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Language Arts and Reading: Study Topics

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Language Arts and Reading: Study Topics Topics Covered in Reading Methods In Preparation for the Praxis Test Understanding Literature Narratives Characterization ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Language Arts and Reading: Study Topics


1
Language Arts and Reading Study Topics
  • Topics Covered in
  • Reading Methods
  • In Preparation for the
  • Praxis Test

2
Understanding Literature Narratives
  • Characterization (through a characters words,
    thoughts, actions, appearance, etc.)
  • Setting established through description of
    scenes, colors, smells, etc.)
  • Tone (manner of expression in speech or writing)
  • tongue in cheek, edgy, soft
  • Theme
  • Point of view (first person, third-person
    objective, third person omniscient)
  • Perspective (attitude of the narrator of the
    story)

3
Text Structures and Organization in Reading and
Writing
  • Organizational patterns in text

4
Patterns of expository writing
  • Compare and contrast
  • Chronological sequence
  • Spatial sequence
  • Cause and effect
  • Problem and solution

5
Structural elements in text
  • Thesis statement
  • Conclusion statement
  • Transition words and phrases
  • Supporting the thesis with the use of
  • Examples
  • Quotations
  • Paraphrases of excerpts statements
  • Summaries of information found in research
    sources
  • Analogies

6
  • The only real innovation during the Renaissance
    period in terms of transport was seen in the
    Americans. By the fifteenth century, the Incas
    had constructed a network of fine roads for
    couriers. Rivers were crossed by monkey bridges
    of cable of plaited agave fibre, or floating
    bridges, or pontoons of reeds. In addition, the
    Incas used caravans of llamas, bred as beasts of
    burden even though they could only carry a
    hundredweight, and could only travel fifteen
    miles a day. These were the only important
    domestic animals of the Americas before 1492, and
    they were quite inadequate.

Structural elements in text?
7
  • Approaching ones topic
  • with the purpose of
  • Criticizing
  • Analyzing
  • Evaluating pros and cons

8
Orthography and MorphologySpelling Study of
Word Formation
  • Affixes prefix, suffix
  • Roots
  • Inflectional endings -indicate tense, number,
    possession or comparison
  • Most words-walks, walked, walking
  • Words ending in e-come, coming
  • Words ending in y-carry carried carrying
  • Words ending in a single vowel a consonant-hop,
    hopping, hopped
  • Clusters (combining clusters to make compound
    words)

9
Semantics
  • Homonyms
  • Antonyms
  • Synonyms
  • Multiple-meaning words
  • Words used figuratively or idiomatically (e.g.,
    he wolfed down his food)
  • Meaning-shifts due to alternative word order or
    punctuation

10
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction
  • Theories and concepts concerning
  • reading development
  • Major elements of the emergent literacy theory
    and major conclusions of recent research

11
Major elements of the emergent literacy theory
and major conclusions of recent research
  • Acting like a reader is part of becoming a reader
  • Reading writing are closely related process-not
    taught in isolation
  • Social process
  • Preschoolers know a great deal about printed
    language
  • Becoming literate is a continuous, developmental
    process
  • Need to read authentic natural texts
  • Need to write for personal reasons

12
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction
  • Factors influencing the development of emergent
    reading
  • Concepts about print
  • Sight vocabulary
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Alphabetic principle
  • Social interaction (support by adults and peers)

13
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction
  • Frequent experiences with print
  • Prior knowledge (schema)
  • Motivation
  • Fluency

14
Literacy Acquisition and Reading Instruction
  • Experiences that support emergent readers
  • Direct instruction
  • Social interaction
  • Shared reading
  • Repeated readings
  • Reader response
  • Word walls
  • Text innovation (rewrites)
  • Shared writing

15
Concepts to Think About
  • What are some of the major relationships between
    and among reading, writing, speaking, listening,
    and viewing, and why are these relationships
    important for teacher of emergent readers to
    understand?

16
Strategies for Word study/solving
  • Cues and how students use them
  • Semantic (refers to the meaning of language-the
    words and parts of words that convey meaning as
    well as the way sentences, paragraphs, whole
    texts are interpreted by listeners and readers.)
  • Syntactic systems (refers to the patterns of
    rules by which words are put together in
    meaningful phrases sentences)
  • Mary ran of to see her friends.

17
Strategies for Word study/solving
  • Phonological system (the way listeners construct
    meaning from streams of sounds)
  • Visual information (what you see when you read)
  • -Relationship to print
  • -Recognizing whole words
  • -Word patterns
  • -Syllables
  • -Letters in sequence

18
  • Samuel and his cousin John Adams felt the
  • indenture
  • same way about Americans independence.
  • operations racing
  • Yet they had different opinions about riding
  • agreed
  • horses like other men did. Samuel argued
  • cannon
  • that walking or riding in a carriage suited
  • him better.

19
Children's Literature Strategies for
Comprehension
  • Use of prior knowledge
  • Retelling
  • Guided reading
  • Fluency
  • Reader response

20
Children's Literature
  • Strategies for comprehension
  • Solving words
  • Adjusting reading according to purpose and
    context
  • Metacognition
  • Maintaining fluency
  • Making connections (personal, world, text)

21
  • A class is reading a book that has chapter
    numbers but no chapter titles. The teacher asks
    the students to think of an appropriate title for
    each chapter. What is the main purpose in
    choosing this activity? Why is it a useful
    activity?

Concepts to Think About
22
Children's Literature
  • Study skills and tools
  • SQ3R
  • KWL
  • Note taking
  • Marking and coding
  • Graphic organizers
  • Finding information in charts, tables, graphs

23
  • What are some effective ways to use graphic
    organizers if students understand most of the
    details in a unit, but not the central idea of
    the unit?
  • What are some effective ways of guiding students
    to understand articles that feature text and
    variety of graphics?

Concepts to Think About
24
Communication SkillsStages of writing development
  • Phase
  • Picture writing
  • Scribble writing
  • Random letter
  • Invented spelling
  • Conventional writing
  • Concurrent development with reading

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28
Communication Skills
  • Stages of the writing process
  • Recursive nature of the process
  • Explore/Prewrite
  • Draft
  • Edit
  • Publish

29
Communication Skills
  • Spelling development Constructive nature of the
    development stages
  • -Scribble
  • -Prephonemic
  • -Early phonics
  • -Letter name
  • -Transitional
  • -Derivational
  • -Conventional

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