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Machine Guarding

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Machine Guarding MODULE 19 What hazards exist? Crushed by or drawn into equipment Struck by moving parts Struck by failed components or particles Key parts of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Machine Guarding


1
Machine Guarding
  • MODULE 19

2
What hazards exist?
  • Crushed by or drawn into equipment
  • Struck by moving parts
  • Struck by failed components or particles

3
Key parts of machines
  • Point of operation where work is performed on
    the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring,
    or forming of stock.
  • Power Transmission Device transmits energy to
    the part of the machine performing the work
  • Includes flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting
    rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks,
    and gears.

4
Key parts of machines
  • Operation Controls Control mechanisms
  • Other moving parts can include reciprocating,
    rotating, and transverse moving parts, feed
    mechanisms, and auxiliary parts of the machine

5
Hazards to be Guarded
  • Things to guard include
  • In-running nip points
  • Rotating equipment
  • Flying chips or sparks
  • Belts or gears
  • Parts that impact or shear

6
Rotating Parts
  • Can grip hair or clothing
  • Can force the body into a dangerous position
  • Projecting pieces increase risk

7
In-Running Nip Points
  • Between 2 rotating parts
  • Between rotating and tangential parts
  • Between rotating and fixed parts which shear,
    crush, or abrade

8
Reciprocating Parts
  • Risk of being struck between stationary and
    moving part

9
Transverse motion
  • Continuous straight line motion
  • Worker struck or caught in pinch or shear point

10
Cutting action
  • Direct injury from cutting action
  • Flying chips or sparks
  • Saws, drills, lathes, mills

11
Punching action
  • Ram stamps materials
  • Danger at point of operation

12
Shearing action
  • Powered blade that shears materials
  • Hazard at point of operation

13
Bending action
  • Power applied to a slide to stamp/shape materials
  • Hazard at point of operation

14
Guarding Principles
  • Prevent contact between hazardous moving parts
    and body or clothing
  • Secure guard not easily removed
  • Protect from objects falling into machinery
  • No new hazards sharp/rough edges
  • No interference with job/comfort/speed
  • Allow safe lubrication without removing guards
    if possible

15
Guarding Methods
  • Location / distance
  • Guards
  • Fixed
  • Interlocked
  • Adjustable
  • Self-adjusting

16
Guarding Methods
  • Devices
  • Presence sensing
  • Pullback
  • Restraint
  • Safety controls (tripwire cable, two-hand
    control, etc.)
  • Gates

17
Guarding Methods
  • Feeding ejection methods
  • Automatic and/or semi-automatic feed and ejection
  • Robots
  • Miscellaneous aids
  • Awareness barriers
  • Protective shields
  • Hand-feeding tools

18
Fixed Guard
  • Barrier is a permanent part of machine
  • Preferable over other types

19
Interlocked Guard
  • Stops motion when guard is opened or removed

Interlocked guard on revolving drum
20
Adjustable Guard
  • Barrier may be adjusted for variable operations
  • What are the drawbacks?

Bandsaw blade adjustable guard
21
Self-Adjusting Guard
  • Adjusts according to size/position of material

Circular table saw self-adjusting guard
22
Pullback Device
  • Cables attached to operators hands or wrists
  • Removes hands from point of operation during
    danger period
  • What are the drawbacks?

23
Restraint Device
  • Cables attached to fixed point and wrists or
    hands
  • Adjustable to let hands travel in predetermined
    area
  • May be accompanied by hand-feeding tools

24
Safety Tripwire Cable
  • Device located around the perimeter of or near
    the danger area
  • Operator must be able to reach the cable to stop
    the machine

25
Two-Hand Control
  • Requires constant pressure on both pads to
    activate the machine
  • Hands on controls at safe distance while machine
    is in dangerous cycle

26
Gate
  • Must close fully to protect user before cycle
    will start

Gate Open
Gate Closed
27
Safeguarding by Location/Distance
  • Location of hazardous parts that is inaccessible
    or not a hazard during normal operation
  • Must maintain safe distance
  • Training, warning, communication necessary

28
Protective Shields
  • Protection from flying particles or splashing
    fluids
  • Do not protectcompletely frommachine hazards

