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GCSE Food Technology

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GCSE Food Technology Superlearning Research Context: Chilling and Freezing Design Theme: Fish Based Food Products Research Chilling Cook-chill products are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GCSE Food Technology


1
GCSE Food Technology
  • Superlearning

2
Research Context Chilling and Freezing
  • Design Theme Fish Based Food Products

3
Research Chilling
  • Cook-chill products are thought to be of a better
    quality than frozen products. They have a much
    shorter shelf-life (usually a few days) but do
    not need to be defrosted first.
  • Cook-chill products are prepared, cooked and
    chilled rapidly. They are stored at a temperature
    just above 0C.
  • Refrigerators are used for the short-term storage
    of perishable foods and ready meals that have
    been prepared by the cook-chill process.

4
Research Chilling contd
  • Chilling slows down
  • The rate at which micro-organisms multiply
  • The rate of any chemical reactions which could
    affect the quality of food
  • They need to stay at or below this temperature
    until they are used. For this reason they are
    always sold from the chiller cabinets in shops.

5
Advantages of Chilling
  • There is very little change in flavour, colour,
    texture or shape
  • Fresh foods can be kept at maximum quality for a
    longer time
  • The consumer can be offered a much larger range
    of fresh and convenience foods
  • Nutrients are not destroyed

6
Exam Question
  • Seafood sandwich fillings are popular with many
    consumers.
  • (a) Why is seafood a high risk food?
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .........................................
  • ..................................................
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    .........................................
  • ..................................................
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  • (2 marks)
  • (b) At what temperature should high risk foods be
    stored in a refrigerator?
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .........................................
  • (1 mark)
  • (c) How do retailers ensure that chilled foods do
    not fall below the correct temperature?
  • ..................................................
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  • ..................................................
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  • (4 marks)

7
Answer from mark scheme
  • (a) Why is seafood a high risk food?
  • Moist
  • Protein
  • Easily contaminated by bacteria
  • Short shelf life
  • Qualified answer or two simplistic answers ( 2
    marks )
  • Simplistic answer ( 1 mark )
  • ( 2 marks )
  • (b) At what temperature should high risk foods be
    stored in a
  • refrigerator?
  • 0 . 5 C
  • ( 1 mark )
  • (c) How do retailers ensure that chilled foods do
    not fall below the
  • correct temperature?
  • Regular checks
  • Monitoring by staff
  • Train staff in food hygiene
  • Alarms if electric supply cut or temperature
    lowered
  • Checking doors are shut correctly

8
Freezing
  • When the temperature of a food is reduced, the
    activities of most micro-organisms are slowed
    down, until they become dormant (inactive), and
    growth and multiplication cease.
  • Most foods can be frozen successfully and contain
    relatively large amounts of water. When a food is
    frozen, ice crystals are formed in it. Foods such
    as fruit and vegetables, which are made up of
    many cells, can be damaged by the ice crystals if
    they are too large. This is because the cells
    rupture if the ice crystal exceeds the size of
    the cell. Once the food is thawed, its structure
    will collapse, releasing most of the liquid in
    it, because the cells no longer form the
    framework of the food

9
Effect of Freezing on Food
  • Low temperatures do not significantly affect the
    nutritional value of food, but thiamin and
    vitamin C may be destroyed when vegetables are
    blanched (briefly immersed in boiling water)
    before freezing.
  • If fish is frozen too slowly, some of its cells
    may rupture and release nutrients into the liquid
    that drips from the fish when it thaws.
  • Some flavours become weaker and some become
    stronger when food is frozen.

10
Standard Components used in Fish Products
  • Standard components are pre-prepared items used
    in food production.They are made at a different
    time, and often at a different place by another
    company. Common examples are
  • Pre-prepared mashed potatoes
  • Ready made batter
  • Ready made sauces
  • Breadcrumbs

Advantages Disadvantages
11
Exam Question
  • Manufacturers of food products often use standard
    components.
  • (a) Name two different ways flaky pastry is sold
    as a standard component.
  • 1 ................................................
    ..................................................
    ......................................
  • 2 ................................................
    ..................................................
    ......................................
  • (2 marks)
  • (b) What is the correct storage temperature for
    the following standard components?
  • (3 marks)
  • (i)a packet of frozen vol au vents
  • (ii)a tin of pie filling
  • (iii)a bag of grated cheese
  • (c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of
    using standard components?
  • Advantages
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .........................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .........................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .........................................
  • ..................................................
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    .........................................
  • Disadvantages
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .........................................

