing and fatal resistance

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • In the 1930s Sulfa drugs, derived from
    sulfanilamide, were found to be effective
    treatments for streptococcal blood infections,
    Penicillin (Howard Florey and Ernest Chain) was
    produced in sizable enough quantities to defeat
    bacteria, it was widely available by 1948.

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • Development of vaccines and immunization,
    smallpox vaccine (late 1700s), typhoid vaccine
    (1897), tetanus vaccine (1930s), tuberculosis
    vaccine (1940s), yellow fever vaccine (1930s),
    influenza vaccine (1940s), Jonas Salk introduced
    effective vaccine against polio in 1954 that was
    distributed free to the public by the government
    starting in 1955, Albert Sabin introduced an oral
    vaccine against polio in 1960, the average life
    expectancy rose by 5 years to 71

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • DDT discovered by Paul Muller, although seemed
    harmless to humans and other animals, the
    pesticide was toxic to insects, quickly gained a
    reputation as a miraculous tool for controlling
    insects and it saved 1,000s of lives in WWII as
    it was used against typhus (Europe) and malaria
    (Pacific), but later it became evident that it
    had long term toxic effects on animals and humans

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • Development of the first commercially viable
    television and the technology to broadcast
    programming over wide areas occurred in the 1940s
    and 1950s, in the early 1960s the color TV was
    developed, in 1948 Bell Labs produced the first
    transistor which amplified electrical signals,
    this allowed for the miniaturization of many
    devices (radio, tv, audio equipment, hearing
    aids) and were also used militarily in aviation,
    weaponry, and satellites, the development of
    integrated circuits allowed for rapid
    advancements in the development of the computer

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) was the
    first significant computer of the 1950's,
    developed initially for the US Bureau of the
    Census it could handle both numerical and
    alphabetical information easily, UNIVACs
    television debut in the 1952 election, in which
    it correctly predicted a landslide victory for
    Eisenhower on CBS, created a critical
    breakthrough in public awareness of computer

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • The International Business Machines Company (IBM)
    introduced its first major data processing
    computers in the mid-1950s and began to find a
    wide market for them among businesses in the US
    and abroad

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • The US successfully detonated the first Hydrogen
    bomb in 1952, the Soviet Union detonated theirs
    in 1953, Hydrogen bombs derived their power from
    fusion (joining together atomic particles) not
    fission (splitting atomic particles) and resulted
    in a bomb 1000 times more powerful than the
    Atomic bomb used on Hiroshima

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • US struggled to build long-range missiles that
    could cross oceans and continents
    (intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs),
    the two early versions of these missiles (the
    Atlas and then the Titan) were ineffective due to
    problems with liquid fuels used to provide
    propulsion, the Minuteman missile became the
    basis of the American atomic weapons arsenal, it
    was capable of traveling several thousand miles
    to reasonably precise destinations, the Polaris
    missile was capable of being launched from
    submarines under the surface of the ocean (1960)

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • In 1957, the Soviet Union announced that it had
    launched an earth-orbiting satellite (Sputnik),
    the American government and people reacted with
    alarm, encouraged efforts to improve scientific
    education in the schools, to create more research
    laboratories, to speed the development of
    Americas space program (Explorer I)

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • In 1958, the US created the National Aeronautics
    and Space Administration, which quickly started
    on a manned space program, the Mercury Project
    was NASA's initial effort to launch manned
    vehicles into space to orbit the earth, on May 5,
    1961 Alan Shepard became the first American to be
    launched into space, the Soviet Union had put
    Yuri Gagarin into space several months earlier.

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • On February 2, 1962, John Glenn became the first
    American to orbit the globe, the Gemini Project
    was designed to put two men into space, the
    Apollo Program was designed to land men on the
    moon, had some catastrophic set backs, in 1967 a
    fire killed 3 astronauts as they sat in a capsule
    on the launch pad during a training session.

