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Wind Energy 101

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Wind Energy 101 4th International Conference on Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources December 6, 2010 Kirsten Orwig (NREL) and Benjamin ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wind Energy 101


1
Wind Energy 101
4th International Conference on Integration of
Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources
December 6, 2010
Kirsten Orwig (NREL) and Benjamin Karlson (SNL)
2
Overview
  • Current industry status
  • Turbine technologies
  • Assessment and Siting
  • Grid Integration

3
Current Industry Status
4
Global Installed Capacity
Cumulative Capacity
1071
Advanced Best wind case scenario for policy and
market Moderate Supportive policy measures
enacted emissions reductions implemented Refere
nce Based on IEA 2009 World Energy Outlook
w/existing policies
832
415
158
5
Installed Capacity in the United States
  • All renewable energy sources provided 10.5 of
    the U.S. power mix in 2009
  • Wind generation is approaching the two percent
    mark of the U.S. power mix, reaching 1.8 of U.S.
    generation in 2009
  • Hydro generation is approximately 7. DOE focus
    and investment in efficiency upgrades and water
    use optimization.

6
U.S. Wind Power Capacity Up gt40 in 2009
  • Record year for new U.S. wind power capacity
  • 10 GW of wind power added in 2009, bringing total
    to 35 GW
  • Nearly 21 billion in 2009 project investment

Source DOE 2009 Wind Technologies Report
7
Projected Growth
20 Requires 300 GW - Land Offshore
Projected
Source DOE 20 Wind Energy by 2020 Report
8
Realistically, How Much Wind is Available?
9
Wind Power Capacity In Queue
  • Roughly 300 GW in Transmission Interconnection
    Queues.

Not all of this capacity will be built.
Source DOE 2009 Wind Technologies Report
10
Offshore in the United States?
  • No Offshore Projects Have Been Built in the U.S.,
    But 13 Projects Are At a More-Advanced
    Permitting/Development Stage

Cape Wind granted approval by Department of
Interior in April 2010.
Source DOE 2009 Wind Technologies Report
11
Renewable Portfolio Standards
12
Wind Technology
13
US Turbine Vendors
  • GE Remained the Top Turbine Vendor in the U.S.
    Market, But a Growing Number of Other
    Manufacturers Are Capturing Market Share.
  • Chinese and South Korean manufacturers seeking
    entry into U.S. market
  • For first time in 2009, a turbine vendor from
    China (Goldwind) saw sales in the U.S.

Source DOE 2009 Wind Technologies Report
14
Average Turbine Size Higher in 2009
25 of turbines installed in 2009 were larger
than 2.0 MW, up from 19 in 2008, 16 in 2006
2007, and just 0.1 in 2004-05.
Source DOE 2009 Wind Technologies Report
15
Average Hub Heights and Rotor Diameters Have
Increased Over Time
On average, since 1998-99, hub heights are 22
meters (39) higher and rotor diameters are 33
meters (69) larger
16
Parts of Modern Commercial Turbines
17
Wind Turbine Generator Types
Type 1
Type 2
18
Wind Turbine Generator Types Continued
Type 3
Type 4
19
Wind Turbine Capabilities
  • Induction Generators
  • Absorbed VARS no voltage support or control
  • Tripped due to voltage or frequency excursion
  • Provided no voltage control or droop control.
  • New Machines
  • Dynamic reactive power
  • Low (or zero) voltage ride-through
  • Dynamic real power control droop control, ramp
    mitigation.

Source Brendan Kirby, NREL Consultant
20
Assessment and Siting
21
Generation Potential
  • Depends on
  • Available resource
  • Turbulence characteristics
  • Terrain and roughness influences
  • Turbine characteristics.
  • Remember
  • Power in the wind K 1/2 ? A V3
  • wind speed, V
  • swept area, A
  • air density, ?
  • conversion efficiency constant, K
  • 45 efficiency for modern machines

Power (wind speed)3
22
Wind Farm Development Process
  • The Simplified Development Process
  • Establish Market Area of Interest
  • Paper Prospecting (Maps, Analysis)
  • Field Verification of Prospects and Evaluation
  • Pre-Screening for Fatal Flaws
  • Securing Financing
  • Engineering / Procurement / Construction (EPC)
  • Operations and Maintenance (OM).

