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Neuroethics: What is it and what comes next?

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Neuroethics: What is it and what comes next? Fran oise Baylis, PhD; Professor Canada Research Chair in Bioethics and Philosophy Neuroethics: What is it? the study ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Neuroethics: What is it and what comes next?


1
Neuroethics What is it and what comes next?
  • Françoise Baylis, PhD Professor
  • Canada Research Chair in Bioethics and Philosophy

2
Neuroethics What is it?
  • the study of the ethical, legal and social
    questions that arise when scientific findings
    about the brain are carried into medical
    practice, legal interpretations and health and
    social policy.
  • Marcus D. (2002) Neuroethics Mapping the field
    conference proceedings, May 13-14 2002, San
    Francisco, California. New York The Dana Press.

3
Neuroethics What is it?
  • Neuroethics encompasses a wide array of ethical
    issues emerging from different branches of
    clinical neuroscience (neurology, psychiatry,
    psychopharmacology) and basic neuroscience
    (cognitive neuroscience, affective neuroscience).
  • These include ethical problems raised by advances
    in functional neuroimaging, brain implants and
    brain-machine interfaces and psychopharmacology
    as well as by our growing understanding of the
    neural bases of behavior, personality,
    consciousness, and states of spiritual
    transcendence.
  • http//neuroethics.upenn.edu/

4
Neuroethics What is it?
  • Neuroethics is more than just bioethics for the
    brain. It is the examination of how we want to
    deal with the social issues of disease,
    normality, mortality, lifestyle, and the
    philosophy of living informed by our
    understanding of underlying brain mechanisms" "It
    isor should bean effort to come up with a
    brain-based philosophy of life.
  • Gazzaniga, M. S. (2005). The Ethical Brain. The
    Dana Press.

5
Basic and clinical neuroscience
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
6
Basic and clinical neuroscience
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Creativity
  • Attention
  • Empathy
  • Motor control
  • Self-control
  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Creativity
  • Attention
  • Empathy
  • Motor control
  • Self-control
  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Creativity
  • Attention
  • Empathy
  • Motor control
  • Self-control
  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Creativity
  • Attention
  • Empathy
  • Motor control
  • Self-control

7
Basic and clinical neuroscience
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Creativity
  • Attention
  • Empathy
  • Motor control
  • Self-control
  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Creativity
  • Attention
  • Empathy
  • Motor control
  • Self-control
  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Creativity
  • Attention
  • Empathy
  • Motor control
  • Self-control
  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Creativity
  • Attention
  • Empathy
  • Motor control
  • Self-control

8
Basic and clinical neuroscience
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Healthy minds and brains (consciousness/cognitio
    n)
  • Pathological mental functioning
  • Mood
  • Coma (brain activity but no consciousness)
  • Vegetative State
  • Minimally Conscious State (apparent fixation)
  • Locked-in

9
Basic and clinical neuroscience
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Alleviate suffering, disability, risk of suicide
  • Reduce/eliminate motor disorders
  • Enable communication
  • Facilitate independent living outside psychiatric
    institution
  • Healthy
  • Pathological
  • Mood
  • Coma
  • Vegetative
  • Minimally Conscious
  • Locked-in

10
Basic and clinical neuroscience
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Improve performance
  • Provide a competitive advantage
  • Healthy
  • Pathological
  • Mood
  • Coma
  • Vegetative
  • Minimally Conscious
  • Locked-in
  • Suffering
  • Motor disorders
  • Communication
  • Independence

11
Basic and clinical neuroscience
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Performance
  • Competition
  • Limits on
  • freedom
  • Freedom to re-invent the self
  • Volitional cognition
  • Transformative cognition
  • Healthy
  • Pathological
  • Mood
  • Coma
  • Vegetative
  • Minimally Conscious
  • Locked-in
  • Suffering
  • Motor disorders
  • Communication
  • Independence

12
Systems, goals, interests
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Health care
  • Law
  • Education
  • Insurance
  • Workplace
  • Military
  • Marketing
  • Healthy
  • Fit to stand trial
  • Attentiveness
  • Eligibility criteria
  • Capabilities
  • Better than well
  • Excel in school and at work
  • Non-medical screening and surveillance
  • Tranhumanism
  • Military Industrial Complex
  • Neuromarketing

13
Pain and suffering
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Reduce pain and suffering to range of normal
  • Eliminate experience of pain and suffering
  • Inflict pain and suffering
  • Increase tolerance for pain and suffering beyond
    range of normal
  • When does nociceptive activity begin?
  • What is pain the perception of?
  • Do fetuses experience pain?
  • What are the limits on tolerance for pain?