29
What regulations apply?
  • 29 CFR 1910 Subpart O
  • 29 CFR 1910 Subpart P for hand and portable power
    tools
  • API RP 54 6.8 Machinery and Tools

30
Machinery and Machine Guarding
  • 29 CFR 1910 SUBPART O

31
Organization
  • Definitions
  • General requirements for all machines
  • Woodworking machinery requirements
  • Abrasive wheel machinery
  • Mills and calenders in the rubber and plastics
    industries
  • Mechanical power presses
  • Forging machines
  • Mechanical power-transmission apparatus

32
General Requirements
  • 29 CFR 1910.212

33
1910.212(a) Machine guarding
  • One or more types of guarding to protect from
    hazards.
  • Barrier guards
  • Two-hand tripping devices
  • Electronic safety devices
  • Etc.
  • Affixed to machine where possible
  • Guard must not cause its own hazard

34
1910.212(a) Machine guarding
  • Point of operation guarding
  • Guarded if exposes employee to injury
  • According to standards or
  • Keep any part of body out of danger zone
  • Hand tools to permit material handling in
    addition to guards, not instead
  • Examples of machines requiring guards on point of
    operation

35
1910.212(a) Machine guarding
  • Revolving barrels, drums, containers guarded by
    interlocked enclosure (cannot turn without guard
    in place)
  • Exposure to fan blades guard openings ?1/2 inch

36
1910.212(b) Anchoring fixed machinery
  • Machines designed for fixed location must be
    anchored to prevent moving

This pedestal grinder is designed for anchoring,
but is not anchored
37
Abrasive Wheel Machinery
  • 29 CFR 1910.215

38
1910.215(a) General requirements
  • Abrasive wheels must be guarded, with exceptions
  • Guard design dependent on type of work and type
    of wheel

39
1910.215(a) General requirements
  • Work rests
  • Rigid, clamped in place securely
  • Adjusted to within 1/8 inch of wheel
  • Never adjusted while in motion

Work rest is closely adjusted
40
1910.215(b)(9) Exposure adjustment
  • For type where operator stands in front of
    opening Adjustable for decreasing wheel size
  • Adjustable tongue guard must never be more than ¼
    inch from wheel

41
1910.215(d) Mounting
  • Inspect for damage and ring test immediately
    before mounting
  • Tap with light nonmetallic implement
    (screwdriver, wooden mallet)
  • If sound is dead, cracked ring may not be used
  • Check spindle speed against maximum for wheel

42
Ring Test
43
Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus
  • 29 CFR 1910.219

44
Organization of 1910.219
  • (a) General requirements
  • (b) Prime-mover guards
  • Flywheels
  • Cranks and connecting rods
  • Tail rods or extension piston rods
  • (c) Shafting
  • (d) Pulleys

45
Organization of 1910.219
  • (e) Belt, rope, and chain drives
  • (f) Gears, sprockets, and chains
  • (g) Guarding friction drives
  • (h) Keys, setscrews, and other projections
  • (i) Collars and couplings
  • (j) Bearings and facilities for oiling
  • (k) Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and
    clutch pulleys

46
Organization of 1910.219
  • (l) Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles,
    perches, and fasteners
  • (m) Standard guards-general requirements
  • (o) Approved materials
  • (p) Care of equipment

47
Hazards on Oil and Gas Sites
  • Machine Guarding

48
Parts Requiring Guarding
  • Drive belts and shafts mud pumps and tank area
  • Pony rods
  • Rotating parts
  • Shale shaker
  • Agitator shafts couplings
  • Moving generator parts
  • (explore)

49
Mud Pumps
50
Shale Shaker
51
Generators
52
Parts Requiring Guarding
  • Air compressors
  • Crown sheaves
  • Kelly bushing or controls
  • Rotary chain drive
  • Air hoist line
  • Drawworks
  • Bench grinder wheels

53
Crown Sheaves
54
Kelly and Bushing
  • Alternative Abatement STD 1-12.28 CH-1

55
Drawworks
56
Parts Requiring Guarding
  • Belts, drive chains, gears and drives on power
    and hand tools
  • Traveling blocks
  • Sheaves
  • Cathead?

