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Transformational Leadership

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Title: Transformational Leadership


1
Transformational Leadership
  • Presented By Marcos Pavlovich, Brad Harr, Diego
    Iglesias, Chris Chandley

2
Outline
  • Transformational Leadership
  • Who Developed Transformational Leadership
  • Transformational Leaders
  • The Transformational and Transactional Leadership
    Model
  • Full Range Model
  • How to Apply Transformational Leadership
  • Personality and Transformational Leadership
  • Transformational Leadership Vs other types of
    Leadership Styles
  • The Big Five
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of Transformational
    Leadership
  • Multi factor Leadership Questionnaire

3
  • What is Transformational Leadership?

4
Transformational Leadership
  • People will follow a person who inspires them.
  • A person with vision and passion can achieve
    great things.
  • The way to get things done is by injecting
    enthusiasm and energy.

(Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)
5
Transformational Theorists
  • James Burns
  • Architect of Transformational Leadership
  • Presidential Biographer
  • Scholar at Burns Academy of Leadership
  • Bernard Bass
  • Transformational Transactional Leadership Model
  • Full Range Model
  • Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire

(Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)
6
James McGregor Burns
  • Specializes in the study of leadership in
    American political life
  • His book, Leadership(1978), is still considered
    by many, the seminal work in the field of
    leadership studies.
  • In this book, he introduced the concepts of
    transactional and transformational leadership

(Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)
7
James McGregor Burns
  • I define leadership as leaders inducing
    followers to act for certain goals that represent
    the values and the motivations-the wants and
    needs, the aspirations and expectations-of both
    leaders and followers.
  • Leadership must be aligned with a collective
    purpose and effective leaders must be judged by
    their ability to make social changes.

(Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)
8
James McGregor Burns
  • Transactional Leadership is based on a
    transaction or exchange of something of value the
    leader possesses or controls that the follower
    wants in return for his/her services.
  • The relations of most leaders and followers are
    transactional-leaders approach followers with an
    eye to exchanging one thing for another

(Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)
9
James McGregor Burns
  • Transformational Leadership goes beyond
    transactional leadership.
  • Transformational leadership occurs when one or
    more persons engage with others in such a way
    that leaders and followers raise one another to
    higher levels of motivation and morality.

(Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)
10
Transformational Leaders
  • Intellectual Leaders
  • Highly concerned about values and purposes
  • Combination of an Analyst and a moralist
  • Transform society by raising social consciousness
  • Reformer Leaders
  • Require a large number of followers
  • Reformers try to improve different aspects of
    society at a time

(Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)
11
Transformational leaders (cont.)
  • Revolutionary Leaders
  • Ask followers for the ultimate sacrifice
  • Revolutionaries try to change society as a whole
  • Charismatic (hero)
  • The ultimate form of transformational leader
  • Viewed as a Hero by its followers
  • Moses

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
12
Bernard Bass Transformational Leadership Theory
  • Bass (1985) new version of transformational
    leadership
  • More attention to follower needs
  • Transactional and transformational leadership as
    a single continuum
  • Transformational Leaders motivates followers to
    do more than expected by
  • Raising followers levels of consciousness
  • Getting followers to transcend their own
    self-interest
  • Moving followers to address high level needs

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
13
The Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Model Factors

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
14
The Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Model (Cont.)
  • Factor 1 Idealized Influence
  • Demonstrate an inclusive vision
  • High standards of moral and ethical conduct
  • Respected by followers
  • Exhibit great commitment and persistence in
    pursuing objectives
  • Develop trust and confidence among employees
  • I believe that this is truly the right thing to
    do

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
15
The Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Model (Cont.)
  • Factor 2 Inspirational
  • Communicate high expectations to followers
  • Inspire others to perform
  • Create a strong sense of purpose among employees
  • Align individual and organizational needs
  • If we focus on what this organization stands for
    we can achieve whatever we decide

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
16
The Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Model (Cont.)
  • Factor 3 Intellectual Motivation
  • Stimulate followers to be creative and innovative
  • Support new approaches to deal with
    organizational issues
  • Willing to take risk for potential gains and
    encourage the followers not to think like him/her
  • If we change our assumption, then

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
17
The Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Model (Cont.)
  • Factor 4 Individualized Consideration
  • Is an active listener
  • Make interpersonal connections with followers
  • Act as a coach and adviser
  • Promote self development
  • I care about you and am looking out for your
    best interest

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
18
The Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Model (Cont.)
  • Factor 5 Contingent Reward
  • Recognize what needs to be accomplished
  • Try to obtain agreement from followers
  • Exchange process effort for specified rewards
  • Arrange to provide the resources needed by
    followers to accomplish their objectives
  • If you do as we agreed, youll get the reward

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
19
The Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Model (Cont)
  • Factor 6 Management by Exception
  • Involves corrective criticism, negative feedback
    and negative reinforcement
  • Active Form
  • Arranges to know if something has gone wrong
  • Attends to mistake and deviation
  • Remains alert for infractions of the rules
  • Passive form
  • Takes no action unless a problem arises
  • Avoids unnecessary changes
  • Refuses to take sides in a dispute
  • Shows lack of interest
  • Uh oh, here he/she comes again