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • On July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin,
    Michael Collins successfully orbited the moon,
    Armstrong and Aldrin then landed a capsule on the
    moon and became the first humans to walk on body
    other than Earth, not long after 1972 the
    government began to cut funding for mission and
    popular enthusiasm for the program began to wane,
    the first space shuttle was successfully launched
    in 1982

The Expansion of Science and Technology
  • In 1961, Time magazines man of the year was
    the American Scientist

People of Plenty
  • The 1950s saw a rapid extension of middle-class
    lifestyle and outlook to large groups of people
    that had previously been insulated from it, the
    growing availability of consumer products at
    affordable prices and the massive population
    movement from the cities to the suburbs helped
    make the American middle class a larger, more
    powerful, more homogeneous, and more dominant
    force than it had ever been before.

People of Plenty
  • Leading intellectuals argued that American
    history had been characterized by a broad
    consensus about the value and necessity of
    competitive, capitalist growth, However much at
    odds on specific issues, Americans have shared a
    belief in the rights of property, the philosophy
    of economic individualism, the value of
    competition they have accepted the economic
    virtues of capitalist culture as necessary
    qualities of man. Richard Hofstadter

People of Plenty
  • David Potter published an influential exanimation
    of economic abundance and American character,
    he called it People of Plenty, and for the
    American middle class in the 1950s it seemed

People of Plenty
  • Growth of consumer credit, which increased by
    800 between 1945 and 1957 through the
    development of the credit card, revolving charge
    accounts, and easy-payment plans, consumers
    responded to new products such as dishwashers,
    garbage disposals, TVs, hi-fis, and stereos, the
    prosperity of the 1950's and 1960's was largely
    consumer driven, consumer crazes such as the hula
    hoop, The Mickey Mouse Club, Disneyland, and
    Mickey Mouse watches and hats spread across the

People of Plenty
  • By 1960, 1/3 of the nations population lived in
    the suburbs, the causes of suburbanization to
    escape crowding, crime, pollution and high costs,
    find better schools and sometimes escape racial
    and ethic diversity, to fulfill yearning for
    greater contact with nature, most people in the
    suburbs lived on small lots, had many neighbors,
    and over time developed the same problems as the
    cities (traffic, pollution, crowding, crime)

People of Plenty
  • William Levitt symbolized the new suburban growth
    with his mass production techniques to construct
    a large housing development on Long Island,
    Levittown featured several thousand Cape Cod
    style homes with identical interiors and slightly
    varied facades, each perched on its own concrete
    slab facing curving, treeless streets, they sold
    for under 10,000, young Americans (often newly
    married war veterans eager to start a family,
    assisted by low-cost, government-subsidized
    mortgages provided by the GI Bill) rushed to
    purchase the inexpensive homes

People of Plenty
  • Americans also wanted to move to the suburbs
    because of the enormous importance post-war
    Americans placed on family life, the suburbs made
    it easier to afford larger houses to raise more
    children, provided more security from the noise
    and dangers of urban living, the suburbs offered
    more space for the new consumer goods and helped
    create a better sense of community.

People of Plenty
  • Most suburbs were restricted to whites,
    relatively few blacks could afford them, and
    formal and informal barriers kept out even
    prosperous blacks, in an era when the black
    population of most cities was rapidly growing,
    many white families fled to the suburbs, the
    suburbs developed a clear economic hierarchy
    among the suburban neighborhoods

People of Plenty
  • For professional men who tended to work in the
    city but live in the suburbs, there was a rigid
    division between their working and personal
    worlds, many middle-class women were isolated
    from the workplace, the growth of the suburbs
    strengthened popular prejudices against women
    working, many middle class men found it demeaning
    for their wives to be employed, also prevailing
    ideas about motherhood seemed to require women to
    stay at home full-time with their children

People of Plenty
  • Dr. Benjamin Spock's Baby and Child Care, was
    published in 1946 and taught that the purpose of
    motherhood was to help children learn and grown
    and realize their potential, all other
    considerations (including the mothers physical
    and emotional requirements) must be subordinated
    to the needs of the child, he only envisioned a
    very modest role for the father in the process of
    child rearing

People of Plenty
  • The women who could afford not to work faced
    heavy pressures (both externally and internally
    imposed) to remain in the home and concentrate on
    raising their children, yet the number of women
    working outside the home actually increased
    during the postwar years in order to maintain the
    standard of living that they desired.