57
Drilling Line
58
Traveling Block
59
Hoisting Line
60
Safety Responsibilities
  • Machine Guarding

61
Safety Responsibilities
  • Management
  • Ensure all machinery is properly guarded
  • Supervisors
  • Train employees on specific guard rules in their
    areas
  • Ensure machine guards remain in place and are
    functional
  • Immediately correct machine guard deficiencies
  • Employees
  • Do not remove guards unless machine is locked and
    tagged
  • Report machine guard problems to supervisors
    immediately
  • Do not operate equipment unless guards are in
    place

62
Training
  • Operators/affected employees should receive
    training on
  • Hazards associated with particular machines
  • How the safeguards provide protection and the
    hazards for which they are intended
  • How and why to use the safeguards
  • How and when safeguards can be removed and by
    whom
  • What to do if a safeguard is damaged, missing, or
    unable to provide adequate protection

63
Hand and Portable Power Tools
  • 29 CFR 1910 Subpart P and 1926 Subpart I

64
Construction vs. General Industry
  • Construction, alteration, or repair?
  • Applicable standard depends on type of
    operations
  • 1910 Subpart P Hand and Portable Powered Tools
    and Other Hand-Held Equipment
  • 1926 Subpart I Tools Hand and Power

65
1910.242 General
  • Employer is responsible for safe condition of
    tools and equipment
  • Including equipment furnished by employee
  • Compressed air must not be used for cleaning
    unless
  • Reduced to lt30 p.s.i.
  • Only with effective chip guarding and PPE

66
1910.243(a) Portable powered tools
  • Portable circular saws gt2 in. guarded
  • Automatic return to covering position
  • Switches and controls
  • constant pressure control for circular and chain
    saws
  • other controls for other tools as appropriate

67
1910.243(a) Portable powered tools
  • Portable belt sanding machine guarding
  • Nip points
  • Unused run of sanding belt
  • Cracked saws remove from service
  • Grounding Meet Subpart S

68
1910.243(b) Pneumatic powered tools and hose
  • Tool retainer to prevent ejection
  • Airhose designed for applied pressure and service

69
1910.243 Guarding of portable powered tools
  • Portable abrasive wheels
  • Must be guarded
  • Ring test and inspection
  • Explosive actuated fastening tools
  • Power lawnmowers
  • Guarding
  • Controls and shutoff device
  • Labeling, manuals
  • Design

70
1910.244 Other portable tools and equipment
  • Jacks
  • Loading and marking
  • Operation and maintenance
  • Abrasive blast cleaning nozzles operating valve
    and support

71
1926.300 General requirements
  • Maintained in safe condition whether furnished by
    employer or employee
  • Shall be guarded when designed to accommodate
    guards
  • Moving parts that create hazards shall be guarded
    by one or more methods
  • Fan openings anchoring machinery

72
1926.300 General requirements
  • Abrasive wheel guards
  • PPE if necessary for objects, particles, gases
  • Allowable switches by tool type

73
1926.301 Hand tools
  • Use of unsafe hand tools not permitted
  • Wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung
    to the point of slippage
  • Including adjustable, pipe, end socket wrenches
  • Impact tools shall be kept free of mushroomed
    heads
  • Such as drift pins, wedges chisels
  • Wooden handles shall be kept
  • Free of splinters or cracks
  • Tight in the tool

74
1926.302 Power-operated hand tools
  • Electric power-operated tools
  • Double-insulated or grounded
  • Never hold by the cord
  • Pneumatic power-operated tools
  • Secure tools, attachments, and muzzle
  • Compressed air use restrictions
  • Never hold by the hose
  • Reduce pressure in case of hose failure

75
1926.302 Power-operated hand tools
  • Fuel operated tools
  • Stop while refueling or servicing
  • Watch concentrations in enclosed spaces
  • Hydraulic power tools
  • Fire-resistant fluids
  • Safe operating pressures
  • Powder-actuated tools

76
1926 Subpart I Organization
  • 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools
  • 1926.304 Woodworking tools
  • 1926.305 Jacks
  • 1926.306 Air receivers
  • 1926.307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus
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