14
Psychopharmaceuticals
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • ADHD
  • Parkinsons
  • Deep depression
  • Attentiveness
  • Memory
  • Wakefulness
  • Creativity
  • New self
  • Truth serum
  • Induced coma
  • Mind expansion
  • Brain chemistry
  • Effects of recreational/ prescription drugs
  • Safety and efficacy of dosages

15
Brain imagingUnderstanding our desires and
vulnerabilities
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • fMRI and other noninvasive techniques for
    tracing neural activity (measuring psychological
    states and traits) to evaluate and predict
    complex human behavior
  • How are brain structures involved in higher
    functions (e.g., social attitudes, human
    cooperation and competition, emotion, and
    religious experience)?

16
Brain imagingUnderstanding our desires and
vulnerabilities
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Privacy -- Employers, marketers, and the
    government may want information about an
    individuals abilities, personality, truthfulness
    and other mental states. How can/will the privacy
    of ones thoughts be assured?
  • Free will How will neuroimaging change our
    notions of responsibility?

17
Brain imagingUnderstanding our desires and
vulnerabilities
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Neuromarketing brain imaging to measure limbic
    system response to a product to assess product
    preferences
  • Brain Fingerprinting brain-based lie detection
  • Brainotyping neuroimaging to learn about mental
    health vulnerabilities and predilection for
    violent crime
  • The ethics of neuroimaging and the neuroimaging
    of ethics (ie, ethical reasoning and behavior)

18
Brain ImagingUnderstanding ethics
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • What can neuroimaging tell us about the nature of
    morality?
  • Can neuroimaging decide between competing ethical
    theories?
  • How will neuroimaging change our notions of
    responsibility?
  • Prediction and privacy in the neurodiagnostics

19
Psychopharmaceuticals enhancing cognition
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Chemical manipulation to improve brain
    functioning in healthy individuals (improving
    memory, attention, problem-solving through the
    use of pharmacological agents)
  • Methylphenidate (Ritalin) and modafinil
    (Provigil) are available through the Internet
    used to improve cognitive performance (e.g.,
    study aid)

20
Psychopharmaceuticals enhancing cognition
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • WHY?
  • To counter the effects of jet lag, shift work,
    monotonous activities, sleep deprivation, old
    age, etc.
  • To increase productivity and safety in the
    workplace.
  • To compensate for disadvantaged educational
    background.
  • To gain a competitive advantage.

21
Psychoharmaceuticals enhancing cognition
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Safety -- What might be the long-term health
    consequences? How will (should) these be weighed
    against immediate tangible benefits?
  • Access What if cognitive enhancement is only
    available to the wealthy? The chemical haves
    and have-nots
  • Coercion -- What if cognitive enhancement is
    forced on individuals unwilling to consent (e.g.,
    to improve competence to stand trial to give
    children the edge at school)? What if
    pharmacological enhancement becomes the norm
    (social pressure) and is thus required for
    success?

22
Psychopharmaceuticals enhancing cognition
Understanding Normalizing
Enhancing Controlling
  • Identity How might the drugs alter character
    and undermine authenticity, or, alternatively
    enhance sense of self?
  • Free will How might this degrade personal
    responsibility for poor performance or antisocial
    behaviour (e.g., as when self-control comes from
    a pill)?

23
Neuroethics What comes next?
  • What are the challenges and implications of
    volitional cognition where our brains choose
    how our brains are to work?
  • What of transformative cognition where the
    marketplace, social forces, competition, and
    their embedded values choose how our brains are
    to work?

24
Neuroethics What comes next?
  • Constructing cognition
  • New self
  • New species
  • New world
  • Utopia
  • Dystopia
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