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Brazil: POLITICAL CULTURE, SOCIALIZATION AND RECRUITMENT

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Brazil: POLITICAL CULTURE, SOCIALIZATION AND RECRUITMENT * * * * * * * * * SystemBrazil Brazilian Political Culture: Origins Thomastic synthesis of Greeks and St ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Brazil: POLITICAL CULTURE, SOCIALIZATION AND RECRUITMENT


1
Brazil POLITICAL CULTURE, SOCIALIZATION AND
RECRUITMENT
2
SystemBrazil
3
Brazilian Political Culture Origins
  • Thomastic synthesis of Greeks and St. Augustine
  • Expansiveness of New World environment
  • Rousseau

4
Political Culture Characteristics
  • Elite Dominated
  • Emperor Dom Pedro II
  • (age 61)
  • Legacy of patrimonialism
  • Civil society
  • Emerged in response to authoritarian rule

5
Political Culture Catholic Religion
  • Catholic nation largest number of Catholics in
    the world
  • Religious observance among Catholics
    traditionally low of little importance
    electorally
  • Liberation theology
  • Ecclesiastical base communities
  • National Conference
  • of Brazilian Bishops
  • National Cathedral Brasilia

6
Political CULTURE Evangelical
Protestants
  • Candomble
  • Religious differences in
  • voting patterns minimal

7
Political Culture of Statism
  • State permeates society
  • Compliance and enforcement often arbitrary
  • Social solidarity movements in favelas
  • Began as mechanism of state control during
    military dictatorship (1964 85)
  • Movements evolved into institutions that sought
    to influence those in authority
  • Became a force for democratization

8
Gender
  • Machismo and
  • marianismo
  • Under military rule
  • traditional image and orientations towards
    politics of women began to change.
  • Political opportunity followed educational and
    occupational opportunity.
  • Authoritarianism had an economic impact on women
  • Took the lead in their communities struggles for
    health care and sanitation
  • Made demands relating to wages and worker rights

9
Racial Democracy No Yes
  • Racial Democracy myth
  • Racial prejudice embedded in traditional Brazil
  • Movimento Negro Unificado-The Unified Black
    Movement Against Racial Discrimination
  • Affirmative action policies under President Lula

10
Brazilian Political Culture
  • How democratic?
  • Not tolerant of authoritarianism
  • No single vision of what kind of democracy they
    supported
  • They distrust politicians, political parties, and
    democratic institutions more than in the recent
    past.
  • Distrust democratic institutions today more than
    other Latin Americans.
  • Less aware of their civic rights and
    responsibilities than most Latin Americans
  • On the other hand, Brazilians behave in more
    democratic ways than their answers to surveys may
    imply
  • Turn out to vote at higher rates and believe
    their vote matters more than on average across
    Latin America

11
Brazilians National Pride
12
Attitudes toward Institutions
13
Political Socialization in Brazil
  • Changes in the socialization of Women
  • Economic development and political organization
    carried over into democratic era
  • Increased activist orientation of women
  • Race as a component of political socialization
  • Print Media
  • Newspapers confined to elite
  • Magazines

14
Socialization and Mass Communication
  • Impact of Television (access is universal)
  • Brings politics into Brazilian homes via the
    horario gratuito
  • free television time set aside during the
    election campaigns for the political parties
  • Individual candidates and parties receive
    coverage during television news and any televised
    debates
  • Telenovelas (prime-time soap operas) .
  • project themes subtly influence the ways in
    which people view politicians and institutions.

15
Socialization and Neighborhood
  • Political learning

16
Recruitment of Political Elites
Traditional political families Coronales Fernando
Collor de Mello Jose Sarney Wealth
especially in South-east and South Military
regime opportunities for Técnicos Movement to
professional politicians (Fernando Henrique
Cardoso) Labor movement (Luis Ignacio da Silva
Lula) Inclusion of more women Luiza Erundina
17
Political Recruitment and Political
Participation Citizen Politics
  • Blossoming of associations 8,000 in the late
    1970s
  • Organized movements around
  • identities,
  • single issues
  • political and social rights, most notably those
    to protect indigenous peoples, the environment,
    and human rights and to gain land for the
    landless
  • Tactics
  • International allies
  • Direct confrontation
  • Use of the courts
  • Role of NGOs

18
Political Participation as Political Recruitment
  • Mass political participation
  • Staggering amount of participation
  • Elections
  • Participatory budgeting
  • Process by which hundreds of thousands of
    citizens meet in a series of open, public
    assemblies before the legislative budget cycle
    begins in order to establish spending priorities

19
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20
Citizen Politics
  • Grassroots church groups
  • Urban Neighborhood associations (8000)
  • Professional associations
  • Countryside (Movement of Landless Rural Workers)
  • Mass demonstration and confrontational politics
  • Non-governmental organizations

21
MASS POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
  • Voting compulsory
  • Submission of blank ballots (varied between 19
    and 31 in 1990s)
  • Voting is becoming more inclusive
  • 1960 19 million eligible to vote
  • 1998 106 million eligible to vote

22
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