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Short Stories

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Title: Short Stories


1
Short Stories
2
Characteristics of Short Stories
  • Limited in length
  • Limited to one main event and the development of
    one character
  • Ex
  • Napoleon Dynomite vs. Breakfast Club

3
Plot
  • Sequence of incidents or actions in a story.
    Whatever the characters do, or whatever happens
    to them, constitutes plot.
  • Finding Nemo Plot
  • http//www.glencoe.com/sec/literature/course/cours
    e1/unit/shortstory.shtml

4
Plot
  • The most important element in plot is conflict.
  • External or internal conflict
  • A story often ends when conflict is resolved but
    this is not always the case

5
Plot Structure
Plot is the literary element that describes the
structure of a story. It shows the a causal
arrangement of events and actions within a story.
6
Types of Linear Plots
  • Plots can be told in

7
Pyramid Plot Structure
  • The most basic and traditional form of plot is
    pyramid-shaped.
  • This structure has been described in more
    detail by Aristotle and by Gustav Freytag.

8
Aristotles Unified Plot
The basic triangle-shaped plot structure was
described by Aristotle in 350 BCE. Aristotle used
the beginning, middle, and end structure to
describe a story that moved along a linear path,
following a chain of cause and effect as it works
toward the solution of a conflict or crisis.
9
Freytags Plot Structure
Freytag modified Aristotles system by adding a
rising action (or complication) and a falling
action to the structure. Freytag used the
five-part design shown above to describe a
storys plot.
10
Modified Plot Structure
Freytags Pyramid is often modified so that it
extends slightly before and after the primary
rising and falling action. You might think of
this part of the chart as similar to the warm-up
and cool-down for the story.
11
Plot Components
Climax the turning point, the most intense
momenteither mentally or in action
Rising Action the series of conflicts and crisis
in the story that lead to the climax
Falling Action all of the action which follows
the climax
Exposition the start of the story, the
situation before the action starts
Resolution the conclusion, the tying together of
all of the threads
12
Conflict
  • Conflict is the dramatic struggle between two
    forces in a story. Without conflict, there is no
    plot.

13
Types of Conflict
14
Leiningen Versus the Ants
  • Suspense in the story will result from a person
    in conflict in nature.

15
Neighbor Rosicky Characterizations
  • How do you arrive to an opinion about a person
    you dont know very well?

16
List the words that come to mind for the
following series of photos(Dont think about
it to much, just your gut reaction)
17
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23
Stereotyping
  • What can appearance reveal about a person?
  • Would it help you if you could know the persons
    thoughts?
  • This is how you establish character in fiction.
  • Pay attention to how Rosickys character is
    revealed.

24
Neighbor Rosicky Characterization
  • We create opinions based on
  • The way someone looks
  • Someones dress
  • Someones background
  • Stereotypes
  • Pay attention to the first impressions we get
    from Rosicky, and how these evolve.

25
Symbolism
  • A symbol is anything that hints at something
    else, usually something abstract, such as an idea
    or belief. A literary symbol is an object, a
    person, a situation, or an action that has a
    literal meaning in a story but suggests or
    represents other meanings.

26
General Symbol?
  • Define
  • Ex

27
General Symbolism
  • A general symbol is universal in its meaning.
    Even if the symbol were removed from a work of
    literature, it would still suggest a larger
    meaning.
  • Ex While the sea symbolizes the universal voyage
    from life to death in The Odyssey, it retains
    this association independent from literature. The
    "sea" is a general symbol.
  • Ex In poetry, a "rose" often is not only a
    flower, but also a general symbol for romantic
    love.

28
Specific Symbolism
  • A specific symbol is not universal in its
    meaning. It acquires a specific meaning based on
    how it relates to the content of a novel, poem,
    etc. The symbol's significance exists only within
    the context created by the author.
  • Ex A hunting cap in The Catcher in the Rye has
    no universal meaning, but within the novel it is
    worn backwards and symbolizes a looking back at
    childhood.
  • Ex A pair of eyes on a billboard in the Great
    Gatsby has no universal meaning, but within the
    story symbolizes the eyes of God watching
    humanity.
  • Tips about Symbols
  • The story itself must furnish a clue that a
    detail is to be taken symbolically. Symbols
    nearly always signal their existence by emphasis,
    repetition, or position.
  • The meaning of a literary symbol must be
    established and supported by the entire context
    of

29
Tips about Symbols
  • To be called a symbol, an item must suggest a
    meaning different in kind from its literal
    meaning a symbol is something more than its
    class or type.
  • A symbol may have more than one meaning. This
    does not mean that the symbol can mean anything
    you want it to because possible meanings are
    always controlled by the context.

