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Emerging Practices in the Area of Human Rights Education

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Title: Emerging Practices in the Area of Human Rights Education


1
Emerging Practices in the Area of Human Rights
Education
  • This is My Home Teacher Training Workshop
  • Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • by
  • Kristi Rudelius-Palmer
  • U of MN Human Rights Center

2
FRAMING OUR HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS
  • What are the historic and philosophical
    foundations for human rights?
  • What are the underlying principles of the
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights?
  • How does the Universal Declaration of Human
    Rights and our stories connect to Human Rights
    Education?

3
How do we tell our story of the evolution of
human rights and human rights education?
4
OUR PAST STORIES
We must recognize our ancestors and elders, whose
shoulders we are standing upon!
5
Philosophical Visions Human Nature - A search
for Common secular inquiry and human reason
  • 400 B.C.E. est. - Mo Zi founded Mohist School of
    Moral Philosophy in China
  • Importance of duty, self-sacrifice, and an
    all-embracing respect for others universally
    throughout the world
  • 300 B.C.E. est. Chinese sage Mencious
  • Wrote on the human nature humans are
    fundamentally good, but goodness needs to be
    nurtured
  • 300 B.C.E. est. Hsun-tzu
  • Asserted to relieve anxiety and eradicate
    strife, nothing is a effective as the institution
    of corporate life based on a clear recognition of
    individual rights

6
Philosophical Visions Human Nature
  • 1750 B.C.E. King Hammurabi in Babylon
  • Necessary to honor broad codes of justice among
    people. Created one of the earliest legal codes
    to govern behavior let the oppressed man come
    under my statue to seek equal justice in law
  • Ancient Egypt
  • Explicit social justice comfort the
    afflictedrefrain from unjust punishment. Kill
    notmake no distinction between the son of a man
    of importance and one of humble origin
  • Early Sanskrit writings in Indian
  • Responsibility of rulers for the welfare of
    people. Noone should be allowed to suffer
    either because of poverty or of any deliberate
    actions on the part of others

7
Philosophical Visions Human Nature with
Spiritual/Religious Traditions
  • 300 B.C.E. Ashoka of India
  • Freedom of worship and other rights of his
    subjects. Other leaders from this area impartial
    justice and social equality and no castes should
    exist since all are from one tree
  • 16th century - Hindu philosopher Chaitanya
  • There is only one caste humanity
  • Sikh leader Guru Gobind Singh
  • Proclaimed recognize all the human race as one
  • 10th Century - Al-Farabi, an Islamic Philosopher
  • Wrote The Outlook of the People of the City of
    Virtue, a vision of moral society in which all
    individual were endowed with rights and lived in
    love and charity with their neighbors.

8
Philosophical Visions Natural Law focused on
universal responsibilities and duties rather than
what are now described as rights
  • Greek Philosophers
  • Equal respect for all citizens (insotimia).
    Equality before the law (isonomia). Equality in
    political power (isokratia) and Suffrage
    (isopsephia).
  • Marcus Tillius Cicero
  • Universal justice and law guided human nature
    to act justly and be of service to others This
    natural law binds all human society together,
    applies to every member of the whole human race
    without distinction and unique dignity of each
    person.
  • French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762)
    Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains

9
Precursors to 20th Century Human Rights Documents
  • 1750 B.C.E.
  • Code of Hammurabi, Babylonia
  • 1200 - 300 B.C.E.
  • Old Testament
  • 551 - 479 B.C.E.
  • Analects of Confucius
  • 40 - 100 C.E.
  • New Testament
  • 644 - 656 C.E.
  • Koran
  • 1215
  • Magna Carta, England
  • 1400
  • Code of Nezahualcoyotl, Aztec
  • 1648
  • Treaty of Westphalia, Europe
  • 1689
  • English Bill of Rights, England
  • 1776
  • Declaration of Independence, United States
  • 1787
  • United States Constitution
  • 1789
  • French Declaration on the Rights of Man and the
    Citizen, France 1791 -United States Bill of Rights

10
19th and 20th Century Human Rights based on
Natural Rights
  • 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, United States
  • 1864 1949 Geneva Conventions, International
    Red Cross
  • 1919 League of Nations Covenant, International
    Labor Organization (ILO) Created
  • 1920 Women gain the right to vote in the U.S.
  • 1926 Slavery Convention
  • 1945 United Nations Charter, San Francisco
  • 1947 Mohandas Gandhi uses non-violent protests
    leading India to independence.

