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In integrated nutrient management (INM) approach, organic

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In integrated nutrient management (INM) approach, organic manures like farm yard manure, compost etc. are first considered for application. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: In integrated nutrient management (INM) approach, organic


1
Soil Health Management
Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics
Module III
  • You have learnt from the lessons in the
    earlier Modules that soil properties influence
    soil health.
  • These soil properties in turn are affected by
    the agricultural practices followed by a farmer.
  • Good agricultural practices not only help in
    managing the soil but also improve soil health.
  • What are these good agricultural practices?

Course on Soil and Soil Health
2
Soil Health Management
Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics
Module III
  • The good agricultural practices that help in
    improving and managing soil health focus on
  • Improving and maintaining organic matter in
  • the soil
  • Avoiding tillage practices that harm the soil
  • structure
  • Conserving the soil from erosion and other soil
  • degrading effects
  • Adopting integrated nutrient and pest
  • management practices,
  • Rectifying soil problems like acidity and
  • alkalinity.

Course on Soil and Soil Health
3
  • After completing this Lesson, you will be able
    to answer
  • What is integrated nutrient management (INM)?
  • How INM helps in maintaining and improving soil
    health?
  • How INM is practiced?
  • Explain with an example how INM helps in
    maintaining and improving soil health?
  • What is integrated pest management (IPM)?
  • What IPM practices help in reducing the pest
    pressure in a cropped field?
  • How IPM helps in maintaining and improving soil
    health?

4
  • Improved and high yielding varieties of crops
    require application of fertilizers and
    controlling infesting pests to get the best
    benefit of growing such varieties.
  • But, continuous and imbalanced use of agro
    chemicals like pesticides and fertilizers affect
    the soil health by
  • adversely affecting the useful soil
    microorganisms, and
  • the left over chemical residues become toxic to
    plants.

5
  • Hence, it is important to use these agro-
    chemicals very judiciously to get best yield
    without affecting the soil health.
  • Integrated nutrient management (INM) and
    Integrated pest management (IPM) are good
    practices to maintain the soil health without
    reducing the crop productivity.

6
  • Integrated nutrient management (INM) refers to
    use of organic manures and fertilizers in
    combination to maintain soil health and obtain
    best yields.
  • Sufficient and balanced application of organic
    manures and fertilizers is the focus in INM.

7
  • In integrated nutrient management (INM)
    approach, organic manures like farm yard manure,
    compost etc. are first considered for
    application. The balance crop nutrient
    requirements are supplemented with the
    appropriate fertilizer application.
  • Improved method of application along with proper
    timing of application are also considered to
    achieve the best efficiency of used organic
    manures and fertilizers.

8
  • Integrated nutrient management (INM) is
    practiced by applying the organic manures and
    fertilizers in combination after assessing what
    the soil can provide through soil testing, and
    the crop nutrient requirements to give certain
    amount of yield.
  • Let us consider an example for better
    understanding integrated nutrient management
    (INM) practice.

9
  • Step 1 Farmer expects an yield of 3 t (3000
    kg) from one ha of sorghum.
  • Step 2 To get 1 t of yield, sorghum crop
    requires 20 kg N, 3.5 kg P, 30 kg of K, and small
    quantities of other nutrients.
  • So, to get 3 t sorghum yield, the crop requires
  • 20 kg N x 3 60 kg N,
  • 3.5 kg P x 3 10. 5 kg P
    and
  • 30 kg K x 3 90 kg of K
  • (Nitrogen , phosphorus, and potassium are
  • expressed as N, P, and K)

10
  • Step 3 The soil test has shown that the soil
  • supplies 20 kg N, 3.5 kg P and
    adequate
  • quantities of K and other
    nutrients.
  • Step 4 From Step 1, you know sorghum crop needs
  • 60 kg N, 10.5 kg P and 90 kg K.
  • So, nutrients required from external
  • source will be
  • 60 kg N 20 kg N from
    soil 40 kg N
  • 10.5 kg P 3.5 kg from soil 7 kg P
  • As soil contains adequate quantities of
    K, there is no need to apply any K.

11
  • Step 5 Farmer has 3 cart loads (1500 kg) of
    FYM and 1 cart load (500 kg) of Compost to apply
    to the crop.
  • Step 6 1500 kg FYM supplies
  • N 1500 kg x 1 N 15 kg N
  • P 1500 kg x 0.2 P 3 kg P
  • Step 7 500 kg of Compost supplies
  • N 500 kg x 2 N 10 kg N
  • P 500 kg x 0.4 P 2 kg P

12
  • Step 8 Application of FYM and Compost together
    supplies
  • N 15 kg 10 kg 25 kg N
  • P 3 kg 2 kg 5 kg P
  • Step 9 A. Nutrients requirement from external
    source is
  • 40 kg N and 7 kg P (see Step
    4)
  • B. FYM and Compost application
    provides
  • 25 kg N and 5 kg P (see
    Step 8)
  • C. So, the balance nutrient
    requirement is to be
  • supplied through
    fertilizers.
  • Balance N 40 kg 25 kg
    15 kg N
  • Balance P 7 kg 5 kg 2
    kg P

13
  • Step 10 A. N fertilizer efficiency is 50, so
    we
  • need to apply, 15 kg N x 2
    30 kg N
  • through nitrogenous
    fertilizer.
  • B. P fertilizer efficiency is
    20, so we
  • need to apply, 2 kg P x 5
    10 kg P
  • through phosphatic
    fertilizer.
  • Step 11 Farmer has Urea and Super phosphate to
  • apply to the crop.

