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Chapter 2 Family & Personal Relationships (1)

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Chapter 2 Family & Personal Relationships (1) Focal questions 1. What are the traditional expectations of marriage in Britain? (Pp19, 22, 23) 2. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 Family & Personal Relationships (1)


1
Chapter 2 Family Personal Relationships (1)
2
Focal questions
  • 1. What are the traditional expectations of
    marriage in Britain? (Pp19, 22, 23)
  • 2. How do you visualise the typical family in
    modern Britain? (Pp 19)
  • 3. What changes in the family and marriage have
    occured since the Second World War? Which are the
    most significant? How do you explain them? (Pp
    19, 20, 24, 25, 26)
  • 4. What do you understand of the term "youth
    culture"? Can you give some specific examples of
    youth subcultures or cults? Do all youth
    subcultures have certain common features? (P21)

3
A 1 The Family
  • Diverse families
  • Nuclear family
  • Lone-parent family
  • Cohabiting couple
  • Common-law/de facto marriage
  • Civil partnership

4
A 1 Family cont.
  • Marriage halffail ratelowest since records in
    1840
  • Divorce ratehighest in Europe 1child/4 before
    age 16divorce of their parents
  • Lone parenting increased three-fold in the last
    20 years, 1/10 families
  • 4/10 people born outside marriage
  • 1/10 cohabiting

5
http//www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id186
5
6
Family size
  • Complete family size of 2 kids 1/3 women
  • Childlessness 1/5 women
  • Causes
  • Falling infant death rates fell
  • The expense of having children
  • Career vs. children

7
Darren Hayes Savage Garden
8
Darren on the civil partnership ceremony
  • "I can honestly say it was the happiest day of my
    life," writes Hayes of the civil partnership
    ceremony, which took place in London. "I feel
    lucky to live in an era where my relationship can
    be considered legally legitimate, and I commend
    the U.K. government for embracing this very basic
    civil liberty."

9
Darren on the civil partnership ceremony
  • Britain legalized civil partnerships in December
    2005.
  • Civil Partnership Act 2004
  • Same-sex couples
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Partnership_Act
    _2004

10
London
  • the most popular region within the UK in which to
    register a partnership in 2007
  • The London Borough of Westminster
  • Brighton and Hove Unitary Authority
    http//www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id168
    5

11
Living in Britain General Household Survey 2002
12
http//www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id168
5
13
Living in Britain General Household Survey 2002
14
A 2 Youth
  • Youth an age group?
  • A social organization
  • The 1950s about ten years after the end of WWII
  • A rise in the birth rate
  • Music, films, fashion
  • Youth subcultureteenagers

15
A 5 50 Years of Change
  • The 1950s a time of great changes in fields of
    economy, culture, politics.
  • The 1960s a decade of rebellious young
    generation of great expectation

16
A 5 50 Years of Change
  • The 1970s a decade of strikes and recession
  • The 1980s a decade of Thatcherism
  • The 1990s a decade of great expectation

17
A2 Youth (1970s) Youth Subcultures
  • Subculture a cultural group within a larger
    culture often having beliefs or interests at
    variance with those of the larger culture (COD)
  • A distinct individual style certain ways of
    dressing, speaking, listening to music and
    gathering in similar places
  • The way of life
  • Inevitable products of affluent society
  • To leave usu. at the point of marriage

18
A2 YouthTeddy Boys
  • Rock 'n' Roll black origin, white musicians like
    Elvis
  • Teenage cults
  • Music of the Teddy Boys or 'Teds'
  • Slicked-back quiffs or DA (ducktail) haircuts
  • Narrow drainpipe trousers
  • Drape jackets, fancy shirts
  • Bootlace ties

19
A 2 Youth Teddy Boys Characteristics
  • Group-mindedness a reaffirmation of traditional
    working class values and the strong sense of
    territory
  • Extreme touchiness (over-sensitivity) to insults
  • Conditions for its formation extensive welfare
    provision (social security, health, housing),
    European economic boom with Marshall plan,
    abolishing of draft, introduction of hire
    purchase
  • Drastical and fundamental alteration of the
    concept of the adolescent

20
A 2 Youth cont. Teddy Boys in the 1950s



21
A 2 Youth cont. The Beatniks
  • The beat movement in the US in the 1950s
  • Rejection of traditional middle-class American
    values, customs
  • The Beat generationbeatitude
  • Sputnik I
  • Their visual symbols - jazz, poetry, marijuanna,
    the Beatles
  • Counter-cultural, anti-materialistic, bettering
    the inner self

