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Beverages

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... or as a snack. Tamarind based sauces Tamarinido Drinks Herbs and Spices Herbs and Spices A spice is a dried seed, fruit, leaf, root, bark, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Beverages


1
Beverages
2
Coffea arabica
3
Coffee History
  • It is thought that the energizing effect of the
    coffee bean plant was first recognized in Yemen
    in Arabia and the north east of Ethiopia and the
    cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab
    world. The earliest credible evidence of coffee
    drinking appears in the middle of the fifteenth
    century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in
    southern Arabia. From the Muslim world, coffee
    spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to
    Indonesia, and to the Americas.

4
Coffee Berries (Beans)
5
Coffee Production
  • An important export commodity, coffee was the top
    agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004,
    and it was the world's seventh-largest legal
    agricultural export by value in 2005 (based on
    value in dollars, not in pounds produced).

6
Coffee Varieties
  • Of the two main species grown, arabica coffee
    (from C. arabica) is generally more highly
    regarded than robusta coffee (from C. canephora)
    robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor
    but better body than arabica. For these reasons,
    about three-quarters of coffee cultivated
    worldwide is C. arabica. However, C. canephora
    is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica
    and can be cultivated in lower altitudes and
    warmer climates where C. arabica will not thrive.
    Robusta coffee also contains about 4050 more
    caffeine than arabica.

7
Regions of Coffee Cultivation
r robusta production, a arabica, m mixture
8
Coffee Seedlings - Brazil
9
Shade Grown Coffee Costa Rica
10
Coffee Beans
11
Drying the Beans
12
Roasting the Beans
13
Various Roasts
14
Coffee Roasts
  • Depending on the color of the roasted beans as
    perceived by the human eye, they will be labeled
    as light, medium light, medium, medium dark,
    dark, or very dark.
  • Darker roasts are generally smoother, because
    they have less fiber content and a more sugary
    flavor. Lighter roasts have more caffeine and a
    stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids
    otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times

15
Science and Coffee Consumption
  • Scientific studies have examined the relationship
    between coffee consumption and an array of
    medical conditions. Findings have been
    contradictory as to whether coffee has any
    specific health benefits, and results are
    similarly conflicting regarding the potentially
    harmful effects of coffee consumption.
    Variations in findings, however, can be at least
    partially resolved by considering the method of
    preparation. Coffee prepared using paper filters
    removes oily components called diterpenes are
    present in coffee kahweol and cafestol, both of
    which have been associated with increased risk of
    coronary heart disease via elevation of low
    density lipoproteins (LDL) levels in blood.
    Metal filters, on the other hand, do not remove
    the oily components of coffee.

16
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17
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18
Cacao Theobroma cacao
Tlalcacahoatl
19
Aztec uses of Cacao
  • Woman making chocolate drink from Codice Tudela
    16th century

20
Florentine Codex god visiting Cacao eater
21
Theobroma cacao
22
Cacao leaves and seeds Theobroma cacao
23
Aztecs recognized at least four varieties of Cacao
  • Cacahoaquiahuit largest, bore the largest
    fruits, most seeds.
  • Mecacahoatl medium height, fruits second
    largest in size.
  • Xochicacahoatl smaller in height and with
    smaller fruits with red seeds.
  • Tlalcacahoatl smallest of them all and with the
    smallest fruits. It was thought to make the best
    drink. The other varieties were prized for seeds
    for currency

24
Chocolate
  • The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense
    bitter taste, and must be fermented to develop
    the flavor.
  • After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned,
    and roasted, and the shell is removed to produce
    cacao nibs. The nibs are then ground to cocoa
    mass, pure chocolate in rough form. Because this
    cocoa mass usually is liquefied then molded with
    or without other ingredients, it is called
    chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be
    processed into two components cocoa solids and
    cocoa butter. Unsweetened baking chocolate
    (bitter chocolate) contains primarily cocoa
    solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions.
    Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the
    form of sweet chocolate, combining cocoa solids,
    cocoa butter or other fat, and sugar.

25
Hot Chocolate
26
Benefits of Chocolate
  • Cocoa solids contain alkaloids such as
    theobromine and phenethylamine, which have
    physiological effects on the body. It has been
    linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Some
    research has found that chocolate, eaten in
    moderation, can lower blood pressure. Dark
    Chocolate has recently been promoted for its
    health benefits, including a substantial amount
    of antioxidants that reduce the formation of free
    radicals (although this is unproven). The
    presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some
    animals, especially dogs and cats.

27
Psychoactive plants as a communal experience
  • Many psychoactive plants have very subtle effects
    and appear to facilitate social interactions
    among people - plants included in this group
    include plants that yield recreational beverages
    such as beer, wine, yerba mate, coffee,
    chocolate, and tea

28
Piper methysticum source of Kava
29
Kava Chemical Activity
  • The active chemicals in kava are lactones
  • The two most important ones are kavain and
    dihydrokavain
  • As Polynesians moved east, they tended to select
    plants rich in kavain and poor in dihydrokavain

30
Samoan women prepare Kava for the Kava ceremony
31
Different varieties of Kava
  • There are 9 major groups of kava plant clones -
    each differs in chemical activity
  • A Samoan clone called fellowship and
    brotherhood makes one feel very friendly
  • Another called the white pigeon imparts a sense
    of heightened perception, as though one were
    flying over the rain forest like a pigeon

32
Tamarind Tamarindus indica
33
Tamarind History
  • It is a tropical tree, native to tropical Africa,
    the tree grows wild throughout the Sudan and was
    so long ago introduced into and adopted in India
    that it has often been reported as indigenous
    there also, and it was apparently from India that
    it reached the Persians and the Arabs who called
    it "tamar hindi" (Indian date, from the date-like
    appearance of the dried pulp), giving rise to
    both its common and generic names. Unfortunately,
    the specific name, "indica", also perpetuates the
    illusion of Indian origin. The fruit was well
    known to the ancient Egyptians and to the Greeks
    in the 4th Century B.C.