14
  • Step 12 A. Amount of Urea (46 N) required to
  • supply 30 kg N is
  • 30 kg N x 46 N 65.
    21 kg or 65 kg
  • B. Amount of Super phosphate
    (16 P )
  • required to supply 10 kg
    P is
  • 10 kg P x 16 P 62.
    5 kg or 63 kg
  • Step 13 The farmer has to apply 3 cart loads of
    FYM, 1 cartload of Compost, 65 kg of Urea and 63
    kg of Super phosphate to sorghum crop to harvest
    around 3000 kg of yield per ha.

15
  • This integrated nutrient management of applying
    3 cart loads of FYM, 1 cartload of Compost, 65 kg
    of Urea and 63 kg of Super phosphate to sorghum
    crop, the farmer is benefited by
  • Better utilization of farm resources like FYM and
    compost
  • Application of FYM and Compost improves the soil
    organic matter
  • No excessive application of fertilizers
  • Soil nutrients are not exhausted by considering
    the efficiency of fertilizers
  • All the above factors help in maintaining the
    soil health and to achieve expected yields.

16
  • Integrated pest management (IPM) involves use
    of different crop pest control practices like
    cultural, biological and chemical methods in a
    combined and compatible way to suppress pest
    infestations.
  • The  main goal of IPM is to manage pests and the
    environment so as to balance costs, benefits,
    public health, and environmental quality.
  • A number of non-chemical cultural practices form
    the core of IPM. But IPM does not do away with
    chemical pesticide usage.

17
  • IPM is not new to our farmers community.
  • Summer and post harvest ploughing has been in
    practice with the farmers to expose soil insects
    and pupae.
  • Growing of marigold plants in commercial crops
    like chillies and vegetables have been practiced
    by many farmers.
  • Use of neem twigs while storing grain also
    practiced by our forefathers.
  • Such practices not only minimize the expenditure
    on pesticides and their application but also help
    in maintaining the biological balance in nature.

18
  • The major tools for the development and adoption
    of IPM strategies are pest surveys and
    monitoring.
  • A field crop is monitored to determine a pest
    economic status or to determine whether a natural
    enemy is at a level capable of suppressing a
    pest's population density. So identification of
    pests and beneficial insects is of prime
    importance before any control operation is
    executed.

19
  • The major tools for the development and adoption
    of IPM strategies are pest surveys and
    monitoring.
  • Monitoring tools like pheromone, light and sticky
    traps can be advantageously used.
  • Field scouting adopting fixed plot survey or
    roving survey should be taken from time to time
    to monitor the crop in determining whether the
    pest population is leading to severe damage of
    the crop.

20
  • Some IPM practices
  • Use of monitoring tools like pheromone
    traps, light traps, colored sticky traps.
  • Bird perches.
  • Use of seed dressing bio- and chemical
    pesticides
  • Adoption of resistant varieties.

21
  • Some IPM practices
  • Use of eco-friendly insecticides like neem
    products and bio-fungicides like Trichoderma
    sp.
  • Considering natural enemies like
    Trichogramma egg cards, and microbial
    preparations like NPV etc.
  • Use of bait preparations.

22
  • Some IPM practices
  • Insect traps
    Colored sticky trap

23
  • Some IPM practices
  • Bird perch Cattle
    egrets eating

  • caterpillars

24
  • Several effective IPM practices that are cost
    effective, sustainable and eco-friendly in
    different ecosystems have been developed for
    various crops.
  • For more information on IPM, please visit the
    following Internet sites
  • http//agri.and.nic.in/biocontrol..htm
  • http//www.vigyanprasar.com/comcom/develop51.htm
  • http//www.vasat.org/learning/agri/chickpea_htm/i
    nsect_pests/ipm.htm
  • http//www.ncipm.org.in/ipm.htm
  • http//www.ikisan.com/links/pnj_pests.shtmlInteg
    rated20Pest20Management

25
Soil Health Management
Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics
Module III
  • This concludes the Lesson 4 Integrated
    nutrient and pest management practices - in this
    Module.
  • Problem soils and their reclamation
    procedures are discussed in the last Lesson in
    this Module.
  • Select Lesson 5 in Module III from the list of
    course contents

Course on Soil and Soil Health
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