People of Plenty
  • Nearly 1/3 of all married women were part of the
    paid workforce, the increasing numbers of women
    in the workplace laid the groundwork for demands
    for equal treatment by employers that became an
    important part of the feminist movement in the
    1960s and 1970s

People of Plenty
  • In 1946, there were only 17,000 TVs but by 1957
    there were more then 40 million TV sets in use,
    more people had TVs then refrigerators, the
    television industry emerged out of the radio
    industry the National Broadcasting Company
    (NBC), the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS),
    and the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) had
    all started as radio companies

People of Plenty
  • The television business was driven by advertising
    and sponsors played a direct role in determining
    the content of the programs they chose to sponsor
    resulting in the GE Television Theater, the
    Chrysler Playhouse, the Camel News Caravan, and
    others, daytime serials were often sponsored by
    companies making household goods targeted at
    women (soap operas), by the 1950's television
    news had replaced newspapers, magazines, and
    radios as the most important vehicle of

People of Plenty
  • The image that of white, middle-class, and
    suburban was epitomized by popular situation
    comedies like Ozzie and Harriet and Leave It to
    Beaver, these types of programs also reinforce
    the concept of gender roles that most men and
    many women unthinkingly embraced.

People of Plenty
  • At the same time that TV was reinforcing the
    homogeneity of the white middle class, it was
    also contributing to the sense of alienation and
    powerlessness among the groups excluded from the
    world it portrayed

People of Plenty
  • Construction of the interstate highway system
    contributed dramatically to the growth of travel,
    people wanted to escape the crowding and stress
    of densely populated areas, national parks
    experienced a surge in attendance, people liked
    to hike and camp, fish and hunt, and some to look
    at the landscape.

People of Plenty
  • Echo Park was a spectacular valley in the
    Dinosaur National Monument, the Bureau of
    Reclamation proposed building a dam across the
    Green River to create a lake for recreation and
    source of hydroelectric power.

People of Plenty
  • Bernard DeVoto published an article in the
    Saturday Evening Post entitled Shall We Let Them
    Ruin our National Parks?- created sensational
    opposition to the Echo Valley dam, the Sierra
    Club became the nation's leading environmental
    organization and supported the cause, in 1965
    Congress blocked the project and preserved Echo
    Park in its natural state

People of Plenty
  • In the 1950s white-collar workers outnumbered
    blue-collar workers for the first time in
    American history and an increasing number of them
    worked in corporate settings with rigid
    hierarchical structures, more and more Americans
    were becoming convinced that the key to a
    successful future lay in acquiring the
    specialized training and skills necessary for
    work in large organizations where every worker
    performed a particular, well-defined function

People of Plenty
  • National Defense Education Act of 1958 provided
    federal funding for development of programs in
    the areas of science, mathematics, and foreign
    languages, all of which educators considered
    important for the development of skilled,
    specialized professionals, colleges became
    multiversitys where education became a training
    ground for specialists in a wide variety of

People of Plenty
  • William H. Whyte Jr. wrote The Organization Man
    in 1956 which attempted to describe the special
    mentality of the worker in a large, bureaucratic
    setting, self-reliance was losing place to the
    ability to get along and the ability to "work
    as a team" which were becoming most important
    traits in the modern character

People of Plenty
  • David Reisman wrote The Lonely Crowd in 1950
    which argued that the traditional
    inner-directed man who judged himself on the
    basis of his own values and the esteem of his
    family was giving way to a new other-directed
    man concerned with winning the approval of the
    large organization or community

People of Plenty
  • Saul Bellow wrote The Adventures of Augie March,
    Seize the Day, and Herzog, which chronicled the
    difficulties American Jewish men had in finding
    fulfillment in modern urban America

People of Plenty
  • J.D Salinger wrote Catcher in the Rye in 1951
    about Holden Caulfield, a high school prep
    student, who was unable to find any area of
    society (school, family, friends, city) in which
    he could feel secure or committed

People of Plenty
  • The most caustic critics of bureaucracy, and of
    middle class society, were a group of young
    poets, writers, and artists generally known as
    the beats (or beatniks) they wrote harsh
    critiques of what they considered the sterility
    and conformity of American life, the
    meaninglessness of American politics, and the
    banality of popular culture

