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Team Decision-Making Pitfalls

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CHAPTER 7 Team Decision-Making Pitfalls Groupthink Escalation of commitment Abilene paradox Group polarization Unethical decision making Exhibit 7-2. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Team Decision-Making Pitfalls


1
Team Decision-Making Pitfalls
  • Groupthink
  • Escalation of commitment
  • Abilene paradox
  • Group polarization
  • Unethical decision making

2
Exhibit 7-1. Team Process and Outcomes
3
Exhibit 7-2. A Rational Model of Group Decision
Making
Forsyth, D. (1990). Group dynamics (2nd ed., p.
286). Pacific Grove, CA Brooks/Cole.
4
Symptoms of Groupthink
  • Incomplete survey of alternatives
  • Incomplete survey of objectives
  • Failure to reexamine alternatives
  • Failure to examine preferred choices
  • Selection bias
  • Poor information search
  • Failure to create contingency plans

5
Avoiding Groupthink
  • Monitor team size
  • Provide face-saving mechanism for teams
  • Risk technique
  • Invite different perspectives
  • Appoint a devils advocate
  • Structure discussion principles
  • Establish procedures for protecting alternative
    viewpoints
  • Second solution
  • Beware of time pressure

6
Exhibit 7-8. Escalation of Commitment
Source Adapted from Ross, J., Staw, B. M.
(1993). Organizational escalation and exit
Lessons from the Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant.
Academy of Management Journal, 70173
7
Escalation of Commitment
  • Project determinants
  • Psychological determinants
  • Social determinants
  • Structural determinants
  • Avoiding the escalation of commitment problem
  • Set limits
  • Avoid the bystander effect
  • Avoid tunnel vision
  • Recognize sunk costs
  • Avoid bad mood
  • External review

8
Key Causes of Self-Limiting Behavior in Teams
  • Presence of someone with expertise
  • Presentation of a compelling argument
  • Lack of confidence in ones ability to contribute
  • Unimportant or meaningless decision
  • Pressure from others to conform to teams
    decision
  • Dysfunctional decision-making climate

9
Avoiding the Abilene Paradox
  • Confront the issue in a team setting
  • Conduct a private vote
  • Minimize status differences
  • Frame task as a decision to be made
  • Provide formal forum for controversial views
  • Take responsibility for failure

10
Group Polarization
  • Risky shift
  • Cautious shift
  • Explanations
  • The need to be right
  • The need to be liked
  • Conformity pressures

11
Exhibit 7-12. Group Polarization
Group polarization processes. Imagine that Group
1 includes Person A (who chose 1), Person B (who
chose 3), and Persons C and D (who both chose 5)
the average of pregroup choices would be (1 3
5 5)/4, or 3.5. Because this mean is less than
5, a risky shift would probably occur in Group 1.
If, in contrast, Group 2 contained Persons C, D,
E and F, their pregroup average would be (5 5
7 9)/4 or 6.5. Because this mean is closer to
the caution pole, a conservative shift would
probably occur in the group.
Source Adapted from Janis, I. L. (1982). Victims
of groupthink (2nc ed.). Boston Houghton
Mifflin.
12
Unethical Decision Making
  • Situational triggers
  • Rational man model
  • Pluralistic ignorance
  • Desensitization

13
How to Remedy or Prevent Unethical
Decision Making
  • Accountability for behavior
  • Reward model
  • Appropriate role models
  • Eliminate conflicts of interest
  • Create cultures of integrity
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