12
Answer from mark scheme
  • Manufacturers of food products often use standard
    components.
  • (a) Name two different ways flaky pastry is sold
    as a standard
  • component.
  • Frozen
  • Packet ready made dried
  • Block ready made
  • Vol au vents / pastry cases ready prepared
  • Chilled
  • Ready rolled
  • Do not accept .fresh.
  • 2 x 1 mark (2 marks)
  • (b) What is the correct storage temperature for
    the following standard
  • components?
  • frozen vol au vents -18C domestic freezer or
    -28C if industrial
  • tin of fruit pie filling 20-25C / ambient temp
    (accept any temp in
  • this range)
  • cheese 0-8C refrigerator (accept any temp in
    this range)
  • Do not accept refrigerator, freezer or room
    temperature.
  • 3 x 1 mark (3 marks)

13
Sensory Testing of Food Products
  • Sensory testing involves the scientific
  • measurement of the qualities of a food
  • product. There are a variety of tests which
  • can be done depending on what you
  • want to find out. It is important to select the
  • correct one for the purpose
  • Difference tests these are used to find out if
    there are any noticeable differences between 2 or
    more products. E.g. coca cola and diet coca cola
  • Ranking tests a set of coded samples are given
    to the tester in a random order. The tester ranks
    the samples in order of a specific quality e.g.
    sweetness. This test is often used to screen one
    or two of the best samples in a group.
  • Descriptive tests or profiling a set of sensory
    descriptors is given for the testers to use e.g.
    colourful, glossy, dry etc. and the tester gives
    a score for each descriptor

14
Exam Question
  • Explain why manufacturers use sensory testing.
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ...................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ...................................
  • ..................................................
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    ...................................
  • ..................................................
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  • ..................................................
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    ...................................
  • ..................................................
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    ...................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ...................................
  • (4 marks)
  • 5 (b) (ii) What are the advantages of using a
    computer to record the results of sensory
    testing?
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ...................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ...................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ...................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ...................................
  • (2 marks)

15
Answer from mark scheme
  • Explain why manufacturers use sensory testing.
  • To inform decisions on future product
  • Identify what needs improving
  • To gather information about the product
  • To gain information on consumer preferences
  • To compare product against other existing
    products
  • To decide the sensory characteristics of a
    product
  • To evaluate the product against sensory
    characteristics
  • of specification
  • To ensure a successful product in terms of
    sales/meets
  • consumer appeal
  • Some detailed or several simplistic answers 3-4
    marks
  • One detailed answer or two simplistic answers 1-2
    marks
  • (4 marks)
  • AQA GCSE Mark Scheme, 2008 June series Food
    Technology Full Course Higher
  • 15
  • (ii) What are the advantages of using a computer
    to record the
  • results of sensory testing?
  • Fewer human errors/ efficient/accuracy.

16
Packaging
  • Why are foods packaged?
  • To protect the product against physical damage,
    chemical contamination or micro-organisms,
    insects or rodents
  • To contain the product e.g. eggs, fruit and
    vegetables
  • To preserve the product e.g. tin cans and
    modified atmosphere packaging (where foods in a
    package are flushed with a mixture of gases to
    prolong their shelf life)
  • To identify and provide information on the
    product
  • To prevent tampering tamperproof packaging
    techniques now make it easy to detect if a
    package has been opened, examples include plastic
    collars on bottle tops, paper strips across jar
    lids and aluminium foil seals on fruit juice
    cartons

17
Labelling
  • The 1996 Food Labelling regulations state that a
    food label must include the following
    information
  • Name of the product clearly displayed
  • The name and address of the manufacturer
  • A list of all ingredients in descending order of
    weight (largest to smallest)
  • Storage instructions, giving specific details of
    the best conditions and temperatures for safe
    storage
  • Shelf-life of the product must be shown
  • Cooking instructions (if appropriate)
  • The country for where the product originated
  • The net weight of the product

18
Exam Question
  • Explain why the following materials are often
    used to package food products.
  • (i) Paperboard
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • (2 marks)
  • (ii) Polystyrene
  • ..................................................
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  • ..................................................
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  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • (2 marks)

19
Answer from mark Scheme
  • Explain why the following materials are often
    used to package food
  • products.
  • (i) Paperboard
  • Flexible . can be folded
  • Cheap
  • Can be waxed to make water resistant
  • Easy to print on
  • Lightweight
  • Environmental friendly
  • (ii) Polystyrene
  • Cheap
  • moulded to shape
  • can be used for hot / cold food / insulation
  • Lightweight
  • Sturdy- protects product
  • Detailed answers . different for each material 2
    marks
  • Simplistic answers 1 mark
  • 2 x 2 marks (4 marks)

20
Preparation and cooking of Fish Fish can be
used in many dishes but is most popular in the UK
fried in batter and served with chips
21
Examples of the different types of fish
22
Exam question
  • Control checks are made on different batches of
    salmon and prawn filo parcels.
  • Problems found during the checks are listed
    below.
  • (i) Give one cause of each problem. (5 marks)
  • (ii) Explain how the problem may be prevented. (5
    marks)
  • Filo pastry is dry and breaks up when handled.
  • The filling leaks out of the parcel during
    cooking.
  • Pieces of fish shell are found in the filling.
  • Creamy sauce is thin and runny.
  • The final product is pale and lacks colour.