11
Philosophical Visions Human Rights the Social
Construction of Human Nature
  • A Moral Vision of Human Nature
  • Human Rights set the limits and requirements of
    social (especially state) action. But the state
    and society, guided by human rights, play a major
    role in realizing that nature. When human
    rights claims bring legal and political practice
    into lines with their demands, they create a
    person in line with a moral vision. (Donnelly,
    2003)
  • Human Rights Theories and documents point
    beyond actual conditions of existence to what is
    possible.
  • Treat a person like a human being and youll
    get a human being.

12
What are the Human Rights Principles?
  • Core Principles
  • Human Dignity
  • Equality
  • Non-discrimination
  • Universality
  • Interdependency
  • Indivisibility
  • Inalienability
  • Responsibilities
  • The rights that someone has simply because he or
    she is a human being born into this world.

13
What are the Common Myths about Human Rights in
U.S.?
  • Human Rights civil rights.
  • Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (i.e.,
    healthcare, housing) are privileges.
  • Human Rights applies only in poor, foreign
    countries.
  • Human Rights are only concerned with violations.
  • Only lawyers can understand the significance of
    Human Rights.

14
Five Primary Categories of Human Rights
  • Civil Rights
  • Political Rights
  • Economic Rights
  • Social Rights
  • Cultural Rights

15
Universal of Declaration of Human Rights History
and Current Status
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
was drafted by the UN Commission on Human Rights
chaired by, then first lady, Eleanor Roosevelt.
The UDHR was adopted by the 56 member nations of
the UN General Assembly on December 10, 1948.
December 10th is celebrated around the world as
International Human Rights Day. The 192 member
states in the U.N., upon membership, agreed to
educate their citizens about the principles of
the UDHR. Most of these countries have
incorporated the principles of the UDHR into
their constitutions. The UDHR specifies minimal
conditions of a dignified life.
16
Human Rights USA 1997 Survey Results
  • Only 8 of adults and 4 of young people are
    aware the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
    exists.
  • After learning about the UDHR, a large majority,
    83, feel that the US should do more to live up
    to the principles of the UDHR.
  • 2/3 of the people polled (63) say that the poor
    are usually discriminated against in US. Others
    discriminated against the disabled (61), the
    elderly (54), gays and lesbians (51), Native
    Americans (50), and African Americans (41).

17
International Bill of Human Rights
18
Selected Human Rights Conventions/Treaties
  • International Convention on the Elimination of
    all forms of Racial Discrimination, 1966
  • Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
    Discrimination against Women, 1979
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989

19
  • How do we move from learning about Human Rights
    to promoting and protecting them on a personal
    and community level?

20
OUR PRESENT STORIES
We must share, listen, and respect each others
stories and journeys, working for human rights
and human rights education!
21
Personal and Community Human Rights Learning
Wheel KRP - 1999
22
Building Blocks for Human Rights Education
  • BLOCK 1 THINKING
  • Know your human rights
  • BLOCK 2 FEELING
  • Value your human rights
  • BLOCK 3 - EQUIPPING
  • Learn new human rights Skills
  • BLOCK 4 ACTING
  • Practice human rights

23
Measuring the Impact and Being Accountable
  • STEP 1 MEASURING IMPACT
  • What are initial outcomes?
  • STEP 2 REFLECTING
  • Was our intent the impact?
  • STEP 3 COMMUNICATE OUR LEARNING JOURNEYS
  • Can we connect and hold each other accountable?
  • STEP 4 CELEBRATE OUR EMERGING PRACTICES
  • Can our work be a means rather than an end?

24
Who are the Stakeholders and Responsible
Partners in our Human Rights Community?
25
How will we gauge the Progress in Realizing our
Human Rights Community?
26
What is Human Rights Education?
27
1993 Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action,
Part 1, para. 33
The World Conference on Human Rights reaffirms
that States are duty-boundto ensure that
education is aimed at strengthening the respect
of human rights and fundamental freedoms and
that this should be integrated in the
educational policies at the national as well as
international levels.
28
The UN resolution declaring the Decade for Human
Rights Education, 1995-2004
Human rights education should involve more than
the provisions of education and should constitute
a comprehensive life-long process by which people
at all levels in development and in all strata of
society learn respect for the dignity of others
and the means and methods of ensuring that
respect in all societies.
29
The World Programme for Human Rights Education
(A/59/525/Rev. 1)
Human rights education can be defined as
education, training and information aiming at
building a universal culture of human rights
through the sharing of knowledge, imparting of
skills and moulding of attitudes directed to
30
  • The strengthening of respect for human rights and
    fundamental freedoms
  • The full development of the human personality and
    the sense of its dignity
  • The promotion of understanding, tolerance, gender
    equality and friendship among all nations,
    indigenous peoples and racial, national, ethnic,
    religious and linguistic groups
  • The enabling of all persons to participate
    effectively in a free and democratic society
    governed by the rule of law
  • The building and maintenance of peace
  • The promotion of people-centered sustainable
    development and social justice.