30
Determining what objects are symbolic
  • To identify a symbol, note if an object seems to
  • appear repeatedly
  • have an unusually vivid quality
  • be described with language conveying much
    emphasis
  • have more significance than its literal reality
    would suggest

31
Determine symbolic meanings
  • Carefully examine how the symbol functions in
    relation to the story. Ask yourself what idea is
    represented by the symbol.

32
Classify the Symbols
  • Classification may reveal opposite relationships,
    such as symbols of good and evil, life and death.
    Or symbols may fall into isolated categories,
    such as destruction, innocence, or sexuality.

33
Classify the meanings of a symbol
  • Determine how much depth a particular symbol has
    and classify its possible meanings. While you may
    focus on only one major symbol, you may be able
    to divide it into two specific meanings and two
    general meanings.

34
Remember
  • Remember A symbol has a literal meaning in a
    story but suggests or represents other meanings.
  • Not all symbolism is obvious often it is subtle
    and indirect.

35
Worksheet
  • American Beauty Symbolism

36
American Beauty Clip
  • In the clip American Beauty what kind of
    descriptions are used to describe the plastic
    bag?
  • What does the plastic bag mean to the male
    character?
  • Based on the description of the plastic bag and
    what the plastic bag appears to mean to the male
    character, what would you predict that the bag
    symbolizes throughout the film?

37
Symbolism Reveiw
  • General vs. Specific Symbolism

38
General Symbol Def.
  • A general symbol is universal in its meaning.
    Even if the symbol were removed from a work of
    literature, it would still suggest a larger
    meaning

39
Specific Symbolism
  • A specific symbol is not universal in its
    meaning. It acquires a specific meaning based on
    how it relates to the content of a novel, poem,
    etc. The symbol's significance exists only within
    the context created by the author.

40
Specific Symbolism
  • Definition
  • Catcher in the Rye Backwards hat means to look
    back on child hood
  • Great Gatsby Eyes on a billboard, but within
    the story symbolizes the eyes of God watching
    humanity.
  • Odyssey Sea symbolizes the universal voyage from
    life to death.
  • Ashes The weather symbolizes the events within
    life dark clouds, sunshine, ect.

41
Neighbor Rosicky Symbolism
  • The new child of Polly Rudolph
  • The cemetery behind Rosickys house
  • Rosickys land

42
Marigolds Symbolism
  • Marigolds
  • The stone throwing

43
The Gift of the Magi Symbolism
  • Read The Gift of the Magi under class links.
  • Identify symbols that you see throughout.

44
The Gift of the Magi Symbolism
  • Identify two symbols in the story and what they
    represent.
  • Answer the comprehension questions located on the
    assignment calendar for today.
  • When completed print and put in in-bin.

45
Marigolds Memories
  • Think about the memories that you have that
    others remember differently than you.
  • Coming of Age story
  • Breakfast Club
  • My Girl
  • The Wonder Years
  • Turning point

46
Marigolds Making Inferences About Character
  • Consider how they and others you know have
    changed over time.
  • In good fiction characters are complex and make
    mistakes.
  • As you read Marigolds you should be making
    inferences about Lizabeths character as a young
    person and an adult.

47
Marigolds Writing
  • Write an essay about childhood mischief in which
    you participated. Was it harmless or cruel? Were
    you influenced by peers? How did you feel then?
    How do you feel now about the experience?
  • OR Write an essay about a childhood memory. It
    could be happy or sad memory, but it should be
    one that is vivid to you even now. How did you
    feel then? How do you feel now about the
    experience.
  • Due 10/13 (Tuesday)

48
The Beginning of Greif Symbols
  • Kevin shaves head

49
The Beginning of Grief Writing
  • In a brief essay (approximately 200-250 words),
    discuss Corporal Punishment. State your position
    and support it with both opinion and fact. You
    may need to research this topic to include facts.

50
The Rifles of the Regiment Stock Characters
  • Stock characters are characters that tend to be
    types rather than individuals.
  • Private Detectives
  • Southern Belle
  • Girl next door
  • Cowboy
  • Marine Sergeant

51
The Rifles of the Regiment Background
  • Weeks after other British troops have been
    evacuated from France during WWII, Colonel
    Heathergalls leads his regiment, the Loyal
    Rifles, across France to the coast. Colonel
    insists all rifles be taken.

52
Point of View
  • Point of view is simply the vantage point from
    which the story is told.
  • Omniscient means all knowing. In this case
    there is no identifiable narrator.
  • The omniscient narrator knows all the thoughts
    and feelings of all the characters .

53
Omniscient Narrator Example
  • Once upon a time there was a girl named
    Cinderellla. Cinderella got her name because she
    was forced to work as a servant and sleep near
    the cinders. Cinderella was treated cruelly by
    her wicked stepmother, who was jealous of the
    girls good looks and sweet temper because her
    own daughters were ugly and mean.