23
Answer from Mark scheme
24
Answer contd
25
  • Manufacturing methods and equipment
  • There are different types of manufacturing
    system, each one suitable for different scales of
    production
  • One-off production is when a single product is
    made to the individual needs of a customer, for
    example a designer wedding cake. This is classed
    as a luxury food item.
  • Batch production involves the making of a set
    number of identical products (large or small).
    Typically batch production is used in a bakery,
    where a certain number of several different types
    of bun, loaf, cake etc, will be made every
    morning.
  • Mass production is used to make foods on a large
    scale, either wholly or partially using machines.
    The production line involves individual tasks
    that will be carried out repetitively. This is
    time-efficient and helps to keep the costing of
    the product low.
  • Continuous-flow production is a method of
    high-volume production, used in foods such as
    milk and packet pizzas. Production lines run 24
    hours a day. Where production line machines are
    controlled by computers this is called
    Computer-Aided Manufacture (CAM).

26
Quality Assurance of Food Products
  • .Factory equipment
  • There are different types of specialised
    machinery used in food manufacture.
  • Computerised scales weigh food more accurately.
  • Centrifuge machines separate liquids from solids.
  • Date-stamping machines will label many packaged
    foods with a date stamp on the production line.
  • Depositors add an exact amount of food into a
    number of containers at the same time.
  • Mandolins slice or cut food products so portions
    are consistently the same size.
  • Bench or floor-standing mixers are used in
    bakeries to add and mix exact quantities of
    ingredients to the food, maintaining consistency.
  • Boiling vats are huge drums used for cooking
    foods, such as soups.
  • Deck ovens are computer-controlled ovens that
    cook a batch of several products at the same
    time.

27
Special Dietary needs of Consumers
  • Coeliacs Disease allergic to gluten therefore
    cannot eat anything made from wheat e.g. flour
  • Lactose intolerant allergic to lactose (found
    in milk) therefore cannot eat any dairy produce
  • Vegans vegetarians who do not eat any foods
    associated with animals
  • Ovo-lacto vegetarian vegetarians who do not eat
    meat but will eat eggs and milk
  • Allergies the most common food allergy is a nut
    allergy
  • Pregnant women needs lots of protein rich
    foods, vitamins and minerals. She should avoid
    soft cheeses and pate due to bacteria that might
    be present.
  • Children needs plenty of protein and calcium.
    Reduce the amount of sugar and fat.

28
Control Checks During Food Manfacture
  • Visual checks to cartons to see if they have been
    tampered with/damaged. Ones damaged should be
    removed.
  • Visual check date rotation first in first used.
  • Weighing and measuring use digital scales for
    accuracy.
  • Automatic mixing for computer controlled amount
    of time.
  • Fixed cooking period using timer
  • Visual check are they the correct colour?
  • Correct amount in each packet
  • Detector for foreign objects e.g. metal,
    jewellery
  • Weight check
  • Temperature of sealing
  • Temperature of storage/distribution area

29
Exam Question
  • Using notes, sketches or flowcharts describe the
    processes and control checks needed to make your
    chosen design idea in a test kitchen. (10 marks)

30
Answer from Mark Scheme
  • Using notes, sketches or flowcharts describe the
    processes needed to make your chosen idea in a
    test kitchen.
  • Marks awarded for prototype made in test kitchen
    not large scale production. N.B. answers do not
    need to cover all aspects in order to gain full
    marks.
  • Look for candidate showing awareness of different
    aspects e.g. at least one reference to
    time/temperatures, named process, control checks
  • Logical sequence shown through the main stages
    of the flow chart/notes/stages/steps
  • Preparations
  • Kitchen hygiene
  • Personal hygiene
  • Weighing ingredients
  • Equipment e.g. pre heating oven
  • Production
  • Preparing product
  • Preparing filling/ topping/coating/decorations
    as relevant
  • Dovetailing of tasks
  • Named processes e.g. baking, rubbing in,
    creaming, melting, grating, piping etc
  • Finishing techniques
  • Control checks
  • timings
  • temperatures
  • food safety

