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Biosensors

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Biosensors Anthony Carr Brett Gobe Ben LaPierre What are biosensors? Detectors based on selective molecular components of plants or animals. Modern Biosensors evolved ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biosensors


1
Biosensors
  • Anthony Carr
  • Brett Gobe
  • Ben LaPierre

2
What are biosensors?
  • Detectors based on selective molecular components
    of plants or animals.
  • Modern Biosensors evolved from 2 different
    disciplines
  • Molecular Biology
  • Information Technology.
  • Offers a wide variety of applications.
  • Medical
  • Environmental
  • Military / Law Enforcement

3
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4
Evolution of the Medical Biosensor
  • Mid 1950s - Leland C Clark invents an electrode
    that measures dissolved oxygen in the blood of
    patients undergoing surgery.
  • He surrounded a platinum electrode and reference
    electrode with a plastic membrane permeable to
    gases. The voltage differential measured between
    the two gave the rate at which the oxygen was
    being diffused.

5
  • Clark extended this electrode idea to include
    glucose sensors.
  • However these never made their way into routine
    patient care. This was due to flaws in accuracy
    when clots formed around the electrode.

6
Required Characteristics
  • Sensitivity
  • Low detection limits
  • Cost
  • Simplicity
  • Reliability
  • Speed
  • Accuracy
  • Precision
  • Utility
  • Field portability
  • Ruggedness
  • Reproducibility
  • Ease of calibration
  • Stability
  • Room for improvement

7
Biosensors
  • Combine a biological compound with a transducer
  • What is a transducer?

8
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9
Flow Injection Analysis (FIA)
  • What is FIA?

10
Uses of Biosensors
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Military
  • Law Enforcement
  • Medical

11
Present Applications of Biosensors
  • Medical Care (both clinical and laboratory use)
  • The determination of food quality
  • The detection of environmental pollutants
  • Industrial Process Control

12
Applications (contd.)
  • Biosensors in process control will be able to
    measure materials in the process flow of
    temperature, pressure and the acidity readings.
  • The development of biosensors in industry can
    improve manufacturing techniques, which would
    allow for a wider range of sensing molecules to
    be produced at a cheaper rate.
  • In the field of medicine, tumor cells are used as
    a biosensor to monitor chemotherapeutic drug
    susceptibilities.
  • Biosensors also play a role in the manufacturing
    of pharmaceuticals and replacement organs such as
    an artificial pancreas for diabetics.

13
  • It is found that biosensors are widely used in
    environmental testing by using a flow-through
    system to monitor wastewater (a flow-through
    system includes instruments using surface plasmon
    resonance).
  • These censors are not only restricted to the use
    of molecules. Rather living microorganisms such
    as bacteria can be used to detect substances such
    as vitamin B12.
  • Conclusively, biosensors play a part in the field
    of medicine, environmental quality, and industry
    mainly by identifying material and the degree of
    concentration present.

14
QUESTIONS?
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