54
Limited Third-person point of view
  • Story is narrated by someone who stands outside
    the story, but who sees everything from the
    limited vantage point of only one character.
  • All attention is focused on one person.
  • We do not know much of what other characters
    outside this one are thinking or feeling.

55
Limited-Third-Person POV example
  • One upon a time there was a girl name Cinderella,
    who was treated cruelly by her stepmother.
    Cinderella often wept bitterly in her ashy
    corner. Nightmares haunted her, and she feared
    that darkened scullery when the rats came out and
    played about her feet. At times, she wondered if
    her goodness would ever be rewarded,

56
First-Person point of view
  • This is when the writer lets one character tell
    the story.
  • This narrator can be a hero or heroine of the
    story, or a minor character is observing the
    action.
  • This narrator would speak using I.
  • As an audience we only know what the narrator
    reports to us.

57
First Person POV example
  • I had spent sixteen years sitting in the cinders
    of my kitchen. My stepmother must have hated me,
    because she made me do the dirty work. I could
    not understand the reasons for her feelings, for
    I had always treated her with respect. I slept
    in the ashes, and was tortured by nightmares and
    fear of rats.

58
To analyze the POV ask these questions.
  • Who is the narrator of the story?
  • Is this narrator a character in the story, or
    does the narrator stand outside the story?
  • Does the narrator know about all the action and
    characters in the story or is it limited to one
    character?
  • How does the point of view affect my reaction to
    the storys characters and events?

59
Setting
  • Setting time, place of its action.
  • Setting includes
  • Time of day (evening)
  • What surroundings are like (dreary melancholy)
  • Setting creates atmosphere in a story

60
Contents of the Dead Mans Pocket
  • What two settings exists in the story?
  • How does Finney set up a contrast between them?
  • How does he make you feel about each setting?
  • BLOG IT!

61
The Rockpile
  • The Rockpile is an important symbol in the story.
    It stands for something in itself and for a
    broader meaning as well.
  • How does the rock pile emphasize the threatening
    nature of the setting?
  • How does it also reveal the helplessness of the
    characters in the story?
  • BLOG IT!

62
POE DAY!
63
Poe Background
  • Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) was an American
    author best known for his dark and ominous short
    stories and poems.
  • Poe experienced tragedy in his life. He was born
    into poverty his father was an alcoholic who
    left when Edgar was young his mother died of
    tuberculosis his foster mother and his wife
    died he lived and died in poverty.
  • Ideas that come to mind regarding The Pit and
    the Pendulum, The Raven, and The Tell-Tale Heart
    may include horror stories, terror, fear, death,
    darkness, murder, obsession, insanity, sadness,
    loss, guilt, torture, and the unknown.

64
The Masque of the Red Death
  • Atmosphere overall mood or feeling established.
  • This is often produced by description of setting.
  • While reading pull out at least 3 lines that
    demonstrate how Poe creates an atmosphere and
    what that atmosphere is within the story.
  • Poe Film

65
Poe Research
  • On Mrs. Fs Webpage
  • Class Links for Sites
  • Resources for WS

66
Point of View
  • Point of view is simply the vantage point from
    which the story is told.
  • Omniscient means all knowing. In this case
    there is no identifiable narrator.
  • The omniscient narrator knows all the thoughts
    and feelings of all the characters .

67
Omniscient Narrator Example
  • Once upon a time there was a girl named
    Cinderellla. Cinderella got her name because she
    was forced to work as a servant and sleep near
    the cinders. Cinderella was treated cruelly by
    her wicked stepmother, who was jealous of the
    girls good looks and sweet temper because her
    own daughters were ugly and mean.

68
Limited Third-person point of view
  • Story is narrated by someone who stands outside
    the story, but who sees everything from the
    limited vantage point of only one character.
  • All attention is focused on one person.
  • We do not know much of what other characters
    outside this one are thinking or feeling.

69
Limited-Third-Person POV example
  • One upon a time there was a girl name Cinderella,
    who was treated cruelly by her stepmother.
    Cinderella often wept bitterly in her ashy
    corner. Nightmares haunted her, and she feared
    that darkened scullery when the rats came out and
    played about her feet. At times, she wondered if
    her goodness would ever be rewarded,

70
First-Person point of view
  • This is when the writer lets one character tell
    the story.
  • This narrator can be a hero or heroine of the
    story, or a minor character is observing the
    action.
  • This narrator would speak using I.
  • As an audience we only know what the narrator
    reports to us.

71
First Person POV example
  • I had spent sixteen years sitting in the cinders
    of my kitchen. My stepmother must have hated me,
    because she made me do the dirty work. I could
    not understand the reasons for her feelings, for
    I had always treated her with respect. I slept
    in the ashes, and was tortured by nightmares and
    fear of rats.

