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Decision-Making

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Decision-Making HRT 382 Thank You! Thomas R. Harvey, William L. Bearley, and Sharon M. Corkrum, authors of The Practical Decision Maker: a Handbook for Decision ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Decision-Making


1
Decision-Making
  • HRT 382

2
Thank You!
  • Thomas R. Harvey, William L. Bearley, and Sharon
    M. Corkrum, authors of The Practical Decision
    Maker a Handbook for Decision Making and Problem
    Solving in Organizations
  • Thomas R. Harvey, presenter on Decision Making
    (ULV, Fall 2001)
  • Michael Doyle and David Straus, authors of How to
    Make Meetings Work
  • Stephen R. Covey, author of The 7 Habits of
    Highly Effective People
  • Ken Blanchard and Steve Gottry, authors of The
    On-Time, On-Target Manager

3
SITNA
  • Situation That Needs Attention
  • Phrase and term coined by John Jones
  • Reframing a problem as a SITNA helps remove the
    negative connotation we place on problems
  • Complaint
  • Challenge
  • Improvement Need
  • Opportunity
  • Performance Gap

4
What ever the term
  • Problem Solving
  • is one type of
  • Decision Making

5
Blanchard and Gottry point out
  • We have four categories of daily activities we
    face
  • Things we want to do and have to do
  • Things we have to do but dont want to do
  • Things we want to do but dont have to do
  • Things we dont want to do and dont have to do

6
Prioritizing Activities
  • YES
  • Want to do
  • and
  • have to do
  • Have to do
  • but
  • dont want to do
  • MAYBE
  • Want to do
  • but
  • dont have to do
  • NO
  • Dont want to do
  • and
  • dont have to do

7
Personal Decision Making
  • Time Management vs. Life Management
  • Time management is a decision making process
  • Effective personal decision making requires
    effective time management
  • However, efficient scheduling and control of time
    can be counterproductive
  • Coveys phrase is
  • Organize and execute around priorities

8
Personal Decision Making
  • An efficiency focus may limit the
  • Development of rich relationships
  • Our ability to enjoy the moment
  • If we organize and execute around priorities, the
    focus is
  • Preserving and enhancing relationships
  • Accomplishing results
  • Life management is decision making
  • Life management is managing ourselves

9
Time Management Matrix
  • Importance of personal vision or mission and
    personal goals
  • Coveys time management matrix helps to
    understand how to manage ourselves and our lives
  • His concepts are Urgent Important
  • Urgent means Now!
  • Important relates to results
  • Goal is to be a Quadrant II person

10
Time Management Matrix
11
Moving from Individual to Team
  • Teams are composed of individuals
  • Some individuals are hardy
  • Resilient
  • See problems as challenges and opportunities
  • Some individuals demonstrate self-efficacy
  • Who are you?
  • On a fully-functioning team, most, if not all,
    individuals demonstrate these traits

12
A Fully Functioning Team will
  • Work together successfully
  • Solve problems and reach decisions in a way that
    incorporates individual input
  • May reach decisions through consensus
  • Adapt to change
  • Achieve or exceed desired results

13
Teams Decision Making
  • A team has a purpose
  • A vision of where it is heading
  • A picture of the desired results
  • The question is, Which path do we take?
  • Decision making is the art of choosing and
    implementing a solution to a identifiable SITNA
  • Without vision and without decision making, there
    is no need for leadership (Thomas Harvey)

14
Writing Time!
  • Please print you name and lunch or dinner at
    the top of an 3x5 card
  • Think about a decision you recently reached while
    part of a team
  • Draw a diagram or list the steps showing the
    process and briefly explain each step
  • I will ask a few of you to share your
    decision-making steps

15
Types of Decisions
  • Command
  • Urgent / Important
  • Convenience
  • Not Important / Not Urgent
  • Consultation
  • Not Urgent or Urgent / Important
  • Consensus
  • Not Urgent / Important

16
Team Consensus
  • With both Consultation and Consensus, let people
    know up front what their thoughts will be used
    for
  • Not Urgent / Important
  • Keys for Consensus
  • Everyone understands the issue
  • Everyone expresses an opinion
  • Everyone can live with the decision

17
Practical Decision-Making
  • For Consensus Decision Making
  • Six Steps
  • Mind-set
  • Problem definition
  • Solution criteria
  • Possible solutions
  • Solution choice
  • Implement

18
Step 1 Mind-Set
  • Talk, dont solve create a safe environment
  • SITNA Thinking and discussing the problem
  • What resources will be needed?
  • Organizational context (circumstances and
    setting)
  • Vision, values, organizational direction,
    toxicity
  • How will it affect the organization?
  • People context
  • How do people feel and what positions are
    evident?
  • Is the problem political?
  • Decision making context
  • What type of decision making is needed?
  • The givens resources, legal, and other
    parameters

19
Step 2 Problem Definition
  • If the problem is clear, this step is short
  • New venture
  • A choice (non-reactive) new vision and goals
  • Short fall
  • Existing Condition lt GAP gt Desired Condition
  • Why? Causes?
  • Improvement
  • Existing Condition lt GAP gt New Expectations
  • New processes needed
  • Opportunity
  • Why is it an opportunity?

20
Step 3 Solution Criteria
  • Criterion examples
  • 100 consensus
  • It will not cost more than XXX
  • Needs Must have to reach a decision (Must)
  • Wants It would help to have these (Should)
  • Nice, too! A perk, but not required (Bonus)
  • This step is critical to help remove emotion and
    politics
  • It also helps focus possible solutions

21
Step 4 Possible Solutions
  • Generate ideas
  • If natural solutions are 3 (A, B, C), then
    generate 2½ times as many (at least 8 in this
    example)
  • Some may be silly, but beyond silly is genius!
    (Harvey)
  • Clarify
  • In the first step, get the ideas out then
    clarify
  • Combine
  • Some ideas may be combined to enhance the option
  • Document
  • Generate a list of possible solutions in their
    final form

22
Step 5 Solution Choice
  • Compare all possible solutions with the Solution
    Criteria generated in Step 3
  • What is the best solution?
  • It is the one that satisfies all needs, the most
    wants, and it may have some nice, toos
  • Has the least negative consequences
  • Reach consensus with the team

23
Step 6 Implement
  • Action plan
  • Do it
  • Inspect

24
Structuring Team Meetings
  • Get the Doyle Straus book!
  • Have norms
  • Have a proper agenda
  • Have assigned responsibilities
  • Facilitator, Recorder, Timekeeper, Process
    Observer, and maybe a Facilities/Materials Person
    and a Snack Provider
  • Rotate responsibilities - Why?
  • Report using a Group Memo rather than minutes
  • Use formal structuring devices

25
Use of Structuring Devices
  • Techniques to help individuals
  • Understand the issue
  • Offer their thoughts and opinions
  • Reduce emotion, stress, and politics
  • Stay on track, on time, and move toward decision
  • Techniques for ordering how people decide things
  • They structure behavior
  • Each step in the decision making model has a menu
    of structuring devices from which to choose

26
We dont have enough time to do it right, but we
always have time to do it over.- Author Unknown
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