People of Plenty
  • Allen Ginsbergs dark, bitter poem Howl (1955)
    decried the Robot apartments! invincible
    suburbs! skeleton treasuries! blind capitals!
    demonic industries! of modern life, Jack Kerouac
    wrote the bible of the Beat Generation in his
    novel On the Road (1957) which was an account of
    a cross-country automobile trip that depicted the
    rootless, iconoclastic lifestyle of Kerouac and
    his friends

People of Plenty
  • The Beats were the most visible evidence of a
    widespread restlessness among young Americans in
    the 1950s that was caused in part by a growing
    sense among young people of limitless
    possibilities and of the declining power of such
    traditional values as thrift, discipline, and
    self-restraint, they were growing up in a culture
    that encouraged them to expect wholly fulfilling
    lives but of course they were living in a world
    in which almost all of them experienced obstacles
    to complete fulfillment

People of Plenty
  • Many young people began to wear clothes and adopt
    hairstyles that mimicked popular images of
    juvenile criminal gangs, the culture of
    alienation that the Beats wrote about showed up
    in middle-class behavior such as teenage
    rebelliousness toward parents, youthful
    fascination with fast cars and motorcycles, and
    an increasing visibility of teenage sex which was
    assisted by the greater availability of birth
    control devices and the spreading automobile
    culture that was dominating the social lives of

People of Plenty
  • James Dean became an icon of the unfocused
    rebelliousness of American youth in films such as
    Rebel Without a Cause (1955), East of Eden
    (1955), Giant (1956) in which he played moody,
    alienated teenagers and young men with a streak
    of self-destructive violence (He died in 1955 at
    the age of 24 in a car accident)

People of Plenty
  • Elvis Presley became a symbol of a youthful
    determination to push at the borders of the
    conventional and acceptable, his sultry good
    looks his self-conscious efforts to dress in the
    vaguely rebellious style of urban gangs
    (motorcycle jackets and slicked back hair even
    though Presley was from Tupelo, Mississippi), and
    the open sexuality of his music and his public
    performances made him wildly popular among young
    Americans in the 1950s

People of Plenty
  • Most white musicians (including Presley) drew
    heavily from black rhythm and blues traditions,
    which appealed to some white youths in the early
    1950s because of their pulsing, sensual rhythms
    and their hard-edged lyrics, Sam Phillips
    (founder of Sun Records in Memphis) said If I
    could find a white man with a Negro sound, I
    could make a billion dollars shortly after
    making that comment he signed Elvis Presley to
    recording contract

People of Plenty
  • Buddy Holly and Bill Haley were two other
    prominent white rock and roll stars of the 1950s,
    in the 1950s there was a limited willingness of
    white audiences to accept black musicians but
    there were some Chuck Berry, Little Richard,
    B.B. King, Chubby Checker, and the Temptations,
    many of these were recorded by Barry Gordy the
    founder and president of Motown Records in

People of Plenty
  • By the 1950s, radio stations no longer felt
    obliged to present mostly live programming (TV
    took over many of the entertainment functions
    that radio had provided) so they switched to
    playing recorded music, disk jockeys began to
    create programming aimed specifically at young
    fans of rock music, American Bandstand was a
    televised showcase for rock n' roll hits that
    debuted in 1957, it helped spread the popularity
    of rock n' roll and Dick Clark (the shows host)
    became one of the best known figures in America
    among young Americans

People of Plenty
  • Jukeboxes which played individual songs on 45s
    proliferated in soda fountains, diners, bars and
    other places young people liked to congregate, it
    cost 5 cents to play a song on the jukebox and
    teenagers used them whenever they could, record
    sales ballooned from 182 million in 1954 to 521
    million in 1960

People of Plenty
  • Record promoters were so eager to get their songs
    on the air that they routinely made secret
    payments to station owners and disk jockeys to
    encourage them to showcase their artists, these
    payola payments created major scandals in the
    late 1950s and early 1960s when the public found
    out about them

The "Other" America
  • It was easy for white, middle-class America in
    the 1950s to believe that the world they knew (a
    world of economic growth, personal affluence, and
    cultural homogeneity) was the world virtually all
    Americans knew that the values and assumptions
    they shared were the ones that most other
    Americans shared too.