22
A 2 Youth Beatniks Characteristics
  • Extremely pessimistic about future
    possibilities of progress
  • Aspired for freedom and the anguish of being
    alone, undecided and separate
  • No popularity in Britain until mid-1960s the
    Hippies
  • The Simpsons episode

23
A 2 Youth The Beatniks
24
A 2 Youth The Beatles
25
A 2 Youth The Rolling Stones
26
A 2 Youth (The 1960s) Mods and Rockers
  • A new mood of optimism and change
  • Rockers rock 'n' roll big motorbikes 'dressed
    down' (in leather jackets and denim) working
    class, masculinity driven
  • Mods American rhythm and blues music scooters
    'dressed up' (in sharp suits and tiesItalian
    style) working-class, non-traditional clerical
    or service jobs

27
A 2 Youth Rockers and their motor-bikes
28
A 2 Youth Mods and their scootors
29
A2 Youth The Hippies
  • Hippie bohemian, student and radical
    subcultures
  • Being critical of growing dominance of technology
    bureaucracy of capitalist societies
  • Distrust of establishment
  • Criticism of inequality and affluence of society
  • Search of social change through peaceful means
  • Contradictions
  • Anti-materialistic, yet lived to share the fruits
    of affluence
  • Pro-egalitarian, but reactionary

30
A 2 Youth Skinheads cont.
  • The unskilled working-class community
  • Working-class activities pubs, football and
    streets, associated with football hooliganism
  • The end of the 1960s, relative worsening of
    situation of working-class
  • Dress big industrial boots jeans rolled up
    high to reveal them
  • Appearance hair cut to the skull
  • Emphasis on collectivity, physical toughness, and
    local rivalry targets for the aggressionhippies

31
A2 Youth cont. Hippies (left) Skin heads
(right)
32
A2 Youth (1970s) Punks
  • The 1970s Punk, Heavy Metal
  • Punk youth culture in the extreme
  • Spiked hair, ripped and outlandishly customized
    clothing
  • Obscene language (much-publicized)
  • To both cut themselves off from society and to
    shock it into action
  • Heavy Metal music grew in the 1970s bikers

33
A 2 Youth cont. The punks
34
Taxi Driver
  • Travis Bickle
  • Jodie Foster
  • John Hinckley
  • President Reagan

35
A2 Youth (1970s) Rastafarianism--Rastas
  • Rastafarianism a philosophy and a religion
    originating in Jamaica black Britain the reggae
    music of Bob Marley.

36
The Influence of Reggae on Punk
  • Search for authenticity
  • The romanticization of petty criminality
  • white translation of black ethnicity (Hebdige
    p.64)Elvis Presley white nigger
  • Reggae music
  • Non-mainstream
  • Working class credentials
  • Political awareness
  • Music of the outsider

37
A 2 Youth (1980s) The Ravers
  • the New Romantics wearing flamboyant clothes
    often like those of the 18C 'dandies'
  • Hip Hop, the black communities of the USA, rap
    music, graffiti art, sportswear-based dress and
    other cultural elements
  • Rave, grew out of the 'acid house' cult of 1988.
    American 'house' music, baggy colourful clothing
    drugs like LSD and Ecstacy. All night dancing
    events called raves in remote out-of-the-way
    places

38
Graffitiart or vandalism?
39
A 2 Youth (the 1990s) Ragga Jungle
  • Predominantly black, ragga music, a
    dance-oriented form of reggae commonly with the
    lyric spoken or 'chatted'
  • Young Asians born in Britain 'bhangramuffin,
    the Asian music, Bhangra
  • Jungle, elements of house music and rave culture
    the most innovative, original youth culture of
    the mid-1990s

40
Oasis
41
60? 70? 80? 90?
  • 1????? 
  • 60????????,?????,?????????????
  • 70?????????70???
  • 80?????!
  • 90? ????! 

42
60? 70? 80? 90?
  • 2? ???? 
  • 60???????????,???????? 
  • 70?????????????,??????. 
  • 80? ??????,???FEEL??????. 
  • 90?????,???????.   

43
60? 70? 80? 90?
  • 3???K? 
  • 60??????K,??K,???????,???????????? 
  • 70??k?????????2002??????,??????????,????? 
  • 80?Mic?? 
  • 90? ????,???!  