31
The World Programme for Human Rights Education
Launched January 1, 2005 December 31, 2007
  • Resolution 2004/71 of the Commission on Human
    Rights supported the first phase (2005-2007) of
    the World Program for HRE to focus on primary and
    secondary school systems.
  • UN General Assembly adopted resolution in
    support of The World Programme for HRE (12/10/05)
  • Revised draft plan of action for the first
    phase (2005-2007) of the World Programme for HRE

32
What is the Human Right to Education?
  • Everyone has the human right to education,
    training and information
  • Education should be directed to the full
    development of the human personality and the
    strengthening of human rights and fundamental
    freedoms.

33
Governments Obligations to Ensuring the Human
Right to Education
  • Everyone has the right to education.Education
    shall be directed to the full development of the
    human personality and to the strengthening of
    respect for human rights and fundamental
    freedoms. UDHR, Article 26
  • State parties undertake to prohibit and to
    eliminate racial discriminationand to guarantee
    the right of everyone without distinction as to
    race, colour, or national or ethnic originin the
    enjoyment ofthe right to education and
    training. CERD, Article 5
  • ICESCR (Art. 13), CRC (Art. 29), CEDAW (Art.
    10).
  • In response to new World Programme on HRE,
    Governments need to develop plans for HRE in
    primary and secondary school education.

34
HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION for PEACE BUILDING A
Planning Evaluation Handbook
  • Recommendations to International and National
    Actors Based on research in
  • El Salvador, Guatemala, Liberia, Mexico and
    Sierra Leone Paul Martin,Tania Bernath, Tracey
    HollandLoren Miller
  • DRAFT 10/28/2002

35
Human Rights Education is a means towards social
change a tool to transform the theory and
practical applications into everyday social
practice.In conflict situations and in peace
building, HRE must be seen to benefit the target
populations daily lives.Paul Martin et al
36
HRE focuses especially on social goals and
ideals that emphasize the dignity of all human
beings and the need for laws and institutions
that enforce those standards. In so doing, HRE
contributes directly to the process of building a
society based on freedom, peace and
Justice. Paul Martin, et al.
37
CORE COMPONENTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION
PROGRAMS
  • (1) You have rights and members of government
    are obliged to protect and promote them and
  • (2) You can gain the knowledge and skills to use
    to protect and implement those rights in real
    life and subsequently improve your and
    community-wide living conditions. Paul
    Martin,Tania Bernath, Tracey HollandLoren Miller
    (Draft 2002)

38
HRE PROGRAM I. WHY? Goal Setting Questions
  • (1) What do we hope to achieve through HRE?
  • (2) How will the promotion of human rights
    contribute to goal(s)?
  • (3) In the absence of an effective local
    government, how can common rules based on
    international standards become part of national
    law and be enforced to ensure respect for these
    rights for both nationals and expatriates alike?

39
WHAT Content Skills? Questions to Determine
Content/Skills
  • (1) What are the participants greatest concerns
    and how do they relate to human rights?
  • (2) What human rights concerns have the
    participants identified?
  • (3) What articles from which international
    documents in human rights and humanitarian law
    reflect the concerns of this population at this
    time?
  • (4) How are human rights principles reflected in
    the activities of state and local Institutions?
  • (5) What skills do we need to gain to redress
    these concerns?

40
III. HOW TO CHOOSE PROCESS METHODS? Questions
About Implementation
  • (1) How can we engage the participants in the
    learning process?
  • (2) What approaches will make these topics come
    alive for the participants?
  • (3) How should one organize and structure the
    goals and topics to be taught?
  • (4) What do participants learn from the way that
    we facilitate process?
  • (5) How can we use the classroom dynamic to
    reinforce our goals and topics?
  • (6) What methods will best help participants
    learn and apply this knowledge?