The Other America
  • This assumption was false, even within the middle
    class, there was considerable restiveness (among
    women, intellectuals, young people, and others
    who found consumer culture unsatisfying), and
    large groups of Americans remained outside the
    circle of abundance and shared in neither the
    affluence of the middle class nor its values

The "Other" America
  • In 1962 Michael Harrington wrote The Other
    America, which chronicled the continuing
    existence of poverty in America, the conditions
    were not new but the attention that this book
    brought to those conditions was, in 1960, more
    than 1/5 of all American families (over 30
    million people) continued to live below what the
    government defined as the poverty line, many
    millions more lived just above the poverty line
    but incomes that gave them little comfort and no

The "Other" America
  • 20 of the poor were people for whom poverty was
    a continuous, debilitating reality, from which
    there was no easy escape, this included nearly
    50 of the elderly, a large proportion of African
    Americans and Hispanics, but Native Americans
    constituted the single poorest group in the

The "Other" America
  • The other America does not contain the
    adventurous seeking a new life and land. It is
    populated by failures, by those driven from the
    land and bewildered by the city, by old people
    suddenly confronted with the torments of
    loneliness and poverty, and by minorities facing
    a wall of prejudice The entire invisible land of
    the other Americans became a ghetto, a modern
    poor farm for the rejects of society and of the

The "Other" America
  • In 1948, farmers had received 8.9 of the
    national income, by 1956 they were down to 4.1,
    nearly 10 of the farm population moved to the
    cities, prices fell 33 during those same years
    even though national income as a whole rose 50,
    some managed to survive and even profit but not
    for most farmers.

The Other America
  • Black sharecroppers and tenant farmers continued
    to live at or below subsistence level throughout
    the rural South, migrant farmworkers in the West
    and Southwest (primarily Hispanics and Asians)
    lived in similarly dire circumstances, in rural
    areas without commercial agriculture (the
    Appalachians) whole communities lived in dire
    poverty increasingly cut off from the market

The "Other" America
  • As white families moved from the cities to the
    suburbs in vast numbers, more and more inner city
    neighborhoods became vast repositories for the
    poor, ghettos from which there was no easy
    escape, the growth of these neighborhoods was due
    to a vast migration of African Americans moving
    out of the countryside (where the cotton economy
    was in decline) and into industrial cities.

The Other America
  • More then 3 million black men and women moved
    from the South to the northern cities between
    1940 and 1960 (Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, New
    York and others), similar migrations from Mexico
    and Puerto Rico expanded poor Hispanic
    neighborhoods in many American cities at the same
    time (Puerto Ricans went largely to New York,
    Mexicans largely to California and Texas in
    cities such as San Antonio, Houston, San Diego,
    and Los Angeles)

African-American Migration 1950-1980
The "Other" America
  • Some argued that the work habits, values and
    family structures they brought with them from
    their rural homes were poorly adapted to
    industrial cities, or that the lack of strong
    educational or service institutions, its crime,
    its violence, its apparent hopelessness created a
    "culture of poverty" that made it difficult for
    individuals to advance

The "Other" America
  • Others argued that a combination of declining
    blue-collar jobs, inadequate support for
    minority-dominated public schools, and barriers
    to advancement rooted in racism (not the culture
    and values of the poor themselves) was the source
    of inner-city poverty.

The Other America
  • Employers were relocating factories and mills to
    new locations where costs were cheaper,
    automation was reducing the number of unskilled
    jobs, and there were historic patterns of racial
    discrimination in hiring, education, and housing
    that doomed many members of these communities to
    continuing poverty

The "Other" America
  • Urban Renewal was an effort to tear down
    buildings in the poorest and most degraded areas
    of the cities and replace it with new public
    housing, some was considerably better, some was
    poorly designed and constructed that deteriorated
    rapidly into dismal and dangerous slums, urban
    renewal was better at eliminating blights than
    helping the people who lived in them