31
Decorations and Finishes
  • A decoration is something you apply to a product
    AFTER it has been made e.g. melted chocolate,
    icing, piped cream
  • A finish is something that you do to the actual
    product to change its appearance during the
    making of the product e.g. glaze with egg, glaze
    with sugar and water, flute pastry edges, put
    nuts on top

32
Safe Storage of Food
Low risk foods this means foods with high acid
or sugar content, raw vegetables, edible oils and
fats Medium risk foods this means dried or
frozen products, freshly processed products and
those with a high fat content High risk foods
this means unprocessed meat, fish, eggs and dairy
products
33
How hazards are controlled during food production
  • HACCP
  • HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and
  • Critical Control point. It involves
  • Identifying possible risks before, during and
    after production of a product
  • The risks are analysed in terms of how likely
    they are to happen and how serious they are
  • For each hazard preventative measures and
    testing/checking is planned in to ensure that the
    hazard (Critical control point) is reduced.

34
How do manufacturers obtain consistent products?
  • Consistency means
  • Same quantities of ingredients used
  • Same amount of filling, coating, casing
  • Same colour
  • Same shape
  • Same texture
  • Same strength of flavour
  • Same size
  • Same nutritional content
  • Human error means that hand produced food
    products are not as accurate and consistent as
    those made by machinery. Automated equipment can
    repeat tasks many times without getting tired or
    risking workers health and safety

35
CAD (Computer Aided Design)
  • Designing a new food product with the aid of
  • a computer is known as computer aided
  • Design. CAD can be used to
  • Calculate the nutritional value of the food
    product
  • Work out the sizes and costs of different batch
    production runs
  • Work out the shelf life of a product
  • Present the products sensory profile
  • Predict what will happen if ingredients or
    methods are changed
  • Plan how a product will be manufactured
  • Present ideas for the packaging

36
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture)
  • CAM is using computers to control pre-
  • programmed equipment to make products.
  • CAM has many uses in food production
  • including
  • Automated production processes
  • Data logging e.g. recording pH values,
    temperatures
  • Responding to monitoring feedback e.g. reducing
    or increasing temperature of environment as
    needed
  • Control of designated tolerances e.g. weight,
    dimensions, moisture content, flavour colour,
    shape

37
Exam Question
  • Food manufacturers often use CAD and CAM.
  • (a) (i) What is meant by the term CAD?
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • (1 mark)
  • (ii) What is meant by the term CAM?
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • (1 mark)
  • (b) Give examples of how CAD and CAM may be used
    in bread production.
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
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  • ..................................................
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  • ..................................................
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  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    ................................
  • ..................................................
    ..................................................
    .................................
  • (4 marks)

38
Answer from Mark Scheme
  • (a) (i) What is meant by the term CAD?
  • CAD means computer aided design ( 1 mark )
  • (ii) What is meant by the term CAM?
  • CAM means computer aided manufacture ( 1 mark )
  • (b) Give examples of how CAD and CAM may be used
    in bread production.
  • CAD Examples may give one detailed answer or two
    simplistic examples.
  • Designing the appearance of product,
    calculating nutrient content, model portion
    sizes, cost / profit, calculating shelf life,
    analysis of sensory data, presenting information
    for labelling, showing assembly procedures,
    packaging design.
  • CAM Examples may give one detailed answer or
    several simplistic answers.
  • Monitoring production process, e.g. temperature
    changes, controlling changes, feedback from
    monitoring, use of computer controlled equipment,
    e.g. breadmaker, microwave oven, electronic
    scales
  • Must give example of CAD and CAM for full marks
    ( 4 marks )
  • Total for question 6 marks

39
Sketching in your exam examples of good
practice
  • Draw in pencil
  • Colour in if possible
  • Label all parts of your design

40
Choosing your final design
  • You will have to give detailed reasons for
  • your choice of final design. Remember look
  • at the specification they gave you and relate
  • back to that e.g. if the specification asks for
  • the product to be colourful and you have put
  • a range of different coloured vegetables in
  • then use that as a reason for choice

41
Explain
  • Expand upon (knowledge)
  • Show you understand (apply to case)
  • Give an example

42
Recommend
  • Make a choice
  • Give reasons for choice and
  • Make relevant to your design

43
Discuss
  • Put forward both sides of the case then,
  • Reach a conclusion.
  • Give reasons for the conclusion.

44
And finally
  • Good luck to you all, dont
  • panic and do your very
  • best!!
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