44
A 2 Youth Millennial Tension
  • Young males postmodernity destroyed traditional
    social role, respect, authority
  • Erosion of masculine forms of work, sources of
    self-respect

45
A 2 Youth Suicide Solution
  • Massive increases in suicide amongst young males
    in UK (5X higher than young women)

46
A 2 Youth Conclusion
  • Commercial consumption
  • Blurring of upper and lower boundaries
  • More escapist than oppositional
  • Absorption into mainstream
  • Reinforced expectation that youth will generate
    consumer ideals
  • Childhoodmodernist optimism, youthpostmodernist
    freedom and possibility
  • The real problems

47
Youth Samuel Erman
  • 1. Youth is not a time of life, it is a state of
    mind, it is not a matter of rosy cheeks, red lips
    and supple knees, it is a matter of the will, a
    quality of the imagination, a vigor of the
    emotions, it is the freshness of the deep spring
    of life.

48
Youth cont
  • 2. Youth means a temperamental predominance of
    courage over timidity, of the appetite for
    adventure over the love of ease. This often
    exists in a man of 60 more than a boy of 20.
    Nobody grows merely by a number of years we grow
    old by deserting our ideas.
  • 3. Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up
    enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, fear,
    self-distrust bows the heart and turns the spirit
    back to dust.

49
Youth cont
  • 4. Whether 60 or 16, there is in every human
    beings heart the lure of wonders, the unfailing
    childlike appetite of whats next and the joy of
    the game of living. In the center of your heart
    and my heart there is a wireless station so long
    as it receives messages of beauty, hope, cheer,
    courage and power from man and from the Infinite,
    so long as you are young.

50
Youth cont
  • 5. When the aerials are down, and your spirits
    are covered with snows of cynicism and the ice of
    pessimism, then youve grown old even at 20, but
    as long as your aerials are up to catch waves of
    optimism, theres hope you may die young at 80.

51
A 4 Marriage Divorce
  • Marriage and cohabitation
  • In 2000
  • 54 of men 52 of women aged 16 and over
    married
  • 10 of men nine of women cohabiting
  • 27 of men 18 of women single
  • 3 of men 12 of women widowed
  • 6 of men 9 of women divorced or separated

52
A 4 Marriage Divorce
  • http//www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id170

53
Sociological Explanations of the Increase in
Divorce
  • The value of marriage
  • Conflict between spouses
  • The ease of divorce
  • Women, paid employment and marital conflict
  • Income and class
  • Age
  • Marital status of parents
  • Background and role expectations
  • Occupation

54
http//www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id186
6
55
http//www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id192
5
56
All the lonely people
  • 40 years ago,the Beatles asked the world a simple
    question,they wanted to know where all the lonely
    people come from.
  • Greys Anatomy
  • All the lonely people, where do they all come
    from? All the lonely people, where do they all
    belong?
  • Eleanor Rigby, Beatles

57
A 1 The Family cont. One-parent
families their dependent children
58
http//www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id174
8
59
A 1 Family cont.
  • The traditional family in decline?
  • The Soul of Britain survey
  • 80 of Britons marriage is not out-dated ?
  • 76 of Britons marriages to last for life ?
  • 46 of Britons lone parenting as a lifestyle
    choice ?
  • Columnist Melanie Phillips the traditional
    nuclear familyat the root of democracy (secure,
    stable, inner-directed and self-confident, a
    sense of duty and responsibility)

60
A 1 Family cont.
  • Traditional families are better for children
  • Bob Rowthorne (professor of economics at
    Cambridge University) step families are very
    dangerous places for children to beHigher rate
    of child murder
  • Lone-parent families or cohabiting families ?
    not stable
  • Lone-parent families poverty and social problems
    related to poverty

61
A 1 The Family Home is Where the Heart is
  • Stable marriage a happy home life in Millennium
    Britain (a new Alliance Leicester public
    opinion poll by MORI)
  • 1,938 people what would be the most important
    ingredient to family life in 25 years time
  • Stable marriage and less divorce more than one
    in four people (26 per cent)
  • Consistent across all age groups

62
Towards a More Civilised Society
  • European economies joint taxation
  • In Britain family commitmentslargely irrelevant
    to tax assessment
  • Call for approbation and support from the state
  • The married family the nurture of children
    -- Center for Policy Studies
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