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Biotechnology and Bioethics

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By Garrett Hardin, Science, 1968. Fukuyama 10,11,12 3/1/06. Technical Solutions ' ... Steven G. Gilbert (1999) Environmental & Human Health. Fukuyama 10,11, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biotechnology and Bioethics


1
Biotechnology and Bioethics
Biotechnology and SocietyBIS 411 Monday and
Wednesday 330-535UW1-020
Class Number 17 March 1, 2006 Fukuyama Chap
10, 11, 12 What To Do
2
Why Bioethics?
3
Current Bioethical Issues
  • Check the local news paper
  • Stem cells (state, national, international)
  • Genetically Engineered Organisms
  • Knowing your genes
  • In vetro fertilization choosing your child's
    genes and characteristics
  • Global warming
  • Chemicals exposures human health
  • Environmental health

4
Convergence of Issues
  • Expanding Knowledge of Biological sciences
    genomics, stem cells
  • Ability to engineer life
  • Vulnerability of Children
  • Global issues warming, famine, war
  • Policy Approach within an ethical framework
  • Social responsibilities
  • No technical solutions
  • Restriction of freedoms

5
ELSI
  • Ethical
  • Legal / Regulatory
  • Social
  • Implications or Issues
  • What is unsaid or missing?
  • Science
  • Values
  • Politics

6
Ethics and Science
  • 1860s - Scientific method in medicine, Gregor
    Mendel
  • - Penicillin discovered widely used WWII
  • 1920s - Lead in gasoline, lead in paint
  • - 30 states had sterilization laws on books
  • - Tuskegee syphilis study initiated
  • - Nuremberg - The Doctors Trial
  • - First open heart surgery Chlorpromazine
  • - Structure of DNA Watson Crick

7
Ethics and Science
60s - Thalidomide, mercury, chronic
hemodialysis, amniocentesis, informed consent,
IRBs 70s - Hastings Center founded, bioethics
defined, Tuskegee noticed, Belmont Report (3
principles), Genentech Inc. founded, awareness of
FAS, sensitivity of developing CNS 80s -
Recombinant microorganism could be patented, lead
is harmful to developing brain 90s - molecular
biology, sequencing of human genome (other
species), Jurassic Park 00s - US stem cell
research restricted 03 - Human cloned?
8
Socially responsible white guys?
9
Socially Responsibility
What is social responsibility? What are our
responsibilities to society?
10
The First Bioethicist
Aldo Leopold
"A thing is right when it tends to preserve the
integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic
community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise."
- Aldo Leopold, 1949, A Sand County Almanac
---------- 1887 - 1948 ----------
11
Limits on Freedom
An ethic, ecologically, is a limitation on
freedom of action in the struggle for
existence Aldo Leopold
12
The Commons
The Tragedy of the Commons By Garrett Hardin,
Science, 1968
13
Technical Solutions
It is our considered professional judgment that
this dilemma has no technical solution. The
Tragedy of the Commons By Garrett Hardin,
Science, 1968
14
Problems Solutions?
  • Lead and kids
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Nuclear disarmament
  • Bioterrorism
  • Ocean Fisheries
  • Persistent chemicals
  • The Commons

15
Bioethics
Van Rensselaer Potter
"Biology combined with diverse humanistic
knowledge forging a science that sets a system of
medical and environmental priorities for
acceptable survival. Global Bioethics (1988)
-------- 1911 - 2001 --------
16
Biomedical Ethics
  • Respect for Autonomy
  • Nonmaleficence
  • Beneficence
  • Justice

Beauchamp and Childress, 1994
17
Genomic and Ecological Bioethics
The challenge To develop an individual ethical
framework for decisions that supports the long
term maintenance of a globally sustainable ecology
18
Knowledgeable Bioethics
The challenge the knowledge of how to use
knowledge for the social good
19
Decision making
"All scientific work is incomplete - whether it
be observational or experimental. All scientific
work is liable to be upset or modified by
advancing knowledge. That does not confer upon us
a freedom to ignore the knowledge we already have
or postpone the action that it appears to demand
at a given time. " Sir Austin Bradford Hill
(1965)
20
Precautionary Principle
When an activity raises threats of harm to human
health or the environment, precautionary measures
should be take even if some cause and effect
relationships are not fully established
scientifically. Wingspread Conference, 1998.
21
Environmental Human Health
Conditions that ensure that all living things
have the best opportunity to reach and maintain
their full genetic potential. Steven G. Gilbert
(1999)
22
Darwin?
  • Genomics
  • Post Darwinian History

23
Fukuyama Thesis
  • The good of biotech
  • The bad of biotech
  • A continuum
  • What to do???

24
Holy Cruelty?
But is it not crueler to let it live? asked
the holy man. Nietzsche see Fukuyama p181
25
Factor X
  • Essential Human quality?
  • Minimal level of respect?
  • Human Nature