41
IV. WHO are actors in teaching/training and
learning? Questions for Determining Actors
  • (1) What arenas of society should be the focus
    for human rights education?
  • (2) What experience, talents, and skills will
    best serve the educational and human rights
    goals?
  • (3) How can local and international efforts best
    be combined in the application of human rights
    education?
  • (4) What kinds of experts are needed to
    implement human rights education?
  • Paul Martin,Tania Bernath, Tracey Holland, and
    Loren Miller (Draft 2002)

42
What are some models and effective practices in
HRE Programs in the U.S. and the Americas?
43
National Human Rights Resource Center
http//www.hrusa.org
  • Passports on Universal Declaration of HR and
    Convention on the Rights of Child (_at_ 1/2 million
    distributed)
  • Human Rights Here Now Curriculum (_at_25,000
    distributed)
  • Taking Your Human Rights Temperature of Your
    School (adapted/translated into numerous other
    languages)
  • Human Rights and Peace Bookstore
  • National Training of Trainers HRE Institutes

44
National Human Rights Resource Center U of MN
  • Beyond September 11 Curriculum
    http//www.beyondseptember11.org
  • Human Rights Education Handbook Effective
    Practice for Learning, Action Change
    http//www.hrusa.org
  • Dismantling Racism and Human Rights Workshops
    for Trainers
  • Partnering on Training for the Police, FBI,
    Judiciary, and New Immigrants
  • Police and Civilian Review Board

45
Human Rights Library http//www.umn.edu/humanrts
  • Largest Primary human rights documents Web site
    available in 6 languages Spanish, English,
    French, Russian, Arabic, Japanese. Chinese is
    coming soon.
  • _at_ 120,000 hits in one month period.
  • _at_ 3,500 Human Rights Links.
  • Link to the Resource Center for full-text
    training resources free on-line.
  • New UN Guidelines on Transnational Corporations
    HR now available.

46
This is My Home A Minnesota HRE Experience - 2005
  • Primary and Secondary School HRE initiative
  • (1)To create learning environments for all
    students to develop to full potential
  • (2)To motivate all members of school community to
    take responsibilities for HRE
  • (3)To share effective practices on Web site

47
Minnesota Global, Human Rights, and Peace
Education Network
  • (1) CENTER FOR VICTIMS OF TORTURE. Works with
    teachers to help them understand unique needs of
    students and families coming from War-torn
    countries. (www.cvt.org)
  • (2) MN ADVOCATES FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. Has
    implemented a full Rights Sites approach with 8
    schools and also developed a Building Immigrant
    Awareness Support curriculum and video.
    (www.mnadvocates.org)
  • (3) MN INTERNATIONAL CENTER. Brings immigrants
    and refugees into classrooms to speak about their
    countries. (www.mic.org)

48
Minnesota Global, Human Rights, and Peace
Education Network
  • (4) RESOURCE CENTER FOR THE AMERICAS. Conducts
    teacher training, hosts a bi-lingual curriculum
    bookstore, and runs a youth-lead Child Labor
    Project. (www.americas.org)
  • (5) U of MN HUMAN RIGHTS RESOURCE CENTER. Works
    with St. Paul School District on Respect and
    Human Rights Campaign Coaching and Curriculum
    Integration (www.hrusa.org)
  • (6) WORLD CITIZENS. Works with schools to become
    peace sites and integrate human rights and peace
    curriculum.

49
Measuring Human Rights Community
TemperatureMoorhead Residence Survey on
Discrimination, Moorhead Chamber of Commerce,
1998
50
Martin Luther King, Jr., Last Speech on April
3,1968
  • Men, for years now, have been talking about war
    and peace. But now, no longer can they just talk
    about it. It is no longer a choice between
    violence or non-violence in this world its
    nonviolence or nonexistence.
  • That is where we are today. And also in the
    human rights revolution, if something isnt done,
    and in a hurry, to bring the colored peoples of
    the world out of their long years of poverty,
    their long years of hurt and neglect, the whole
    world is doomed.

51
The U of MN Human Rights Center
  • N-120 Mondale Hall, U of MN Law School
  • 612-626-0041
  • Primary Human Rights Documents www.umn.edu/humanrt
    s
  • Human Rights Education and Training www.hrusa.org
  • Human Rights and Peace Store www.humanrightsandpea
    cestore.org

52
Eleanor Roosevelt, 1958
  • Where, after all do universal rights begin? In
    small places, close to home so close and so
    small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the
    world. Yet they are the world of the individual
    person the neighborhood he lives in the school
    or college he attends the factory, farm or
    office where he works. Such are the places where
    every man, woman, and child seeks equal justice,
    equal opportunity, equal dignity without
    discrimination. Unless these rights have meaning
    there, they have little meaning anywhere.
    Without concerted citizen action to uphold them
    close to home, we shall look in vain for progress
    in the larger world.
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