The "Other" America
  • One Million Delinquents (1955) called juvenile
    crime a national epidemic and described a
    troubling subculture of inner-city youth who were
    becoming embittered, rebellious adolescents with
    no hope of advancement and no sense of having a
    stake in the structure of their society

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court issued its
    ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
    in the decision the Court rejected Plessy v.
    Ferguson (1896), this decision was the
    culmination of decades of effort by black
    opponents of segregation, many NAACP lawyers
    (Thurgood Marshall among others) who were trained
    at Howard University by Charles Houston and spent
    years filing legal challenges to segregation,
    nibbling at the edges of segregation,
    accumulating precedents to support their assault
    on the separate but equal doctrine

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • When the case arrived before the Supreme Court,
    the Justices examined it not simply in terms of
    legal precedent, but in terms of history,
    sociology, and psychology, they concluded that
    school segregation inflicted unacceptable damage
    on those it affected, regardless of the relative
    quality of the separate schools, We conclude
    that in the field of public education the
    doctrine of separate but equal has no place.
    Separate educational facilities are inherently

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • In 1955, the Supreme Court issued another
    decision (Brown II) to provide rules for
    implementing the 1954 decision, it ruled that
    communities must work to integrate their schools
    with all deliberate speed but it set no
    timetable and left specific decisions up to lower

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Massive Resistance in the South produced long
    delays and bitter conflicts in implementing new
    decision, some school districts ignored the
    ruling altogether, more than 100 southern members
    of Congress signed a manifesto in 1956 which
    denounced the decision in Brown and urged their
    constituents to defy it, by the fall of 1957 only
    684 of 3,000 affected school districts had even
    begun to desegregate

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • The Brown decision launched a prolonged battle
    between federal authority and state and local
    governments and between those who believed in
    racial equality and those who did not

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • The federal courts had ordered the desegregation
    of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas,
    in September of 1957 an angry white mob tried to
    prevent implementation of the order by blockading
    the entrances to the school, Governor Orval
    Faubus refused to do anything to stop the
    obstruction, President Eisenhower responded by
    federalizing the National Guard and sending
    troops (101st Airborne) to Little Rock to restore
    order and ensure that the court orders would be

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • The Montgomery Bus Boycott in December 1955 was a
    result of Rosa Parks arrest, it was effective in
    hurting local economics, a Supreme Court decision
    in 1956 declared segregation in public
    transportation illegal, the bus boycott elevated
    Martin Luther King, Jr. whose approach to protest
    was based on nonviolence, he urged African
    Americans to engage in peaceful demonstrations,
    to allow themselves to be arrested, even beaten,
    to respond to hate with love, be became the most
    influential and popular black leader in the

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • President Eisenhower completed the integration of
    the armed forces, attempted to desegregate the
    federal workforce, and signed a civil rights act
    providing federal protection for blacks that
    wished to register to vote, but this bill had no
    enforcement mechanisms as a result it was a weak

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • The legacy of WWII was very important, millions
    of black men and women had served in the military
    or worked in war plants and had derived from the
    experience a broader view of the world

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • The growth of urban black middle class began to
    flourish after the war, the leaders of the
    movement came from the urban black communities
    (ministers, educators, professionals) as well as
    from students at black colleges and universities
    who were much more aware of the obstacles to
    their advancement

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Television and other forms of popular culture
    raised the consciousness of racism among blacks,
    postwar blacks had constant, vivid reminders of
    how the white majority lived, of the world from
    which they were effectively excluded

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • The Cold War made racial injustice an
    embarrassment to Americans trying to present
    their nation as a model to the world

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • The mobilization of northern black voters made
    them a substantial voting bloc within the
    Democratic Party, the politicians from northern
    industrial states could not afford to ignore
    their views

Eisenhower Republicanism
  • Eisenhower was the least experienced politician
    to serve in the White House in the 20th Century,
    he was among the most popular and politically
    successful presidents of the postwar era,
    domestically he pursued essentially moderate
    policies, avoiding most new initiatives but
    accepting the work of earlier reformers, in
    foreign policy he continued and even intensified
    American commitments to oppose communism but
    brought to some of those commitments a measure of
    restraint that his successors did not always