ALWAYS 5 PRIMARY AREAS OF FOCUS FOR DEVELOPMENT
  • Wind
  • Transmission
  • Land
  • Permitting
  • Power Purchase Agreement

23
(No Transcript)
24
Measurement Campaign
  • Tall towers and remote sensing measurements are
    needed to evaluate the resource and estimate
    Annual Energy Production (AEP)
  • Tall towers (100 m in height)
  • 1-2 years of data is typical
  • Remote sensing instruments
  • Sodar
  • Lidar
  • Radar

25
Annual average shear exponents can vary from 1/7
to 0.25, causing considerable uncertainty in
vertical extrapolations of wind resource
26
Project Financing Requirements
  • Requires at least 1 year of on-site monitoring
  • Analysis and correlation to long term reference
  • Uncertainty analysis

27
Wind Resource Assessment Process
Meteorological Data Collection
Data Validation
MCP Measure Correlate Predict
Local Climatology
Uncertainty Analysis
Energy Production Estimate
28
Siting Permitting Considerations
  • Small changes in location can cause large effects
    in production (up to 10 capacity factor) and
    potentially cause reliability issues
  • Transmission
  • NIMBY
  • Environmental/Avian
  • FAA.

29
Approximate Annual Bird Kills
Wind Power up to 80,000
House Cats 100 million
Cell Towers up to 50 million
Power Lines up to 175 Million
Source National Wind Coordinating Collaborative
30
Electrical Generation Impacts on Wildlife
  • NYSERDA Study

Electricity Generation Sources
Life Cycle Assessment
EPA Risk Assessment
Coal
Extraction
Problem Formulation
Transportation
Oil
Wildlife Risk
Exposure
Effects
Construction
Natural Gas
Power Generation
Nuclear
Risk Characterization
Transmission Distribution
Hydro
Wind
Decommissioning
Source NYSERDA
31
Relative Wildlife Risk Level for Potential Harm
Source NYSERDA
32
Wind Integration
33
Wind Integration Challenges
  • Inability to Dispatch
  • Weather determines output
  • Variability
  • Increases difficulty to balance load
  • Uncertainty
  • Can be forecasted to a large extent
  • Different Electrical Characteristics
  • Lower inertia, voltage tolerance, reactive
    controls
  • Still compatible with the grid

Areas of Consideration System Planning and
Operation Transmission Planning Market Operation
Transmission Policy
34
Questions of Interest for Integration Studies
  • How do local wind resources compare with higher
    capacity factor wind that requires more
    transmission?
  • How does geographic diversity of wind power
    reduce wind integration costs?
  • How does offshore wind compare with onshore wind?
  • How does balancing area cooperation affect wind
    power integration costs?
  • How much transmission is needed to facilitate
    higher penetrations of wind power?
  • What is the role of wind forecasting?
  • How are wind integration costs spread over large
    market footprints and regions?
  • What additional operating reserves are needed?

35
Broad Regional Studies
  • Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study
    (EWITS)
  • http//wind.nrel.gov/public/EWITS/
  • Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS)
  • http//westconnect.com/planning_nrel.php
  • Goal is to understand the costs and operating
    impacts due to the variability and uncertainty of
    20-30 wind energy on the grid
  • Heavily stakeholder driven scenario development
    and technical review
  • Participation in other studies Nebraska Power
    Authority, Portland General Electric, New England
    ISO, Southwest Power Pool, Hawaii, Arizona Power
    Authority

DOE work provides objective technical information
on grid options
36
Does wind need backup or storage?
  • Increased operating reserves may be necessary,
    but not dedicated backup
  • Although new storage has value, it may not be
    cost effective
  • There is typically already storage on the system
  • Natural gas in the pipeline or storage facility
  • Controllable hydro
  • Thermal storage (ex HVAC cycling)
  • A recent study by Xcel Energy in Colorado found
  • existing pumped storage provided 1.30/MWh offset
    to wind integration cost
  • Enlarging existing gas storage facility was
    economic at large wind penetration

EnerNex Xcel Colorado Wind Integration Study
37
And the Conclusion is.
There are no fundamental technical barriers to
the integration of 20 wind energy into the
nations electrical system, but . there
needs to be a continuing evolution of
transmission planning and system operation policy
and market development for this to be most
economically achieved.
38
Organizational and Study Web Links
  • Utility Wind Integration Group (UWIG)
    (www.uwig.org) and Wind Integration Library
  • http//www.uwig.org/opimpactsdocs.html
  • NREL Renewable System Integration publication web
    site
  • http//nreldev.nrel.gov/wind/systemsintegration/pu
    blications.html
  • Sandia National Labs Wind Water Power
    Technology web site
  • http//windpower.sandia.gov
  • Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study
    (EWITS ) http//wind.nrel.gov/public/EWITS/
  • Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS)
    http//westconnect.com/planning_nrel.php
  • International Energy Agency, Task 25. Hannele
    Holttinen, et.al. Design and operation of power
    systems with large amounts of wind power State of
    the art report. http//www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/workingp
    apers/2007/W82.pdf
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