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Super Size Me


Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 2005. Food & Health 400:104. Lecture 25-26 ... Ban or restrict junk-food advertising to kids ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Super Size Me

Super Size Me
Lecture 25-26 April 24-28, 2008 Dr. Quadro Food
Science Department
  • Cooking at home…does it make a difference?
  • The size and the number of meals…matter!
  • Quality also matters!
  • Quality means…content of fat, sugars, protein,
  • Quality also means….search for organic food.

What makes food organic?
  • Produced on environmental friendly farms that
    emphasize renewable sources, soil and water
    conservation to enhance environmental quality for
    future generations.
  • Does not contain antibiotic or growth hormones.
  • Does not use conventional pesticides, fertilizer
    with synthetic ingredients or sewer sludge,
    bioengineering or ionizing radiation.

  • USDA (United States Department of Defense)
    certifies as organic food products that meet
    certain standards.
  • USDA makes no claims that organically produced
    food is safer or more nutritious than
    conventionally produced food. Organic food
    differs from conventionally produced food in the
    way it is grown, handled, and processed.

  • Does natural mean organic? No. Natural and
    organic are not interchangeable. Other truthful
    claims, such as free-range, hormone-free, and
    natural, can still appear on food labels.
    However, don't confuse these terms with
    "organic." Only food labeled "organic" has been
    certified as meeting USDA organic standards.

What is a Genetically Modified (GM) Food?
  • Foods that contain an added gene sequence
  • Foods that have a deleted gene sequence
  • Animal products from animals fed GM feed
  • Products produced by GM organisms

Why are foods genetically modified?
  • Genetic engineering offers a rapid and precise
    method of altering organisms as compared to
    traditional methods that are slow and inaccurate.

Common GM Foods
  • Vegetables
  • Tomatoes
  • Potatoes
  • Rice
  • Cheese
  • Meat

How is genetic modification possible?
  • The components of DNA are the same in all
  • Sequences that code for proteins can be moved
    from one organism to another.

How can DNA be moved from one organism to another?
Find an organism with the desired trait Isolate
the gene sequence that codes for the desired
trait Insert the gene sequence into the genome of
the plant cell
Possible Benefits of GM Foods
  • Easing of world hunger
  • Development of crops that can be grown in
    marginal soil
  • Reduced strain on nonrenewable resources
  • Development of drought resistant crops
  • Development of salt-tolerant crops
  • Development of crops that make more efficient use
    of nitrogen and other nutrients

Possible Benefits of GM Foods
  • Reduced use of pesticides and herbicides
  • Development of pest resistant crops
  • Reduced herbicide use is better for the
    environment and reduces costs for farmers

Possible Benefits of GM Foods
  • Improved crop quality
  • Development of frost resistant crops
  • Development of disease resistant crops
  • Development of flood resistant crops
  • Improved nutritional quality
  • Development of foods designed to meet specific
    nutritional goals -GOLDEN RICE

The Golden Rice Story
  • Vitamin A deficiency is a major health problem
  • Causes blindness
  • Influences severity of diarrhea, measles
  • gt100 million children suffer from the problem
  • For many countries, the infrastructure doesnt
  • to deliver vitamin pills
  • Improved vitamin A content in widely consumed
  • an attractive alternative

?-Carotene Pathway Problem in Plants
The Golden Rice Solution
?-Carotene Pathway Genes Added
Daffodil gene
Single bacterial gene performs both functions
Daffodil gene
Who makes sure GM foods are safe?
  • Government agencies regulate GM foods
  • GM foods in the United States are required to be
    labeled only if the nutritional value is changed
    or a new allergen is introduced.