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Eisenhower appointed wealthy corporate lawyers
    and business executives to his cabinet, by the
    1950s the business community had reconciled
    themselves to the broad outlines of the Keynesian
    welfare state that the New Deal had launched,
    what was good for our country was good for
    General Motors, and vice versa

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Eisenhower wanted to limit federal activities and
    encourage private enterprise, he supported
    private rather than public development of natural
    resources, lowered federal support for farm
    prices, opposed the creation of new social
    service programs such as national health
    insurance, he strove constantly to balance the
    budget and ended his last full year in office
    with a 1 billion budget surplus

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Eisenhower resisted pressure from the right
    (conservative) wing of his party to dismantle the
    welfare policies of the New Deal, he agreed to
    extend the Social Security system to an
    additional 10 million people and unemployment
    compensation to an additional 4 million, agreed
    to raise minimum wage from 75 cents to 1 dollar

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • The Federal Highway Act of 1956 authorized 25
    billion for a 10-year project that built over
    40,000 miles of interstate highways, it was the
    largest public works project in American history

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • In the election of 1956 Eisenhower beat Stevenson
    again by a large margin, and the Democrats
    retained the control of both houses and increased
    those margins in the Congressional elections of

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • In January 1954, McCarthy attacked Secretary of
    the Army Robert Stevens and the armed services in
    general, at that point the administration and
    influential members of Congress organized a
    special investigation of the charges which
    resulted in the Army-McCarthy hearings which were
    among the first congressional hearings to be
    nationally televised, watching McCarthy in action
    (bullying witnesses, hurling groundless and cruel
    accusations, evading issues).

The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
  • The results were devastating to McCarthy as much
    of the public began to see him as a villain and
    even a buffoon, in December 1954 the Senate voted
    67 to 22 to condemn him for conduct unbecoming a
    senator , McCarthy dies in 1957 from
    complications arising from alcoholism

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • The potential devastation of an atomic war so
    enormous, both superpowers began to edge away
    from direct confrontations, the attention of both
    the US and the USSR began to turn to the rapidly
    escalating instability in the nations of the
    Third World

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • John Foster Dulles was Eisenhower's secretary of
    state and dominant figure in nation's foreign
    policy, advocated active policy of liberation
    that would lead to a rollback of communist
    expansion, his policy of Massive Retaliation
    stated that the US would respond to communist
    threats to its allies by not using conventional
    forces in local conflicts (Korea) but by relying
    on the deterrent of massive retaliatory power
    (nuclear weapons).

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • This reflected his inclination for tense
    confrontations (brinkmanship) pushing the USSR
    to the brink of war in order to exact
    concessions, powered by economic pressure to
    reduce military expenditures, increasing reliance
    on atomic weapons seemed to promise more bang
    for the buck

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • On July 27, 1953 negotiators at Panmunjom finally
    signed a peace treaty between North and South
    Korea, a cease-fire line was left as a permanent
    border between the two countries along the 38th

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • Ever since 1945, France had been attempting to
    restore its authority over Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh
    was a nationalist who opposed the French forces
    in Vietnam he was determined to win independence
    for Vietnam, he did not receive aid from the US
    because he was communist.

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • Truman ignored him and supported the French, on
    May 7, 1954 the French were defeated at Dien Bien
    Phu, Eisenhower did not listen to Dulles and
    Nixon who wanted to commit American forces at
    that time, instead he refused to permit direct
    American military intervention in Vietnam

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • France agreed to the Geneva Accords of Vietnam
    (July 1954) which divided Vietnam at the 17th
    Parallel, the north would be governed by Ho Chi
    Minh, and the south by a pro-western regime
    (eventually a pro-US government led by Ngo Dinh
    Diem), there would be democratic elections to
    reunite the nation in 1956.