26
Drugs What is this??
27
Drugs - Ephedrine
  • NYT article 2/20/03 Kolata et al
  • 3 Billion sold
  • Tommy G. Thompson Secretary HHS I wouldnt
    use it, would you?
  • 1994 Law herbal supplements sold unless shown
    to be unsafe (by whom?? FDA?)
  • Contrast to medical drugs

28
Ephedrine health effects
  • The Vaults of Erowid -http//www.erowid.org/chemic
    als/ephedrine/ephedrine.shtml
  • Link
  • CNS stimulant from plant Ephedra equisetina
  • Related in structure to methamphetamine but
    less potent but longer acting
  • Higher doses (overdose) - restlessness and
    anxiety, dizziness, insomnia, tremor, rapid
    pulse, sweating, respiratory difficulties,
    confusion, hallucinations, delirium, and
    convulsions.
  • More dangerous - abnormally high blood pressure
    and rapid, irregular heartbeat.

29
Ephedrine Regulation??
  • Death of baseball player???
  • Who benefits???
  • Who pays???

30
Crime against humanity?
Kill Enslave Torture Autonomy Human rights As
adults - Political rights
31
Other Technologies
  • Information Technologies
  • Nuclear weapons
  • Guns
  • Measles in blankets
  • Promote human flourishing vs a threat to human
    dignity and well-being (existence)

32
Regulation Politics
  • Libertarian no constraints on development of
    new tech
  • Other side Moral concerns
  • Religious
  • Environmentalists
  • Eugenics

33
Scientific Interests
  • Will serve the broader interests of humanity
  • Historical - interference
  • Many bad examples Galileo

34
Constraints on Science
  • Theology
  • Philosophy
  • Politics
  • Moral rules?
  • Now with genomics

35
Control Technology?
  • Can Biotech be controlled?
  • Advanced in biological sciences be slowed or
    stopped?
  • Would you want to?
  • National International??

36
Cloning
  • Ban Reproductive Cloning (24 countries)
  • U.S. ??
  • Why not??

37
World View
  • Europe environmentalist
  • West revealed belief God?Man
  • China Confucianism lack God
  • Asian Tradition folk religions Taoism Shinto
    animistic animals and inanimate objects
  • Buddhism single cosmos
  • More sympathitic to nonhuman animals less
    regard for humans

38
GMOs
  • U.S. accepted
  • Europe more resistance
  • ICH International Commission on Harmonization

39
Regulation
  • Self Regulation
  • Formal Regulation
  • FDA ICH --- etc ..

40
Precautionary Principle
  • Products (drugs, environmental hazards) should
    be presumed guilty until proven innocent of
    potentially threatening the environment or public
    health
  • European concept
  • Not U.S. Purdon of proof on those that believe
    product is a hazard

41
GM Foods
  • Europe labeling
  • U.S. opposed labeling separate processing lines
    (s)

42
Human Biotech
  • Animal Biotech (left out??)
  • U.S. regulation bad experience
  • FDA 1938 more in 1962
  • Human experimentation (no group is capable of
    self regulation)

43
Financial Issues
  • legilative and administrative agencies around
    the world have been racing to fill. (yes or
    no?)
  • Flow of money government and private
    (unregulated)
  • The invisible hand ?

44
Embryos
Issues abortion, in vitro fertilization,
perimplantation diagnosis and screening, sex
selection, stem cell research, cloning for
reproductive and research (therapeutic?)
purposes, germ-line engineering
45
Psychotropic Drugs
  • Fukuyama lumps not splits
  • Narcotics heroin, cocaine
  • Marijuana
  • Prozac
  • Ritalin
  • New improved memory or cognitive skills

46
Drawing Red Lines
  • Can we ever find a place to draw a red line?
  • Any examples??
  • Drugs
  • Abortion
  • Stem cells
  • Therapy vs enhancement

47
Drops Ethics
  • Where did the discussion of ethics go??
  • Autonomy rights?
  • Drugs Ritalin ADHD therapy or enhancement?
  • Abortion right or privilege? democracy?

48
GMOs
  • Human dignity and human rights not an issue for
    GMOs???

49
Conclusion
  • All people created equal
  • Principle of equal rights based on natural rights
  • Stable human essence

50
Freedom
  • Freedom of individuals
  • Freedom of parents
  • Freedom of scientists
  • Freedom of entrepreneurs
  • Rights ?
  • The commons?
  • Shared humanity?

51
Humans part of a continuum
Responsible for Genetic Potential What it is How
to protect it
52
Biotechnology and Bioethics
Questions or Comments?
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