34
Tamarind Fruits
35
Tamarind Uses
  • The fruit pulp is edible and popular. It is used
    as a spice in both Asian and Latin American
    cuisines, and is also an important ingredient in
    Worcestershire sauce, HP Sauce and the
    Jamaican-produced Pickapeppa Sauce. The hard
    green pulp of a young fruit is very tart and
    acidic and is most often used as a component of
    savory dishes. The ripened fruit is sweeter, yet
    still distinctively sour, and can be used in
    desserts and sweetened drinks, or as a snack.

36
Tamarind based sauces
37
Tamarinido Drinks
38
Herbs and Spices
39
Herbs and Spices
  • A spice is a dried seed, fruit, leaf, root, bark,
    or vegetative substance used in nutritionally
    insignificant quantities as a food additive for
    the purpose of flavor, color, or as a
    preservative that kills harmful bacteria or
    prevents their growth.
  • In the kitchen, spices are distinguished from
    herbs, which are leafy, green plant parts used
    for flavoring purposes.

40
History of Spice Use
  • The earliest evidence of the use of spice by
    humans was around 50,000 B.C. The spice trade
    developed throughout the Middle East in around
    2000 BC with cinnamon and pepper. The Egyptians
    used herbs for embalming and their need for
    exotic herbs helped stimulate world trade. In
    fact, the word spice comes from the same root as
    species, meaning kinds of goods. By 1000 BC China
    and India had a medical system based upon herbs.
    Early uses were connected with magic, medicine,
    religion, tradition, and preservation.

41
More Spice History
  • Spices were among the most luxurious products
    available in Europe in the Middle Ages, the most
    common being black pepper, cinnamon (and the
    cheaper alternative cassia), cumin, nutmeg,
    ginger and cloves. They were all imported from
    plantations in Asia and Africa, which made them
    extremely expensive. From the 8th until the 15th
    century, the Republic of Venice had the monopoly
    on spice trade with the Middle East. The trade
    made the region phenomenally rich. It has been
    estimated that around 1,000 tons of pepper and
    1,000 tons of the other common spices were
    imported into Western Europe each year during the
    Late Middle Ages. The value of these goods was
    the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for
    1.5 million people.

42
Spice Trade Routes
43
Dutch East India Company Ship Japanese
Woodblock Print - 1782
44
Plants for Dyes and Decorations
45
Woad Isatis tinctoria
46
Woad Dyes
  • Woad produces a substance in its leaves called
    isatan B which, when exposed to the air, forms
    the blue compound indigo.
  • This compound can easily be removed from the
    leaves by boiling them in water and an alkaline
    solution, a process used by home dyers today to
    make indigo today

47
Woad Dye and Woad Dyed Wool
48
Woad Body Decoration
49
Source of Henna Lawsonia inermis
50
Henna Dye
  • Henna, Lawsonia inermis, produces a red-orange
    dye molecule lawsone. This molecule has an
    affinity for bonding with protein, and thus has
    been used to dye skin, hair, fingernails,
    leather, silk and wool.
  • Henna body art is made by applying henna paste to
    the skin the lawsone in the paste migrates into
    the outermost layer of the skin and makes a
    red-brown stain.
  • Products sold as "black henna" or "neutral henna"
    are not made from henna, but may be derived from
    indigo (in the plant Indigofera tinctoria) or
    Cassia obovata

51
Henna Preparation
  • Dried ground, sifted henna leaves are easily
    worked into a paste that can used to make
    intricate body art.
  • Commercially available henna powder is made by
    drying the henna leaves and milling them to
    powder, then the powder is sifted.
  • This powder is mixed with lemon juice, strong
    tea, or other mildly acidic liquids. Essential
    oils with high levels of monoterpene alcohols
    such as tea tree, eucalyptus, cajeput, or
    lavender will improve skin staining
    characteristics.

52
Mehndi traditional Indian bridal henna art
53
Modern body art with Henna
54
Traditional tattoo on resident of Nuka Hiva- late
1700s
55
Candlenut tree Aleurites moluccana
56
Traditional Samoan Tattooing
  • The pigments used in traditional Samoan tattooing
    comes from the nuts of the candlenut tree
    Aleurites moluccana (Euphorbiaceae) - called lama
    in Samoan
  • The seeds are burned to produce soot which is
    collected on banana leaves and stored in coconut
    shells

57
Candlenut seeds ready to be burned to produce soot
58
Samoan Tattooing Technique
  • Tattooing is done by grinding the soot with a
    mortar and pestle
  • A serrated comb of pig bone is used to penetrate
    the skin, and a mallet pounds the comb and
    pigment into the skin
  • A towel of bark cloth is used to wipe away the
    blood

59
Traditional Samoan tattoo process as done today
60
Completed modern version of traditional Samoan
tattoo
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