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • China and Soviet Union provided aid to Ho Chi
    Minh, Diem did not permit the elections in 1956
    to take place because he knew he would lose and
    the US had promised to provide him with ample
    military assistance against any attack from the

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • On May 14, 1948, Israel proclaimed their
    independence, the next day President Truman
    recognized Israel the next day, Palestinian Arabs
    joined with Israel's Arab neighbors and fought
    determinedly against the new state, America was
    committed to Israel but it was also concerned
    about the stability and friendliness of the Arab
    regimes in the oil-rich Middle East, in which
    American petroleum companies had major

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • Muhammad Mossadegh, nationalist prime minister of
    Iran, resisted the presence of Western
    corporations in his nation, in 1953 the CIA along
    with conservative Iranian military leaders drove
    Mossadegh from office and replaced him with the
    Shah of Iran (Muhammad Reza Pahlevi) who was a
    token constitutional monarch and became an
    absolute ruler with the CIAs assistance

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • Egypt under the leadership of General Gamal Abdel
    Nasser began to develop a trade relationship with
    the Soviet Union, Dulles withdrew American offers
    to assist in building the Great Aswan Dam across
    the Nile in 1956, Nasser retaliated by seizing
    control of the Suez Canal from the British,
    saying that he would use the income from the
    canal to build the dam himself

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • On October 29, 1956, Israeli forces attacked
    Egypt, the next day British and French troops
    landed in the Suez to drive the Egyptians from
    the canal, the US feared that the Suez Crisis
    would drive the Arab states toward the Soviet
    Union and precipitate a world war, the US helped
    pressure the British and the French to withdraw
    and helped persuade Israel to agree to a truce
    with Egypt

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • In 1954, the Eisenhower administration ordered
    the CIA to help topple the leftist government of
    Jacob Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala, a regime that
    Dulles argued was potentially communist (Dulles
    was responding to the entreaties of the United
    Fruit Company, a major investor in Guatemala that
    was fearful of Arbenz)

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • Fulgencio Batista had ruled Cuba as a military
    dictator since 1952, when with American
    assistance he toppled a more moderate government,
    Batista allowed Cubas relatively prosperous
    economy to be turned into a virtual fiefdom of
    American corporations, which controlled almost
    all the islands natural resources and had corned
    over half of the sugar crop.

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • American organized-crime syndicates controlled
    Havanas lucrative hotel and nightlife business,
    in 1957 a popular movement of resistance to the
    Batista regime began under the leadership of
    Fidel Castro, on January 1, 1959 Castro marched
    into Havana and established a new government
    (Batista had fled to Spain).

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • When Castro began accepting assistance from the
    Soviet Union, the US cut back the quota by
    which Ciba could export sugar to the US at a
    favored price, early in 1961 the Eisenhower
    administration severed diplomatic relations with
    Castro who in turn cemented an alliance with the
    Soviet Union

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • In 1955, Eisenhower and other NATO leaders met
    with the Soviet Premier, Nikolai Bulganin, at a
    cordial summit conference in Geneva but could
    find no basis for agreement on specific issues,
    relations between the Soviet Union and the West
    soured further in 1956 in response to the
    Hungarian Revolution.

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • Hungarian dissidents had launched a popular
    uprising in November to demand democratic
    reforms, before the month was out, Soviet tanks
    and troops entered Budapest to crush the uprising
    and restore an orthodox, pro-Soviet regime, the
    Eisenhower administration refused to intervene

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • In November 1958, Nikita Khrushchev renewed the
    demands that NATO abandon West Berlin, the US and
    her allies refused, Khrushchev suggested that he
    and Eisenhower discuss the issue personally, both
    in visits to each others countries and at a
    summit meeting in Paris in 1960.

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • Khrushchevs visit to the US in 1959 produced a
    cool but polite public response, only days before
    the scheduled meeting between Khrushchev and
    Eisenhower in Paris, the Soviet Union announced
    that it had shot down an American U-2 plane over
    Russian territory, and Khrushchev broke up the
    Paris meeting almost before it could begin and
    withdrew his invitation to Eisenhower to visit
    the Soviet Union

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
  • After 8 years in office, Eisenhower had failed to
    eliminate and in some respects had actually
    increased the tensions between the US and the
    Soviet Union, yet Eisenhower had brought to the
    Cold War his own sense of the limits of American
    power, he had resisted military intervention in
    Vietnam and he had resisted the creation of an
    enormous military establishment, in his farewell
    address in January 1961 Eisenhower warned of the
    unwarranted influence of a vast
    military-industrial complex