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CHAPTER 10, qualitative field research

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Ethnography A report on social life that focuses on detailed and accurate description rather than explanation. Ethnomethodology An approach to the study of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 10, qualitative field research


1
CHAPTER 10, qualitative field research
2
Chapter Outline
  • Topics Appropriate to Field Research
  • Special Consideration in Qualitative Field
    Research
  • Some Qualitative Field Research Paradigms
  • Conducting Qualitative Field Research
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field
    Research
  • Ethics and Qualitative Field Research
  • Quick Quiz

3
Topics Appropriate for Field Research
  • Topics that defy simply quantification
  • Attitudes and behaviors best understood in their
    natural setting
  • Social processes over time

4
  • Elements of Social Life Appropriate to Field
    Research
  • Practices
  • Episodes
  • Encounters
  • Roles and Social Types
  • Social and Personal Relationships
  • Groups and Cliques
  • Organizations
  • Settlements and Habitats
  • Social Worlds
  • Subcultures and Lifestyles

5
Special Considerations in Qualitative Field
Research
  • Roles of the Observer
  • Participant, Researcher, Observer
  • Reactivity The problem that the subjects of
    social research may react to the fact of being
    studied, thus altering their behavior from what
    it would have been normally.
  • Relations to Subjects
  • Objectivity
  • Alien / Martian
  • Reflexivity

6
Some Qualitative Field Research Paradigms
  • Naturalism
  • Ethnomethodology
  • Grounded Theory
  • Case Studies
  • Institutional Ethnography
  • Participatory Action Research

7
  • Naturalism An approach to field research based
    on the assumption that an objective social
    reality exists and can be observed and reported
    accurately.
  • Ethnography A report on social life that
    focuses on detailed and accurate description
    rather than explanation.

8
  • Ethnomethodology An approach to the study of
    social life that focuses on the discovery of
    implicit, usually unspoken assumptions and
    agreement.

9
  • Grounded Theory an inductive approach to the
    study of social life that attempts to generate a
    theory from the constant comparing of unfolding
    observations.
  • Guidelines
  • Think conservatively
  • Obtain multiple viewpoints
  • Periodically step back
  • Maintain an attitude of skepticism
  • Follow the research procedures

10
  • Case Studies The in-depth examination of a
    single instance of some social phenomenon.
  • Extended Case Method A technique in which case
    study observations are used to discover flaws in
    and to improve existing social theories.

11
  • Institutional Ethnography A research technique
    in which the personal experiences of individuals
    are used to reveal power relationships and other
    characteristics of the institution within which
    they operate.

12
  • Participatory Action Research An approach to
    social research in which the people being studied
    are given control over the purpose and procedures
    of the research.
  • Emancipatory Research Research conducted for
    the purpose of benefiting disadvantaged groups.

13
Conducting Qualitative Field Research
  • Preparing for the Field
  • Be familiar with relevant research
  • Discuss your plans with others in the area
  • Identify and meet informants (when appropriate)
  • First impressions are important
  • Establish rapport (an open and trusting
    relationship)
  • Ethical considerations

14
  • Qualitative Interview Contrasted with survey
    interviewing, the qualitative interview is based
    on a set of topics to be discussed in depth
    rather than based on the use of standardized
    questions.
  • Miner or Traveler

15
  • Stages in Complete Interviewing Process
  • Thematizing
  • Designing
  • Interviewing
  • Transcribing
  • Analyzing
  • Verifying
  • Reporting

16
  • Focus Group A group of subjects interviewed
    together, prompting a discussion.
  • Advantages real-life data, flexible, high degree
    of face validity, fast, inexpensive
  • Disadvantages not representative, little
    interviewer control, difficult analysis,
    interviewer/moderator skills, difficult
    logistically

17
  • Recording Observations
  • Take detailed notes, but balance with
    observations
  • Rewrite notes with observations soon after
    observations with filled in details
  • Record empirical observations and interpretations
  • Record everything
  • Anticipate observations

18
Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field
Research
  • Strengths of Qualitative Field Research
  • Effective for studying subtle nuances in
    attitudes and behaviors and social processes over
    time
  • Flexibility
  • Inexpensive
  • Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Research
  • No appropriate statistical analyses

19
  • Validity
  • Greater validity than survey and experimental
    measurements
  • Reliability
  • Potential problems with reliability

20
Quick Quiz
21
  • 1. When you use field research, youre confronted
    with
  • decisions about the role youll play as an
    observer
  • your relationship with the people you are
    observing
  • both of the above choices
  • neither of the above choices

22
  • Answer C.
  • When you use field research, youre confronted
    with decisions about the role youll play as an
    observer and your relationship with the people
    you are observing.

23
  • 2. _____ is an old tradition in qualitative
    research based on the assumption that an
    objective social reality exists and can be
    observed and reported accurately.
  • Naturalism
  • Ethnography
  • Ethnomethodology

24
  • Answer A.
  • Naturalism is an old tradition in qualitative
    research based on the assumption that an
    objective social reality exists and can be
    observed and reported accurately.

25
  • 3. _____ describes when the subject of social
    research may react to the fact of being studied,
    thus altering their behavior from what it would
    have been normally.
  • Reactivity
  • Sensitivity
  • Hyperactivity

26
  • ANSWER A.
  • Reactivity describes when the subject of social
    research may react to the fact of being studied,
    thus altering their behavior from what it would
    have been normally.

27
  • 4. In a _____, typically 12-15 people are brought
    together to engage in a guided discussion on some
    topic.
  • classroom
  • focus group
  • micro study

28
  • ANSWER B.
  • In a focus group, typically 12-15 people are
    brought together to engage in a guided discussion
    on some topic.

29
  • 5. In comparison to surveys and experiments,
    field research has
  • high validity and high reliability.
  • high validity and low reliability.
  • low validity and high reliability.
  • low validity and low reliability.

30
  • ANSWER B.
  • In comparison to surveys and experiments, field
    research has high validity and low reliability.
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