72
To analyze the POV ask these questions.
  • Who is the narrator of the story?
  • Is this narrator a character in the story, or
    does the narrator stand outside the story?
  • Does the narrator know about all the action and
    characters in the story or is it limited to one
    character?
  • How does the point of view affect my reaction to
    the storys characters and events?

73
The Quiet Man
  • Omniscient narrator.
  • How does this contribute to the story?

74
Blues Aint No Mockin Bird Point of View
  • 5 minute write
  • Describe a parade from the POV of a
    three-year-old.
  • Keep in Mind
  • Knee level of adult,
  • Vocabulary
  • Interests ect.

75
Blues Aint No Mockin BirdEssential Question
  • You should be able to identify and analyze
    characterization and POV in Blues Aint No
    Mockin Bird

76
Blues Aint No Mockin Bird Blog
  • Class Blog Privacy Rights
  • Respond to question _at_ 2 peers.
  • Writing a Bill project!

77
A Pair of Silk StockingsCharacter Motivation
  • The overall aim is for you to analyze character
    and motivation in A Pair of Silk Stockings.
  • What is character motivation?
  • The reason a character thinks, feels, acts.
  • What do you know about court cases and motivation
    of crimes?

78
A Pair of Silk Stockings cont.
  • Examine the motivation for Mrs. Sommers actions.
  • Analyze how does third-person point of view
    helps create sympathy toward a person engaged in
    self-centered extravagance?

79
Irony
  • Verbal Irony
  • Examples
  • clear as mud
  • "as much fun as a root canal.
  • Situational Irony - Situational irony results
    from recognizing the oddness or unfairness of a
    given situation, be it positive or negative.
  • Examples
  • Bill Gates wins a computer contest
  • Dramatic Irony
  • when the words and actions of the characters of
    a work of literature have a different meaning for
    the reader than they do for the characters.
  • Examples The Quiet Man Shawn Kelvin who wants
    to avoid conflict, is a prize fighter. Big Liam
    of course doesnt know this.
  • Alanis Morissette Isn't it ironic

80
The Bet Irony
  • Analyze the Irony of the situation in The Bet.
  • Glogster
  • Find websites, movie clips, written examples, or
    photo of irony.
  • Label these examples as situation, verbal or
    dramatic on your poster.
  • Visually appealing, creative.

81
Harrison Bergeron
  • 5 minute write
  • What is the definition of equality?
  • Do you think the world would be improved if all
    humans were equal in every way?
  • What problems would this cause in school, sports,
    work, and other areas of life?

82
Irony Review
  • Objective
  • Locate the use of both Irony and Satire in
    Harrison Begeron.
  • What is Irony?

83
Films and Cartoons
84
Definition.
  • A literary work that ridicules its subject
    through the use of techniques such as
    exaggeration, reversal, incongruity, and/or
    parody in order to make a comment or criticism
    about it.
  • I know Kung Fu Clip
  • Matrick Original Clip
  • Matric Original Clip 2

85
Exaggeration
  • To enlarge, increase, or represent something
    beyond normal bounds so that it becomes
    ridiculous and its faults can be seen
  • Example Princess Fiona fights and successfully
    defeats Robin Hood and all of his Merry Men
    without any help and without any weapons.
  • Comment on Society The traditional story of the
    knight rescuing the damsel-in-distress is not a
    realistic depiction of the roles filled by men
    and women in modern society.

86
Reversal
  • To present the opposite of the normal order
    (e.g., the order of events, hierarchical order).
  • Matrix Shrek Reversal
  • Example The roles of the hero and the damsel in
    distress have been reversed. In this clip, it is
    Princess Fiona, the rescuee, who fights and
    defeats the foe.

87
Incongruity
  • To present things that are out of place or are
    absurd in relation to its surroundings.
  • Example Princess Fiona uses her ponytail to
    deliver a knockout punch to one of the Merry Men.
    While frozen in a mid-air martial arts kick,
    Princess Fiona pauses to fix her disheveled hair
    before knocking out two of the Merry Men.

88
Parody
  • To imitate the techniques and/or style of some
    person, place, or thing.
  • Example The fight scene is an exaggerated
    imitation of the martial arts style and special
    effects used in movies such as The Matrix and
    Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon.
  • Comment About Society Exampe Current Hollywood
    action movies like The Matrix have become
    ridiculous because they are too focused on
    special effects.

89
Criticism about Society?
  • The traditional story of the knight rescuing the
    damsel-in-distress is not a realistic depiction
    of the roles filled by men and women in modern
    society.
  • Exampe Current Hollywood action movies like The
    Matrix have become ridiculous because they are
    too focused on special effects.

90
The Piece of Yarn
91
Love
92
The Alligator War
93
Shaving
94
Through the Tunnel
95
Chees Daughter
96
The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World
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