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skin and subcutaneous tissue

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Title: skin and subcutaneous tissue


1
SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE
  • M . Shahzad khalid
  • Directorate of Medical Sciences

2
COMPOSITION OF SKIN
  • Complex structure made up of
  • EPITHELIUM
  • CONNECTIVE TISSUE
  • OUTER LAYER EPIDERMIS
  • INNER LAYER DERMIS

3
SURFACE AREA OF SKIN
  • A W x H x 71.84
  • where
  • A Area in Square meters
  • W Weight of individual in Kg
  • H Height of individual in cm
  • It is usually 1.5 to 2 square meters.

4
FUNCTIONS OF SKIN
  1. SENSATION
  2. PROTECTION
  3. TEMPERATURE REGULATION
  4. CONTOL OF WATER OUTPUT
  5. ABSORPTION
  6. SECRETIONS
  7. EXCRETION
  8. SYNTHESIS OF VITAMIN D
  9. STORAGE OF FAT
  10. Ph REGULATION
  11. REPAIR AFTER INJURY TRAUMA
  12. SOCIAL COMMUNICATION

5
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6
EPIDERMIS
  • Avascular keratinized epithelium
  • Wear tear occurs from basal cells
  • Mitotic activity (growth)

7
LAYERS OF EPIDERMIS
  • Stratum corneum
  • Stratum lucidum
  • Stratum granulosum
  • Stratum spinosum
  • Stratum basale

8
LAYERS OF EPIDERMIS
9
DERMIS
  • Lamina propria of mucous membrane
  • Dermis contains
  • Nerves
  • Lymphatics
  • Blood vessels

10
  • Epidermis dermis collectively form CUTANEOUS
    MEMBRANE
  • Beneath cutaneous membrane, there is subcutaneous
    tissue called SUPERFICIAL FASCIA
  • Collagen fibres connect dermis with fascia,
    prevents loosening of skin

11
THICKNESS OF SKIN
  • Depends on
  • Horny layer of epidermis
  • Horny layer of dermis
  • For example
  • Skin of palms soles
  • Skin of back
  • NOTE dermis tends to be thicker on extensor
    surface than flexor surface

12
COLOUR OF SKIN
  • Carotene
  • Blood
  • Melanin
  • Melanocytes
  • These cells are scattered beneath basal layer
    of epidermis and some are found in dermis

13
CHARACTERISTICS OF SKIN
  • Finger Prints
  • Creases
  • Langers Lines

14
Creases of skin
15
Langers Lines
16
SKIN APPENDAGES
  • Hair
  • Nails
  • Cutaneous glands

17
HAIR
  • Elastic keratinous threads
  • Developed from epidermis
  • Absent on palms, soles, urogenital openings
  • Consists of 2 parts
  • Shaft
  • Hair bulb

18
STRUCTURE OF HAIR
19
HAIR GROWTH
  • Hair growth
  • Transitional phase
  • Rest elimination of old hair
  • Growth

20
NAILS
  • Nail plate
  • Nail root
  • Nail folds
  • Nail bed
  • Nail matrix
  • Hyponychium
  • Eponychium

21
STRUCTURE OF NAIL
22
CUTANEOUS GLANDS
  • Sebaceous glands
  • Holocrine glands present on body except palms
    soles
  • Mebomian glands of eyelids
  • Secret sebum
  • Increase with androgenic activity

23
Sebaceous glands
24
CUTANEOUS GLANDS
  • Sweat glands
  • Present on whole body except nail beds, margin of
    lips
  • Numerous on palms, forehead soles called
    Merocrine glands, producing clear watery
    secretions
  • Large glands are present in axilla, areola,
    called apocrine glands, producing thicker
    secretions

25
Sweat glands
26
TYPES OF GLANDS
  • Exocrine Glands secrete their products through
    directly into the blood stream and lack a duct
    system.
  • Endocrine Glands secrete their products through
    a duct or directly to the surface.

27
EXOCRINE GLANDS
  • Classification on the basis of structure
  • Apocrine glands  a portion of the
    secreting cell's body is lost during secretion
  • Holocrine glands  the entire cell disintegrates
    to secrete its substances
  • Merocrine glands  cells secrete their substances
    by exocytosis

28
EXOCRINE GLANDS
  • Classification on the basis of secretion
  • Serous glands  secrete thin watery secretion
  • Mucous glands  secrete thick viscous
    secretions
  • Sebaceous glands  secrete thick oily
    secretion, also known as oil glands.

29
VASCULAR SUPPLY
  • Subcutaneous Arteries
  • Subcutaneous Veins
  • Subcutaneous Lymphatics
  • Subcutaneous Nerves

30
SUPERFICIAL FASCIA
  • Formed by loose connective tissue adipose
    tissue
  • Thickness varies in different regions of body
  • Fibrous layer, firmly attached to dermis deep
    tissues
  • Functions as a cushion, space filler storage
    house

31
DEEP FASCIA
  • Real fascia
  • Connective tissue
  • Binds compartments
  • Forms partitions isolate the structures

32
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