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
20
The Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Model (Cont.)
  • Factor 7 Laissez-Faire
  • Hands off let things ride approach
  • Avoid making decisions
  • Abdicate responsibility
  • Gives no feedback
  • Show lack of interest
  • Do not emphasis results
  • That leader doesnt care if we do or if we dont

(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
21
Full Range Leadership Model
(Peter G. Northhouse,2004, Paul Kirkbride,2006,
John E. Barbuto Jr Lance L. Cummins,2007
22
How Does the Transformational Approach Works
  • General steps followed by transformational
    leaders
  • Empower followers and nurture them in change
  • Become strong models for their followers
  • Create a vision for the organization
  • Act as a change agent for new direction within
    organizations
  • Become social architects

(Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)
23
Transformational Leadership Applications
  • There is not a set of assumptions about leaders
    should act in particular situations
  • Provides a general way of thinking
  • It can be taught to individuals at all levels
  • It can be used in recruitment, selection, and
    promotion, and training and development
  • It can be used in improving team development,
    decision making groups, quality initiatives, and
    reorganization

(Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)
24
Transformational Leadership vs. Charismatic
Leadership
  • Charismatic Leadership
  • Charismatic leaders typically have a compelling
    vision or sense of purpose, effectively
    communicate that vision, are consistent and
    focused, highly confident, and know their own
    strengths and weaknesses. Accordingly, they
    capitalize on their strengths. (2) One major
    question of the Charismatic Leadership theory is
    Are charismatic leaders born or could they be
    trained? Most theorists would argue that leaders
    can learn to be charismatic. (Bromely
    Kirschner-Bromely, 2007)

(Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)
25
Transformational Leadership vs. Charismatic
Leadership (Cont.)
  • Charismatic Leadership founded by Robert J. House
    (1976)
  • A Transformational Leader can be charismatic
  • Strong Role Models
  • Competency
  • Goals
  • High Expectations
  • Task-Relevant Motives

(Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)
26
Transformational Leadership vs. Situational
Leadership
  • Situational Leadership
  • Situational leadership theory (SLT) asserts that
    there is no one best style of leadership or way
    to influence people. The leader needs to respond
    to the situation with appropriate task and
    relationship behavior based on followers'
    readiness and this (defined as ability and
    willingness) interaction determines the leader's
    effectiveness (Hersey, 1988). In other words, as
    the level of followers' readiness changes, the
    amount of leader task and relation behavior
    should also change to match that level.
    (McLaurin, 2006)

(Blanchard Hersey, 1996)
27
Transformational Leadership vs. Situational
Leadership (Cont.)
  • Situational Leadership founded by Hersey
    Blanchard (1969)
  • Four Main Leadership Styles
  • Revisions to Situational Leadership

(Blanchard Hersey, 1996)
28
Transformational Leadership vs. Servant Leadership
  • Servant Leadership
  • In Servant Leadership, Robert Greenleaf (1991)
    introduces the concept of the leader as servant,
    an idea he credits to his reading of Herman
    Hesse's Journey to the East. The premise of the
    story is a mythical journey, sponsored by an
    Order. The central character is Leo, a man who
    accompanies the travelers and does their menial
    chores. Leo also provides moral support for the
    travelers with his spirit and his song. Although
    he is a servant, his presence is extraordinary,
    and his contribution to the journey extends well
    beyond the menial tasks he performs. This becomes
    evident when Leo disappears, the travelers fall
    into chaos, and the journey is terminated.
    (Vargus Hanlon, 2007)

(Cunningham, 2004, Alliance for, n.d)
29
Transformational Leadership vs. Servant
Leadership (Cont.)
  • Guiding Principals of Servant Leadership (As
    defined by the Indiana State University Alliance
    for Servant Leadership (ASL))
  • Agreeableness
  • Transformation
  • Personal Growth
  • Enabling Environments
  • Service
  • Trusting Relationships
  • Creating Commitment
  • Community-Building
  • Nurturing the Spirit

(Cunningham, 2004, Alliance for, n.d)
30
Personality and Transformational Leadership
  • Five Factor Model of Personality
  • Extraversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Emotional Adjustment (opposite-Neuroticism)
  • Openness to Experience

Bono, T.A., 2000
31
The Big Five (characteristics)
  • Extraversion
  • Outgoing , active, excitement seeking
  • Strongly predisposed to experience positive
    emotions.
  • Agreeableness
  • Kind, gentle, trusting, and trustworthy
  • Conscientiousness
  • Responsible, dependable, achiever

Bono, T.A., 2000
32
The Big Five (characteristics)
  • Emotional Adjustment
  • Often labeled by its opposite Neuroticism
  • Anxious, fearful, depressed, and moody
  • Openness to Experience
  • Creative, imaginative, perceptive, and thoughtful
  • Strongly related to intelligence

Bono, T.A., 2000
33
The Big Five and Transformational Leadership
  • At first glance
  • Extraversion
  • Positively related to Transformational Leadership
  • Agreeableness
  • Positively related to Transformational Leadership
  • Consciousness
  • No hypothesis