Possible Risks of GM Foods
  • Insects might develop resistance to
    pesticide-producing GM crops
  • Herbicide-tolerant crops may cross-pollinate
    weeds, resulting in "superweeds"

Possible Risks for GM Foods
  • Certain gene products may be allergens, thus
    causing harm to human health
  • There may be unintended harm to wildlife and
    beneficial insects

(No Transcript)
How Food Companies Market Obesity to Children
Effect of Food Advertising on Children
  • ? Can confuse nutritional knowledge ? Changes
    food preferences
  • ? Changes purchasing behavior
  • ? Influences choice and consumption by brand
  • ? Alters balance of categories of food eaten

UK Food Standards Agency (September 2003)
Food marketing undermines parents ability to feed
children well
  • 4 out of 5 ads sugary cereals, snack foods,
    candy, soft drinks, and fast food
  • Marketing to children doubled
  • Advertising influences food preference, choices,
    purchase requests
  • Kids misled by and dont understand advertising

How to limit marketing of low-nutrition foods to
  • Develop nutrition standards for foods that can be
    marketed to children
  • Conduct marketing campaigns to promote healthy
    eating and activity
  • Urge fast-food restaurants, food manufacturers,
    TV stations to follow guidelines for responsible
    food marketing aimed at children
  • Legal action

  • Guidelines for Responsible Food Marketing to
  • Industry should develop and strictly adhere to
    marketing and advertising guidelines that
    minimize the risk of obesity in children and
  • Institute of Medicine of the National Academies,

Supporting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
in Schools
  • Implement nutrition standards for all school
  • Limit junk food marketing in schools
  • Promote and provide fruits and veggies
  • Promote and serve 1 and fat-free milk
  • Strengthen nutrition education
  • Increase activity

New Jersey School Nutrition Policy
  • For all grades levels
  • Items that are prohibited to be served, sold or
    given out as free promotion anywhere on school
    property anytime before the end of the school
  • -Foods of minimal nutrition value as per USDA
    definition (soda, water ices, candy, marshmallow,
  • -all food and beverage items listing sugar, in
    any form, as the first ingredient
  • -all form of candy

New Jersey School Nutrition Policy
  • Snack and beverage standards, including those
    served in the After School Snack Program
  • -no more than 8g total fat per serving
    (exception nuts and seeds)
  • -no more than 2g saturated fat per serving
  • -beverage size, other than water, or milk
    containing 2 or less fat, shall not exceed 12
  • -whole milk shall not exceed 8 ounces
  • School shall reduce the purchase of any products
    containing trans fat

New Jersey School Nutrition Policy
  • The regulation continue with specifics for
    elementary, middle and high school, exceptions,
    timeline (from September 2007), etc
  • The regulation apply to all public and non-public
    schools that participate in any of the federally
    funded child nutrition programs and to any other
    public school that have 5 or more students
    eligible for free or reduced price meals.

How government can help?
  • Ban sodas and junk food in schools
  • Require daily physical education
  • Tax high-calories junk foods
  • Require nutritional information labeling on
    restaurant menus
  • Ban or restrict junk-food advertising to kids
  • Spend federal dollars on biking and walking path
    to encourage active lifestyle

Genes - Food -Health
  • Doctors ask a lot of questions about Morgan
    general health and about his family history of
    chronic diseases
  • What does it mean it has been in our family?
  • The guy who eats McD every day (Don Graske) does
    not have any apparent sings of illness

Addiction to food
  • Vicious loop
  • Depression relieved by food intake
  • Family context
  • Social context
  • Psychological problems

Diet/nutrition as an educational tool
Children-parents interaction Rehabilitation
program Education levels-lifestyle and health
Some scary numbers…..
Average fat daily recommended intake
  • Total calories (2500)
  • 20-35 adult
  • 25-35 children (below 18)
  • 30-35 children 2-3 years
  • Keep saturated fat low and trans fat

Double quarter pounder with cheese contains
  • 730 calories
  • 40 g total fat
  • 19 g saturated fat (93 daily value)
  • 160mg cholesterol (53 daily value)
  • 1330 mg sodium (55 daily value)

…long term goal….
  • To produce cheap forms of food that taste good
    and it is good for our health

Suggested reading…
  • New York Times
  • January 28, 2007
  • Unhappy Meals
  • by Michael Pollan