Bono, T.A., 2000
34
The Big Five and Transformational Leadership
  • At first glance
  • Neuroticism
  • Negatively related to transformational leadership
  • Openness to Experience
  • Positively related to transformational leadership

Bono, T.A., 2000
35
The Research
  • 456 participants from community leadership
    programs (i.e. Chamber of Commerce programs)
  • 3 surveys
  • Supervisor, participant , subordinates
  • 48 returned the surveys
  • 84 of these received supervisor surveys
  • 88 of these had at least one subordinate

Bono, T.A., 2000
36
The Results
  • Agreeableness and Extraversion showed
    significant relationship with transformational
    leadership
  • The relationship between Openness to experience,
    Consciousness, and Neuroticism was not
    significant.

Bono, T.A., 2000
37
Research Limitations/bias
  • Subordinate ratings
  • Ratings and outcome variances
  • In some cases, leaders selected which subordinate
    to complete the survey

Bono, T.A., 2000
38
Transformational Leadership Strengths Weaknesses
  • Strengths
  • Widely Researched
  • Intuitive Appeal
  • Process occurring between followers and leaders
  • Broad View of Leadership
  • Strong Emphasis on Followers Needs, Values
    Morals

(Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)
39
Transformational Leadership Strengths and
Weaknesses
  • Weaknesses
  • Lacks Conceptual Clarity
  • Transformational Leadership Measurements
  • Treats Leadership as a Personality Trait
  • Elitist and Antidemocratic
  • Based Primarily on Qualitative Data
  • Potential for Abuse

(Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)
40
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)
  • Determines leaders particular strengths and
    weaknesses in transformational leadership
  • Measures followers perception of a leaders
    behavior for each of the 7 factors
  • Pinpoints areas in which individuals could
    improve their leadership

(Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)
41
MLQ-6S
  • Scoring
  • Measures your leadership on 7 factors related to
    transformational leadership
  • The score for each factor is determined by
    summing 3 specified items of the questionnaire
  • Score range
  • HIGH9-12
  • Moderate5-8
  • Low0-4

(Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)
42
QUESTIONS?
43
Works Cited
  • Bono, T. A. (2000). Five Factor Model of
    Personality and Transformational Leadership.
    Journal of Applied Pyschology , 751 - 765.
  • Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York Harper
    Row.
  • Homrig, C. M. (2001, December 21).
    Transformational Leadership. Retrieved Dec 27,
    2008, from United States Air Force
    http//leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig/htm
  • John E Barbuto, J. (2007). Full Range Leadership.
    The University of Nebraska, Lincoln .
  • Kirkbride, P. (2006). Developing Transformational
    Leadersthe full range leadership model in
    action. Industrial and Commercial Training , 23.
  • Northhouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership Theory
    Practice. SAGE Publications.
  • Stewart, J. (2006). Transformational Leadership
    An Evolving Concept examined thru the work of
    Burns, Bass, Avolio, Leithwood. Canadian
    Journal of the Educational Administration and
    Policy

44
Works Cited
  • Bromley, Howard R., and Victoria A.
    Kirschner-Bromley. "Are you a transformational
    leader?(Leadership)(Author abstract)." Physician
    Executive 33.6 (Nov-Dec 2007) 54(4). Academic
    OneFile. Gale. East Tennessee State Univ
    Library. 26 Dec. 2008 lthttp//find.galegroup.com.
    ezproxy.etsu.edu2048/itx/start.do?prodIdAONEgt.
  • McLaurin, J. Reagan. "The role of situation in
    the leadership process a review and
    application.(Manuscripts)." Academy of Strategic
    Management Journal 5 (Annual 2006) 97(18). Academ
    ic OneFile. Gale. East Tennessee State Univ
    Library. 26 Dec. 2008 lthttp//find.galegroup.com.
    ezproxy.etsu.edu2048/itx/start.do?prodIdAONEgt.
  • Vargas, Pamela A., and Jim Hanlon. "Celebrating a
    profession the servant leadership
    perspective.(Reflections)." Journal of Research
    Administration 38.1 (Spring 2007) 45(5). Academic
    OneFile. Gale. East Tennessee State Univ
    Library. 26 Dec. 2008 lthttp//find.galegroup.com.
    ezproxy.etsu.edu2048/itx/start.do?prodIdAONEgt.
  • Blanchard, Kenneth H., and Paul Hersey. "Great
    ideas revisited." Training Development 50.n1 (Ja
    n 1996) 42(6). Academic OneFile. Gale. East
    Tennessee State Univ Library. 30 Dec.
    2008 lthttp//find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.etsu.edu
    2048/itx/start.do?prodIdAONEgt.
  • Cunningham, Robert. "Servant leadership--an
    introduction." Global Virtue Ethics
    Review 5.3-4 (July 2004) 2(5). Academic
    OneFile. Gale. East Tennessee State Univ
    Library. 30 Dec. 2008 lthttp//find.galegroup.com.
    ezproxy.etsu.edu2048/itx/start.do?prodIdAONEgt.
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